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Article

Usual Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D of Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years. Findings from the EsNuPI Study

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Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal S/N, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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UCM Research Group VALORNUT-920030, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal S/N, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, San Rafael Hospital, 28016 Madrid, Spain
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Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT), Av. Del Conocimiento 12, 3ªpta, Armilla, 18016 Granada, Spain
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Instituto de Nutrición Puleva, 18004 Granada, Spain
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Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University Clinical Hospital of Santiago, IDIS, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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CIBEROBN (Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja, s.n, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix”, Biomedical Research Center, University of Granada, Parque Tecnológico de la Salud, Avenida del Conocimiento s/n, Armilla, 18100 Granada, Spain
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Pediatric Department, University of Navarra Clinic, Calle Marquesado de Sta. Marta, 1, 28027 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja, s.n, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), c/General Álvarez de Castro 20, 1ªpta, 28010 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, Urb. Montepríncipe, crta. Boadilla km. 5.3, Boadilla del Monte, 28668 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II University of Granada, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja, s.n, 18071 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Estudio Nutricional en Población Infantil Española (Nutritional Study in Spanish Pediatric Population) (EsNuPI).
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061787
Received: 17 April 2020 / Revised: 26 May 2020 / Accepted: 12 June 2020 / Published: 16 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Bone problems in the population begin to be establish in childhood. The present study aims to assess the usual calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D intakes, along with the food sources of these nutrients, in Spanish children participating in the EsNuPI (Estudio Nutricional en Población Infantil Española) study. Two 24 h dietary recalls were applied to 1448 children (1 to <10 years) divided into two sub-samples: one reference sample (RS) of the general population [n = 707] and another sample which exclusively included children consuming enriched or fortified milks, here called “adapted milks” (AMS) [n = 741]. Estimation of the usual intake shows that nutrient intake increased with age for all nutrients except vitamin D. Using as reference the Dietary Reference Values from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), calcium and magnesium intakes were found to be below the average requirement (AR) and adequate intake (AI), respectively, in a considerable percentage of children. Furthermore, phosphorus exceeded the AI in 100% of individuals and vitamin D was lower than the AI in almost all children studied. The results were very similar when considering only plausible reporters. When analyzing the food sources of the nutrients studied, milk and dairy products contributed the most to calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D. Other sources of calcium were cereals and vegetables; for phosphorus: meat, meat products, and cereals; for magnesium: cereals and fruits; and, for vitamin D: fish and eggs. These results highlight the desirability of improving the intake concerning these nutrients, which are involved in bone and metabolic health in children. The AMS group appeared to contribute better to the adequacy of those nutrients than the RS group, but both still need further improvement. Of special interest are the results of vitamin D intakes, which were significantly higher in the AMS group (although still below the AI), independent of age. View Full-Text
Keywords: EsNuPI study; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; vitamin D; pediatric nutrition; food sources; Spanish children; dairy products; infant formula EsNuPI study; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; vitamin D; pediatric nutrition; food sources; Spanish children; dairy products; infant formula
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cuadrado-Soto, E.; López-Sobaler, A.M.; Jiménez-Ortega, A.I.; Aparicio, A.; Bermejo, L.M.; Hernández-Ruiz, Á.; Lara Villoslada, F.; Leis, R.; Martínez de Victoria, E.; Moreno, J.M.; Ruiz-López, M.D.; Soto-Méndez, M.J.; Valero, T.; Varela-Moreiras, G.; Gil, Á.; Ortega, R.M. Usual Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D of Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years. Findings from the EsNuPI Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1787. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061787

AMA Style

Cuadrado-Soto E, López-Sobaler AM, Jiménez-Ortega AI, Aparicio A, Bermejo LM, Hernández-Ruiz Á, Lara Villoslada F, Leis R, Martínez de Victoria E, Moreno JM, Ruiz-López MD, Soto-Méndez MJ, Valero T, Varela-Moreiras G, Gil Á, Ortega RM. Usual Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D of Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years. Findings from the EsNuPI Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1787. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061787

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cuadrado-Soto, Esther; López-Sobaler, Ana M.; Jiménez-Ortega, Ana I.; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Bermejo, Laura M.; Hernández-Ruiz, Ángela; Lara Villoslada, Federico; Leis, Rosaura; Martínez de Victoria, Emilio; Moreno, José M.; Ruiz-López, María D.; Soto-Méndez, María J.; Valero, Teresa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel; Ortega, Rosa M. 2020. "Usual Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D of Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years. Findings from the EsNuPI Study" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1787. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061787

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