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Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy and Food Sources of Total Fat and Fatty Acids, and Relationships with Personal and Family Factors in Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years: Results of the EsNuPI Study
Open AccessArticle

Clustering of Dietary Patterns and Lifestyles Among Spanish Children in the EsNuPI Study

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix”, Center of Biomedical Research, University of Granada, Avda. del Conocimiento s/n, 18016 Granada, Spain
3
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria IBS.GRANADA, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Granada, 18014 Granada, Spain
4
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
5
Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT), Armilla, 18016 Granada, Spain
6
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), 28010 Madrid, Spain
7
Instituto de Nutrición Puleva, 18004 Granada, Spain
8
Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition University Clinical Hospital of Santiago, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
9
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago, IDIS, Santiago de Compostela, University Clinical Hospital of Santiago, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
10
CIBEROBN (Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
11
Department of Physiology, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
12
Department of Pediatrics, University of Navarra Clinic, 28027 Madrid, Spain
13
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain
14
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, 28668 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutritional Study in Spanish Pediatric Population (EsNuPI).
Both authors contributed equally.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2536; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092536
Received: 11 July 2020 / Revised: 17 August 2020 / Accepted: 18 August 2020 / Published: 21 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Dietary patterns (DPs) are known to be tied to lifestyle behaviors. Understanding DPs and their relationships with lifestyle factors can help to prevent children from engaging in unhealthy dietary practices. We aimed to describe DPs in Spanish children aged 1 to <10 years and to examine their associations with sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. The consumption of toddler and young children milk formulas, enriched and fortified milk within the Spanish pediatric population is increasing, and there is a lack of evidence whether the consumption of this type of milk is causing an impact on nutrient intakes and if they are helping to reach the nutrient recommendations. Within the Nutritional Study in the Spanish Pediatric Population (EsNuPI), we considered two study cohorts and three different age groups in three year-intervals in each of them. The study cohort included 740 children in a representative sample of the urban non-vegan Spanish population and 772 children in a convenience cohort of adapted milk consumers (AMS) (including follow-on formula, toddler’s milk, growing up milk, and fortified and enriched milks) who provided information about sociodemographics, lifestyle, and dietary habits; a food frequency questionnaire was used for the latter. Principal component analysis was performed to identify DPs from 18 food groups. Food groups and sociodemographic/lifestyle variables were combined through a hierarchical cluster algorithm. Three DPs predominated in every age group and study sample: a palatable energy-dense food dietary pattern, and two Mediterranean-like DPs. However, children from the AMS showed a predominant dietary pattern markedly related to the Mediterranean diet, with high consumption of cereals, fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and dairy products. The age of children and certain lifestyle factors, namely level of physical activity, parental education, and household income, correlated closely with the dietary clusters. Thus, the findings provide insight into designing lifestyle interventions that could reverse the appearance of unhealthy DPs in the Spanish child population. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; cluster analysis; dietary patterns; physical activity; sedentary behavior children; cluster analysis; dietary patterns; physical activity; sedentary behavior
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MDPI and ACS Style

Plaza-Díaz, J.; Molina-Montes, E.; Soto-Méndez, M.J.; Madrigal, C.; Hernández-Ruiz, Á.; Valero, T.; Lara Villoslada, F.; Leis, R.; Martínez de Victoria, E.; Moreno, J.M.; Ortega, R.M.; Ruiz-López, M.D.; Varela-Moreiras, G.; Gil, Á. Clustering of Dietary Patterns and Lifestyles Among Spanish Children in the EsNuPI Study . Nutrients 2020, 12, 2536. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092536

AMA Style

Plaza-Díaz J, Molina-Montes E, Soto-Méndez MJ, Madrigal C, Hernández-Ruiz Á, Valero T, Lara Villoslada F, Leis R, Martínez de Victoria E, Moreno JM, Ortega RM, Ruiz-López MD, Varela-Moreiras G, Gil Á. Clustering of Dietary Patterns and Lifestyles Among Spanish Children in the EsNuPI Study . Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2536. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092536

Chicago/Turabian Style

Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Soto-Méndez, María J.; Madrigal, Casandra; Hernández-Ruiz, Ángela; Valero, Teresa; Lara Villoslada, Federico; Leis, Rosaura; Martínez de Victoria, Emilio; Moreno, José M.; Ortega, Rosa M.; Ruiz-López, María D.; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel. 2020. "Clustering of Dietary Patterns and Lifestyles Among Spanish Children in the EsNuPI Study " Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2536. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092536

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