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Open AccessArticle

Energy Intake, Macronutrient Profile and Food Sources of Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years—Results from the EsNuPI Study †

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Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja, s.n, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT), Av. Del Conocimiento 12, 3 ª pta, Armilla, 18016 Granada, Spain
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Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), c/General Álvarez de Castro 20, 1ªpta, 28010 Madrid, Spain
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CIBERESP, Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health, Carlos III Health Institute, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Health Institute, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Instituto de Nutrición Puleva, Camino de Purchil 66, 18004 Granada, Spain
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Unit of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, University Clinical Hospital of Santiago, IDIS, ISCIII, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15700 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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CIBEROBN (Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition CB12/03/30038), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja, s.n, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix,” Biomedical Research Center, University of Granada, Parque Tecnológico de la Salud, Avenida del Conocimiento s/n, Armilla, 18100 Granada, Spain
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Pediatric Department, University of Navarra Clinic, Calle Marquesado de Sta. Marta, 1, 28027 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, Urb. Montepríncipe, crta. Boadilla km. 5.3, Boadilla del Monte, 28668 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II University of Granada, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja, s.n, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutritional Study in Spanish Pediatric Population (EsNuPI).
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040893 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 February 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 22 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
The present study aimed to assess energy intake, nutrient profile and food sources in Spanish children participating in the EsNuPI (“Estudio Nutricional en Población Infantil Española”) study. Plausibility of energy intake and adequacy of nutrient intakes to international recommendations were analyzed in a final sample of 1448 subjects (728 boys and 720 girls) and one group representative of the 1 to <10 years old urban Spanish children (reference sample (n = 707)) who consumed milk and one of the same age who consumed adapted milk over the last year (adapted milk consumers sample (n = 741)) were compared. Both groups completed data of a face-to-face and a telephone 24-h dietary recalls. Both the reference and the adapted milk consumers samples reported an adequate daily energy intake (1503 kcal/day and 1404 kcal/day); and a high contribution to total energy from protein (16.5% and 15.6%) and fat (36.5% and 35.9%). Also, a high percentage of children from both samples were below the lower limit of the recommendations for carbohydrates (47.8% and 39.3%). As the percentage of plausible energy reporters was high for both groups (84.7% and 83.5%, respectively), data for the whole sample were analyzed. Milk and dairy, cereals, meat and derived products, fats and oils, bakery and pastry, fruits and vegetables contributed to about 80% of the total energy intake in both groups. However, the reference sample reported significantly more contribution to energy from cereals, meat and meat products, bakery and pastry and ready to cook/eat foods; meanwhile, the adapted milk consumers sample reported significantly more energy from milk and dairy products, fruits and eggs. Those results suggest that adapted milk consumers have better adherence to the food-based dietary guidelines. Further analyses are warranted to characterize food patterns and the quality of the diet in the EsNuPI study population. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy intake; food sources; EsNuPI study; pediatrics; Spanish children; misreporting; feeding behavior; dietary habits; nutrition assessment; pediatric nutrition energy intake; food sources; EsNuPI study; pediatrics; Spanish children; misreporting; feeding behavior; dietary habits; nutrition assessment; pediatric nutrition
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Madrigal, C.; Soto-Méndez, M.J.; Hernández-Ruiz, Á.; Valero, T.; Ávila, J.M.; Ruiz, E.; Lara Villoslada, F.; Leis, R.; Martínez de Victoria, E.; Moreno, J.M.; M. Ortega, R.; Ruiz-López, M.D.; Varela-Moreiras, G.; Gil, Á. Energy Intake, Macronutrient Profile and Food Sources of Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years—Results from the EsNuPI Study †. Nutrients 2020, 12, 893.

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