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Article

Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy, and Food Sources of Protein and Relationships with Personal and Family Factors in Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years: Findings of the EsNuPI Study †

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Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT), Armilla, 18016 Granada, Spain
3
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), 28010 Madrid, Spain
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Instituto de Nutrición Puleva, 18004 Granada, Spain
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Unit of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Hepatology and Nutrition University Clinical Hospital of Santiago, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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Health Research Institute of Santiago (IDIS), University of Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Biomedical Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix”, University of Granada, 18100 Granada, Spain
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Pediatric Department, University of Navarra Clinic, 28027 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, 28668 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Estudio Nutricional en Población Infantil Española (Nutritional Study in the Spanish Pediatric Population) (EsNuPI).
Academic Editor: Junilla Larsen
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041062
Received: 3 December 2020 / Revised: 19 March 2021 / Accepted: 19 March 2021 / Published: 24 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Diet in the first years of life is an important factor in growth and development. Dietary protein is a critical macronutrient that provides both essential and nonessential amino acids required for sustaining all body functions and procedures, providing the structural basis to maintain life and healthy development and growth in children. In this study, our aim was to describe the total protein intake, type and food sources of protein, the adequacy to the Population Reference Intake (PRI) for protein by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), and the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) by the Institute of Medicine (IoM). Furthermore, we analyzed whether the consumption of dairy products (including regular milk, dairy products, or adapted milk formulas) is associated with nutrient adequacy and the contribution of protein to diet and whole dietary profile in the two cohorts of the EsNuPI (in English, Nutritional Study in the Spanish Pediatric Population) study; one cohort was representative of the Spanish population from one to <10 years old (n = 707) (Spanish reference cohort, SRS) who reported consuming all kinds of milk and one was a cohort of the same age who reported consuming adapted milk over the last year (including follow-on formula, growing up milk, toddler’s milk, and enriched and fortified milks) (n = 741) (adapted milk consumers cohort, AMS). The children of both cohorts had a high contribution from protein to total energy intake (16.79% SRS and 15.63% AMS) and a high total protein intake (60.89 g/day SRS and 53.43 g/day AMS). We observed that protein intake in Spanish children aged one to <10 years old was above the European and international recommendations, as well as the recommended percentages for energy intakes. The main protein sources were milk and dairy products (28% SRS and 29% AMS) and meat and meat products (27% SRS and 26% AMS), followed by cereals (16% SRS and 15% AMS), fish and shellfish (8% in both cohorts), eggs (5% SRS and 6% AMS), and legumes (4% in both cohorts). In our study population, protein intake was mainly from an animal origin (meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, fish and shellfish, and eggs) rather than from a plant origin (cereals and legumes). Future studies should investigate the long-term effect of dietary protein in early childhood on growth and body composition, and whether high protein intake affects health later in life. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary proteins; proteins; dietary animal protein; dietary plant protein; pediatric nutrition; fortified milk; food sources; dairy products; Spanish children; EsNuPI study dietary proteins; proteins; dietary animal protein; dietary plant protein; pediatric nutrition; fortified milk; food sources; dairy products; Spanish children; EsNuPI study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Madrigal, C.; Soto-Méndez, M.J.; Hernández-Ruiz, Á.; Valero, T.; Lara Villoslada, F.; Leis, R.; Martínez de Victoria, E.; Moreno, J.M.; Ortega, R.M.; Ruiz-López, M.D.; Varela-Moreiras, G.; Gil, Á. Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy, and Food Sources of Protein and Relationships with Personal and Family Factors in Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years: Findings of the EsNuPI Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1062. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041062

AMA Style

Madrigal C, Soto-Méndez MJ, Hernández-Ruiz Á, Valero T, Lara Villoslada F, Leis R, Martínez de Victoria E, Moreno JM, Ortega RM, Ruiz-López MD, Varela-Moreiras G, Gil Á. Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy, and Food Sources of Protein and Relationships with Personal and Family Factors in Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years: Findings of the EsNuPI Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1062. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041062

Chicago/Turabian Style

Madrigal, Casandra, María J. Soto-Méndez, Ángela Hernández-Ruiz, Teresa Valero, Federico Lara Villoslada, Rosaura Leis, Emilio Martínez de Victoria, José M. Moreno, Rosa M. Ortega, María D. Ruiz-López, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras, and Ángel Gil. 2021. "Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy, and Food Sources of Protein and Relationships with Personal and Family Factors in Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years: Findings of the EsNuPI Study" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1062. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041062

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