Special Issue "Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Anna Tresserra-Rimbau
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, IISPV School of Medicine. Rovirai Virgili University. 43201 Reus, Spain.
Interests: food function; carotenoids; polyphenols; cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes mellitus; nutritional epidemiology; mediterranean diet
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polyphenols are a heterogeneous group of bioactive compounds mainly found in plant-based foods. Numerous clinical and epidemiological studies have led to the result that polyphenol intake may protect against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, or type 2 diabetes, to name some. Polyphenol intake estimation can be obtained through food frequency questionnaires and nutritional biomarkers, both having their own advantages and disadvantages. Although the association between these bioactive compounds and health seems irrefutable, many questions remain still unanswered. For instance, more studies are needed to identify possible interactions and effect-modulating variables, such as smoking habit, body mass index, sex, alcohol, hormones, other foods, etc. Moreover, intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in the metabolism of polyphenols, but it is still unclear how.

This Special Issue entitled “Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health” is now open for submission of either original research manuscripts or reviews (systematic reviews and meta-analyses) concerning dietary polyphenols and various health outcomes.

Dr. Anna Tresserra-Rimbau
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • polyphenols
  • health
  • disease prevention
  • bioavailability
  • chronic diseases
  • epidemiological studies
  • bioactive compounds
  • Mediterranean diet

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2893; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092893 - 22 Sep 2020
Abstract
Plant-based foods are the main source of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, a large family of compounds with highly diverse chemical structures [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Estimated Intakes of Nutrients and Polyphenols in Participants Completing the MaPLE Randomised Controlled Trial and Its Relevance for the Future Development of Dietary Guidelines for the Older Subjects
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2458; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082458 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The evaluation of food intake in older subjects is crucial in order to be able to verify adherence to nutritional recommendations. In this context, estimation of the intake of specific dietary bioactives, such as polyphenols, although particularly challenging, is necessary to plan possible [...] Read more.
The evaluation of food intake in older subjects is crucial in order to be able to verify adherence to nutritional recommendations. In this context, estimation of the intake of specific dietary bioactives, such as polyphenols, although particularly challenging, is necessary to plan possible intervention strategies to increase their intake. The aims of the present study were to: (i) evaluate the nutritional composition of dietary menus provided in a residential care setting; (ii) estimate the actual intake of nutrients and polyphenols in a group of older subjects participating in the MaPLE study; and (iii) investigate the impact of an eight-week polyphenol-rich dietary pattern, compared to an eight-week control diet, on overall nutrient and polyphenol intake in older participants. The menus served to the participants provided ~770 mg per day of total polyphenols on average with small variations between seasons. The analysis of real consumption, measured using weighed food diaries, demonstrated a lower nutrient (~20%) and polyphenol intake (~15%) compared to that provided by the menus. The feasibility of dietary patterns that enable an increase in polyphenol intake with putative health benefits for age-related conditions is discussed, with a perspective to developing dietary guidelines for this target population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
A High Polyphenol Diet Improves Psychological Well-Being: The Polyphenol Intervention Trial (PPhIT)
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082445 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Mental ill health is currently one of the leading causes of disease burden worldwide. A growing body of data has emerged supporting the role of diet, especially polyphenols, which have anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties. The aim of the present study was to assess [...] Read more.
Mental ill health is currently one of the leading causes of disease burden worldwide. A growing body of data has emerged supporting the role of diet, especially polyphenols, which have anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a high polyphenol diet (HPD) compared to a low polyphenol diet (LPD) on aspects of psychological well-being in the Polyphenol Intervention Trial (PPhIT). Ninety-nine mildly hypertensive participants aged 40–65 years were enrolled in a four-week LPD washout period and then randomised to either an LPD or an HPD for eight weeks. Both at baseline and the end of intervention, participants’ lifestyle and psychological well-being were assessed. The participants in the HPD group reported a decrease in depressive symptoms, as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and an improvement in physical component and mental health component scores as assessed with 36-Item Short Form Survey. No differences in anxiety, stress, self-esteem or body image perception were observed. In summary, the study findings suggest that the adoption of a polyphenol-rich diet could potentially lead to beneficial effects including a reduction in depressive symptoms and improvements in general mental health status and physical health in hypertensive participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Effects of a Polyphenol-Rich Leaf Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Zynamite) on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2194; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082194 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Extracts made from the leaves of the mango food plant (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) have a long history of medicinal usage, most likely due to particularly high levels of the polyphenol mangiferin. In rodent models, oral mangiferin protects cognitive function and [...] Read more.
Extracts made from the leaves of the mango food plant (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) have a long history of medicinal usage, most likely due to particularly high levels of the polyphenol mangiferin. In rodent models, oral mangiferin protects cognitive function and brain tissue from a number of challenges and modulates cerebro-electrical activity. Recent evidence has confirmed the latter effect in healthy humans following a mangiferin-rich mango leaf extract using quantitative electroencephalography (EEG). The current study therefore investigated the effects of a single dose of mango leaf extract, standardised to contain >60% mangiferin (Zynamite®), on cognitive function and mood. This study adopted a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design in which 70 healthy young adults (18 to 45 years) received 300 mg mango leaf extract and a matched placebo, on separate occasions, separated by at least 7 days. On each occasion, cognitive/mood assessments were undertaken pre-dose and at 30 min, 3 h and 5 h post-dose using the Computerised Mental Performance Assessment System (COMPASS) assessment battery and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The results showed that a single dose of 300 mg mango leaf extract significantly improved performance accuracy across the tasks in the battery, with domain-specific effects seen in terms of enhanced performance on an ‘Accuracy of Attention’ factor and an ‘Episodic Memory’ factor. Performance was also improved across all three tasks (Rapid Visual Information Processing, Serial 3s and Serial 7s subtraction tasks) that make up the Cognitive Demand Battery sub-section of the assessment. All of these cognitive benefits were seen across the post-dose assessments (30 min, 3 h, 5 h). There were no interpretable treatment related effects on mood. These results provide the first demonstration of cognition enhancement following consumption of mango leaf extract and add to previous research showing that polyphenols and polyphenol rich extracts can improve brain function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Associations of Urinary Phytoestrogen Concentrations with Sleep Disorders and Sleep Duration among Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072103 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Current evidence on the relationship of phytoestrogens with sleep is limited and contradictory. In particular, studies on individual phytoestrogens and sleep have not been reported. Thus, this study aimed to appraise the associations of individual phytoestrogens with sleep disorders and sleep duration. This [...] Read more.
Current evidence on the relationship of phytoestrogens with sleep is limited and contradictory. In particular, studies on individual phytoestrogens and sleep have not been reported. Thus, this study aimed to appraise the associations of individual phytoestrogens with sleep disorders and sleep duration. This cross-sectional study comprising 4830 adults utilized data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010. Phytoestrogens were tested in urine specimens. Sleep disorders and sleep duration were based on a self-reported doctor’s diagnosis and usual sleep duration. The main analyses utilized logistic and multinomial logistic regression models and a restricted cubic spline. In the fully adjusted model, compared with tertile 1 (lowest), the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of sleep disorders for the highest tertile of urinary concentrations of enterolactone, enterodiol, and O-desmethylangolensin were 0.64 (0.41–1.00), 1.54 (1.07–2.21), and 1.89 (1.26–2.85), respectively. Linear inverse, approximatively linear positive, and inverted L-shaped concentration–response relationships were found between enterolactone, enterodiol, and O-desmethylangolensin and sleep disorders, respectively. Compared with normal sleep (7–8 h/night), the relative risk ratio (RRR) (95% CI) of very short sleep for enterolactone was 0.56 (0.36–0.86), and the RRR (95% CI) of long sleep risk for genistein was 0.62 (0.39–0.99). Furthermore, negative associations of genistein with sleep disorders and enterolactone with long sleep risk, as well as positive associations of enterodiol with both long and very short sleep, were observed in the stratified analysis by age or gender. Finally, a notable finding was that urinary O-desmethylangolensin concentration was positively related to sleep disorders in both females aged 40–59 years and non-Hispanic Whites but inversely associated with sleep disorders in both females aged 60 years or over and other Hispanics. Our findings suggested that enterolactone and genistein might be beneficial for preventing sleep disorders or non-normal sleep duration among adults, and enterodiol might be adverse toward this goal. However, the association of O-desmethylangolensin with sleep disorders might be discrepant in different races and females of different ages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Rice Bran Phenolic Extracts Modulate Insulin Secretion and Gene Expression Associated with β-Cell Function
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061889 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Oxidative stress is known to modulate insulin secretion and initiate gene alterations resulting in impairment of β-cell function and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rice bran (RB) phenolic extracts contain bioactive properties that may target metabolic pathways associated with the pathogenesis of T2DM. [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is known to modulate insulin secretion and initiate gene alterations resulting in impairment of β-cell function and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rice bran (RB) phenolic extracts contain bioactive properties that may target metabolic pathways associated with the pathogenesis of T2DM. This study aimed to examine the effect of stabilized RB phenolic extracts on the expression of genes associated with β-cell function such as glucose transporter 2 (Glut2), pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), and insulin 1 (Ins1) in addition to evaluating its impact on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. It was observed that treatment with different concentrations of RB phenolic extracts (25-250 µg/mL) significantly increased the expression of Glut2, Pdx1, Sirt1, Tfam, and Ins1 genes and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion under both normal and high glucose conditions. RB phenolic extracts favourably modulated the expression of genes involved in β-cell dysfunction and insulin secretion via several mechanisms such as synergistic action of polyphenols targeting signalling molecules, decreasing free radical damage by its antioxidant activity, and stimulation of effectors or survival factors of insulin secretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Black Sorghum Phenolic Extract Modulates Platelet Activation and Platelet Microparticle Release
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1760; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061760 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Platelet hyper-activation and platelet microparticles (PMPs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Dietary polyphenols are believed to mimic antiplatelet agents by blunting platelet activation receptors via its antioxidant phenomenon. However, there is limited information on the anti-platelet activity of [...] Read more.
Platelet hyper-activation and platelet microparticles (PMPs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Dietary polyphenols are believed to mimic antiplatelet agents by blunting platelet activation receptors via its antioxidant phenomenon. However, there is limited information on the anti-platelet activity of grain-derived polyphenols. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of sorghum extract (Shawaya short black 1 variety), an extract previously characterised for its high antioxidant activity and reduction of oxidative stress-related endothelial dysfunction, on platelet aggregation, platelet activation and PMP release. Whole blood samples collected from 18 healthy volunteers were treated with varying non-cytotoxic concentrations of polyphenol-rich black sorghum extract (BSE). Platelet aggregation study utilised 5 µg/mL collagen to target the GPVI pathway of thrombus formation whereas adenine phosphate (ADP) was used to stimulate the P2Y1/P2Y12 pathway of platelet activation assessed by flow cytometry. Procaspase-activating compound 1 (PAC-1) and P-selectin/CD62P were used to evaluate platelet activation- related conformational changes and degranulation respectively. PMPs were isolated from unstimulated platelets and quantified by size distribution and binding to CD42b. BSE treatment significantly reduced both collagen-induced platelet aggregation and circulatory PMP release at 40 µg/mL (p < 0.001) when compared to control. However, there was no significant impact of BSE on ADP-induced activation-dependent conformational change and degranulation of platelets. Results of this study suggest that phenolic rich BSE may confer cardio-protection by modulating specific signalling pathways involved in platelet activation and PMP release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Polyphenol Intake is Associated with HDL-Cholesterol and A Better Profile of other Components of the Metabolic Syndrome: A PREDIMED-Plus Sub-Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030689 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 11
Abstract
Dietary polyphenol intake is associated with improvement of metabolic disturbances. The aims of the present study are to describe dietary polyphenol intake in a population with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to examine the association between polyphenol intake and the components of MetS. This [...] Read more.
Dietary polyphenol intake is associated with improvement of metabolic disturbances. The aims of the present study are to describe dietary polyphenol intake in a population with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to examine the association between polyphenol intake and the components of MetS. This cross-sectional analysis involved 6633 men and women included in the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea-Plus) study. The polyphenol content of foods was estimated from the Phenol-Explorer 3.6 database. The mean of total polyphenol intake was 846 ± 318 mg/day. Except for stilbenes, women had higher polyphenol intake than men. Total polyphenol intake was higher in older participants (>70 years of age) compared to their younger counterparts. Participants with body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m2 reported lower total polyphenol, flavonoid, and stilbene intake than those with lower BMI. Total polyphenol intake was not associated with a better profile concerning MetS components, except for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), although stilbenes, lignans, and other polyphenols showed an inverse association with blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides. A direct association with HDL-c was found for all subclasses except lignans and phenolic acids. To conclude, in participants with MetS, higher intake of several polyphenol subclasses was associated with a better profile of MetS components, especially HDL-c. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Effects of Dietary Phytoestrogens on Hormones throughout a Human Lifespan: A Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2456; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082456 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Dietary phytoestrogens are bioactive compounds with estrogenic activity. With the growing popularity of plant-based diets, the intake of phytoestrogen-rich legumes (especially soy) and legume-derived foods has increased. Evidence from preclinical studies suggests these compounds may have an effect on hormones and health, although [...] Read more.
Dietary phytoestrogens are bioactive compounds with estrogenic activity. With the growing popularity of plant-based diets, the intake of phytoestrogen-rich legumes (especially soy) and legume-derived foods has increased. Evidence from preclinical studies suggests these compounds may have an effect on hormones and health, although the results of human trials are unclear. The effects of dietary phytoestrogens depend on the exposure (phytoestrogen type, matrix, concentration, and bioavailability), ethnicity, hormone levels (related to age, sex, and physiological condition), and health status of the consumer. In this review, we have summarized the results of human studies on dietary phytoestrogens with the aim of assessing the possible hormone-dependent outcomes and health effects of their consumption throughout a lifespan, focusing on pregnancy, childhood, adulthood, and the premenopausal and postmenopausal stages. In pregnant women, an improvement of insulin metabolism has been reported in only one study. Sex hormone alterations have been found in the late stages of childhood, and goitrogenic effects in children with hypothyroidism. In premenopausal and postmenopausal women, the reported impacts on hormones are inconsistent, although beneficial goitrogenic effects and improved glycemic control and cardiovascular risk markers have been described in postmenopausal individuals. In adult men, different authors report goitrogenic effects and a reduction of insulin in non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. Further carefully designed studies are warranted to better elucidate the impact of phytoestrogen consumption on the endocrine system at different life stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Metabolic Impact of Flavonoids Consumption in Obesity: From Central to Peripheral
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2393; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082393 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The prevention and treatment of obesity is primary based on the follow-up of a healthy lifestyle, which includes a healthy diet with an important presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols. For many years, the health benefits of polyphenols have been attributed to [...] Read more.
The prevention and treatment of obesity is primary based on the follow-up of a healthy lifestyle, which includes a healthy diet with an important presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols. For many years, the health benefits of polyphenols have been attributed to their anti-oxidant capacity as free radical scavengers. More recently it has been described that polyphenols activate other cell-signaling pathways that are not related to ROS production but rather involved in metabolic regulation. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge in this field by focusing on the metabolic effects of flavonoids. Flavonoids are widely distributed in the plant kingdom where they are used for growing and defensing. They are structurally characterized by two benzene rings and a heterocyclic pyrone ring and based on the oxidation and saturation status of the heterocyclic ring flavonoids are grouped in seven different subclasses. The present work is focused on describing the molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic impact of flavonoids in obesity and obesity-related diseases. We described the effects of each group of flavonoids in liver, white and brown adipose tissue and central nervous system and the metabolic and signaling pathways involved on them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Antidiabetic Effects of Flavan-3-ols and Their Microbial Metabolites
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061592 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Diet is one of the pillars in the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus. Particularly, eating patterns characterized by a high consumption of foods such as fruits or vegetables and beverages such as coffee and tea could influence the development and progression of [...] Read more.
Diet is one of the pillars in the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus. Particularly, eating patterns characterized by a high consumption of foods such as fruits or vegetables and beverages such as coffee and tea could influence the development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Flavonoids, whose intake has been inversely associated with numerous negative health outcomes in the last few years, are a common constituent of these food items. Therefore, they could contribute to the observed positive effects of certain dietary habits in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Of all the different flavonoid subclasses, flavan-3-ols are consumed the most in the European region. However, a large proportion of the ingested flavan-3-ols is not absorbed. Therefore, the flavan-3-ols enter the large intestine where they become available to the colonic bacteria and are metabolized by the microbiota. For this reason, in addition to the parent compounds, the colonic metabolites of flavan-3-ols could take part in the prevention and management of diabetes. The aim of this review is to present the available literature on the effect of both the parent flavan-3-ol compounds found in different food sources as well as the specific microbial metabolites of diabetes in order to better understand their potential role in the prevention and treatment of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols and Human Health)
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