Current evidence on the relationship of phytoestrogens with sleep is limited and contradictory. In particular, studies on individual phytoestrogens and sleep have not been reported. Thus, this study aimed to appraise the associations of individual phytoestrogens with sleep disorders and sleep duration. This cross-sectional study comprising 4830 adults utilized data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010. Phytoestrogens were tested in urine specimens. Sleep disorders and sleep duration were based on a self-reported doctor’s diagnosis and usual sleep duration. The main analyses utilized logistic and multinomial logistic regression models and a restricted cubic spline. In the fully adjusted model, compared with tertile 1 (lowest), the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of sleep disorders for the highest tertile of urinary concentrations of enterolactone, enterodiol, and O-desmethylangolensin were 0.64 (0.41–1.00), 1.54 (1.07–2.21), and 1.89 (1.26–2.85), respectively. Linear inverse, approximatively linear positive, and inverted L-shaped concentration–response relationships were found between enterolactone, enterodiol, and O-desmethylangolensin and sleep disorders, respectively. Compared with normal sleep (7–8 h/night), the relative risk ratio (RRR) (95% CI) of very short sleep for enterolactone was 0.56 (0.36–0.86), and the RRR (95% CI) of long sleep risk for genistein was 0.62 (0.39–0.99). Furthermore, negative associations of genistein with sleep disorders and enterolactone with long sleep risk, as well as positive associations of enterodiol with both long and very short sleep, were observed in the stratified analysis by age or gender. Finally, a notable finding was that urinary O-desmethylangolensin concentration was positively related to sleep disorders in both females aged 40–59 years and non-Hispanic Whites but inversely associated with sleep disorders in both females aged 60 years or over and other Hispanics. Our findings suggested that enterolactone and genistein might be beneficial for preventing sleep disorders or non-normal sleep duration among adults, and enterodiol might be adverse toward this goal. However, the association of O-desmethylangolensin with sleep disorders might be discrepant in different races and females of different ages.
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