Special Issue "Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Antonella Polimeni
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Via Caserta, 6-00161 Roma, Italy
Interests: pediatric dentistry; oral cancer; dental materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge on the application of innovative nanotechnologies and nanomaterials that cross through a translational approach, bringing together all the various specialties involved in the study of dentistry and applied to the biomedical research.

The approach for studying oral diseases (inflammatory, degenerative, metabolic, and neoplastic) has changed dramatically in recent years with the advent of new methods of analysis (from anatomy to clinical–instrumental pathophysiological interpretation, from molecular biology to proteomics, from functional and morphological analysis, structural and ultrastructural, to the studies in vitro and in a single cell). There is also increasing evidence of the importance of the involvement of stem compartments and their use, as in the case of human-derived mesenchymal cells taken from dental pulp and cells of the microenvironment in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Finally, it seems important to underline the growing development of experimental medicine and medical/surgical biotechnology as the evaluation and the use of new biomaterials–biomimetics combined with sophisticated and minimally invasive surgical techniques.

Prof. Dr. Antonella Polimeni
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanostructures
  • nanomaterials
  • nanotechnology in dentistry

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Mineral-Doped Poly(L-lactide) Acid Scaffolds Enriched with Exosomes Improve Osteogenic Commitment of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030432 - 29 Feb 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells are extracellular vesicles released to facilitate cell communication and function. Recently, polylactic acid (PLA), calcium silicates (CaSi), and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) have been used to produce bioresorbable functional mineral-doped porous scaffolds-through thermally induced phase separation technique, [...] Read more.
Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells are extracellular vesicles released to facilitate cell communication and function. Recently, polylactic acid (PLA), calcium silicates (CaSi), and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) have been used to produce bioresorbable functional mineral-doped porous scaffolds-through thermally induced phase separation technique, as materials for bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mineral-doped PLA-based porous scaffolds enriched with exosome vesicles (EVs) on osteogenic commitment of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs). Two different mineral-doped scaffolds were produced: PLA-10CaSi-10DCPD and PLA-5CaSi-5DCPD. Scaffolds surface micromorphology was investigated by ESEM-EDX before and after 28 days immersion in simulated body fluid (HBSS). Exosomes were deposited on the surface of the scaffolds and the effect of exosome-enriched scaffolds on osteogenic commitment of hAD-MSCs cultured in proximity of the scaffolds has been evaluated by real time PCR. In addition, the biocompatibility was evaluated by direct-contact seeding hAD-MSCs on scaffolds surface-using MTT viability test. In both formulations, ESEM showed pores similar in shape (circular and elliptic) and size (from 10–30 µm diameter). The porosity of the scaffolds decreased after 28 days immersion in simulated body fluid. Mineral-doped scaffolds showed a dynamic surface and created a suitable bone-forming microenvironment. The presence of the mineral fillers increased the osteogenic commitment of hAD-MSCs. Exosomes were easily entrapped on the surface of the scaffolds and their presence improved gene expression of major markers of osteogenesis such as collagen type I, osteopontin, osteonectin, osteocalcin. The experimental scaffolds enriched with exosomes, in particular PLA-10CaSi-10DCPD, increased the osteogenic commitment of MSCs. In conclusion, the enrichment of bioresorbable functional scaffolds with exosomes is confirmed as a potential strategy to improve bone regeneration procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Vascular Wall–Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation on 3D Biodegradable Highly Porous CaSi-DCPD Doped Poly (α-hydroxy) Acids Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020243 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Vascularization is a crucial factor when approaching any engineered tissue. Vascular wall–mesenchymal stem cells are an excellent in vitro model to study vascular remodeling due to their strong angiogenic attitude. This study aimed to demonstrate the angiogenic potential of experimental highly porous scaffolds [...] Read more.
Vascularization is a crucial factor when approaching any engineered tissue. Vascular wall–mesenchymal stem cells are an excellent in vitro model to study vascular remodeling due to their strong angiogenic attitude. This study aimed to demonstrate the angiogenic potential of experimental highly porous scaffolds based on polylactic acid (PLA) or poly-e-caprolactone (PCL) doped with calcium silicates (CaSi) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), namely PLA-10CaSi-10DCPD and PCL-10CaSi-10DCPD, designed for the regeneration of bone defects. Vascular wall–mesenchymal stem cells (VW-MSCs) derived from pig thoracic aorta were seeded on the scaffolds and the expression of angiogenic markers, i.e. CD90 (mesenchymal stem/stromal cell surface marker), pericyte genes α-SMA (alpha smooth muscle actin), PDGFR-β (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β), and NG2 (neuron-glial antigen 2) was evaluated. Pure PLA and pure PCL scaffolds and cell culture plastic were used as controls (3D in vitro model vs. 2D in vitro model). The results clearly demonstrated that the vascular wall mesenchymal cells colonized the scaffolds and were metabolically active. Cells, grown in these 3D systems, showed the typical gene expression profile they have in control 2D culture, although with some main quantitative differences. DNA staining and immunofluorescence assay for alpha-tubulin confirmed a cellular presence on both scaffolds. However, VW-MSCs cultured on PLA-10CaSi-10DCPD showed an individual cells growth, whilst on PCL-10CaSi-10DCPD scaffolds VW-MSCs grew in spherical clusters. In conclusion, vascular wall mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated the ability to colonize PLA and PCL scaffolds doped with CaSi-DCPD for new vessels formation and a potential for tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Sub-Micropillar Spacing Modulates the Spatial Arrangement of Mouse MC3T3-E1 Osteoblastic Cells
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121701 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Surface topography is one of the main factors controlling cell responses on implanted devices and a proper definition of the characteristics that optimize cell behavior may be crucial to improve the clinical performances of these implants. Substrate geometry is known to affect cell [...] Read more.
Surface topography is one of the main factors controlling cell responses on implanted devices and a proper definition of the characteristics that optimize cell behavior may be crucial to improve the clinical performances of these implants. Substrate geometry is known to affect cell shape, as cells try to optimize their adhesion by adapting to the irregularities beneath, and this in turn profoundly affects their activity. In the present study, we cultured murine calvaria MC3T3-E1 cells on surfaces with pillars arranged as hexagons with two different spacings and observed their morphology during adhesion and growth. Cells on these highly ordered substrates attached and proliferated effectively, showing a marked preference for minimizing the inter-pillar distance, by following specific pathways across adjacent pillars and displaying consistent morphological modules. Moreover, cell behavior appeared to follow tightly controlled patterns of extracellular protein secretion, which preceded and matched cells and, on a sub-cellular level, cytoplasmic orientation. Taken together, these results outline the close integration of surface features, extracellular proteins alignment and cell arrangement, and provide clues on how to control and direct cell spatial order and cell morphology by simply acting on inter-pillar spacing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Bismuth-Doped Nanohydroxyapatite Coatings on Titanium Implants for Improved Radiopacity and Antimicrobial Activity
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121696 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study aims to present the possibility to obtain bismuth-doped nanohydroxyapatite coatings on the surface of the titanium implants by using a solution-derived process according to an established biomimetic methodology. The bioactivity of the titanium surface was increased by an alkali-thermal treatment. Then, [...] Read more.
This study aims to present the possibility to obtain bismuth-doped nanohydroxyapatite coatings on the surface of the titanium implants by using a solution-derived process according to an established biomimetic methodology. The bioactivity of the titanium surface was increased by an alkali-thermal treatment. Then, under biomimetic conditions, the titanium surface was coated with a Bi-doped nanohydroxyapatite layer by using a modified supersaturated calcification solution (SCS) containing a bismuth salt. The apatite deposits were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and digital X-rays radiography method. The results indicate that the Bi-doped nanohydroxyapatite coatings on titanium surface were produced. These coatings exhibit a good radiopacity, thus enhancing their applications in dental and orthopedic fields. Additionally, the Bi-doped nanohydroxyapatite coatings show significant antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Polymer Membranes Sonocoated and Electrosprayed with Nano-Hydroxyapatite for Periodontal Tissues Regeneration
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111625 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Diseases of periodontal tissues are a considerable clinical problem, connected with inflammatory processes and bone loss. The healing process often requires reconstruction of lost bone in the periodontal area. For that purpose, various membranes are used to prevent ingrowth of epithelium in the [...] Read more.
Diseases of periodontal tissues are a considerable clinical problem, connected with inflammatory processes and bone loss. The healing process often requires reconstruction of lost bone in the periodontal area. For that purpose, various membranes are used to prevent ingrowth of epithelium in the tissue defect and enhance bone regeneration. Currently-used membranes are mainly non-resorbable or are derived from animal tissues. Thus, there is an urgent need for non-animal-derived bioresorbable membranes with tuned resorption rates and porosity optimized for the circulation of body nutrients. We demonstrate membranes produced by the electrospinning of biodegradable polymers (PDLLA/PLGA) coated with nanohydroxyapatite (nHA). The nHA coating was made using two methods: sonocoating and electrospraying of nHA suspensions. In a simulated degradation study, for electrosprayed membranes, short-term calcium release was observed, followed by hydrolytic degradation. Sonocoating produced a well-adhering nHA layer with full coverage of the fibers. The layer slowed the polymer degradation and increased the membrane wettability. Due to gradual release of calcium ions the degradation-associated acidity of the polymer was neutralized. The sonocoated membranes exhibited good cellular metabolic activity responses against MG-63 and BJ cells. The collected results suggest their potential use in Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) and Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) periodontal procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Proteins at the Interface of Dental Implants Modulate Osteoblasts Focal Adhesions Expression and Cytoskeleton Organization
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101407 - 02 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The host-material interface is a crucial relationship dictating the possibility of successful osseointegration in implant dentistry. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of plasma proteins pre-adsorption on the adhesion capacity of osteoblasts, which occurs immediately after implant insertion [...] Read more.
The host-material interface is a crucial relationship dictating the possibility of successful osseointegration in implant dentistry. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of plasma proteins pre-adsorption on the adhesion capacity of osteoblasts, which occurs immediately after implant insertion in vivo. After having pre-adsorbed human plasma proteins on a machined and microrough titanium surface, MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts adhesion was evaluated through crystal violet cell adhesion assay, immunofluorescence staining for cytoskeleton, focal adhesions and cell nuclei, and scanning electron microscopy. The pre-adsorbed protein layer markedly affected the adhesion rate of cells, as well as their morphology and the expression of focal contacts. Moreover, protein adsorption to the underlying titanium surface was found to be correlated to surface pre-wetting. Thus, the early adsorption of serum proteins to the interface of dental implants impacts cell adhesion in terms of strength and of focal adhesions expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Cytotoxicity and Release from Newly Formed PMMA–ZnO Nanocomposites Designed for Denture Bases
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091318 - 15 Sep 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
The goal of the study was to investigate the level of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) release from polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)–ZnO nanocomposites (2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% w/w), as well as from the ZnO NPs layer produced on pure PMMA, and [...] Read more.
The goal of the study was to investigate the level of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) release from polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)–ZnO nanocomposites (2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% w/w), as well as from the ZnO NPs layer produced on pure PMMA, and the impact of the achieved final ZnO NPs concentration on cytotoxicity, before the potential use as an alternative material for denture bases. The concentration of ZnO nanoparticles released to the aqueous solution of Zn2+ ions was assessed using optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). In the control group (pure PMMA), the released mean for ZnO was 0.074 mg/L and for individual nanocomposites at concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% was 2.281 mg/L, 2.143 mg/L, and 3.512 mg/L, respectively. The median for the ZnO NPs layer produced on PMMA was 4.878 mg/L. In addition, in vitro cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs against the human HeLa cell line was determined through the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye. The cytotoxicity studies demonstrate that ZnO nanoparticles in the concentrations up to 20 mg/L have no adverse effect on HeLa cells. When compared with the released and cytotoxic concentrations of ZnO NPs, it can be expected that ZnO released from dental prostheses to the oral cavity environment will have no cytotoxic effect on host cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Composition―Nanostructure Steered Performance Predictions in Steel Wires
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081119 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Neutron scattering in combination with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy were employed to quantitatively resolve elemental composition, nano- through meso- to metallurgical structures and surface characteristics of two commercial stainless steel orthodontic archwires—G&H and Azdent. The obtained bulk composition confirmed that both [...] Read more.
Neutron scattering in combination with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy were employed to quantitatively resolve elemental composition, nano- through meso- to metallurgical structures and surface characteristics of two commercial stainless steel orthodontic archwires—G&H and Azdent. The obtained bulk composition confirmed that both samples are made of metastable austenitic stainless steel type AISI 304. The neutron technique’s higher detection sensitivity to alloying elements facilitated the quantitative determination of the composition factor (CF), and the pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) for predicting austenite stability and pitting-corrosion resistance, respectively. Simultaneous neutron diffraction analyses revealed that both samples contained additional martensite phase due to strain-induced martensite transformation. The unexpectedly high martensite content (46.20 vol%) in G&H was caused by combination of lower austenite stability (CF = 17.37, p = .03), excessive cold working and inadequate thermal treatment during material processing. Together, those results assist in revealing alloying recipes and processing history, and relating these with corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. The present methodology has allowed access to unprecedented length-scale (μm to sub-nm) resolution, accessing nano- through meso-scopic properties. It is envisaged that such an approach can be extended to the study and design of other metallic (bio)materials used in medical sciences, dentistry and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study of the Pressures and Points of Application of the Forces Exerted between Aligner and Tooth
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9071010 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The analysis of forces, moments and pressure points has long been of great interest in orthodontics. Hence, we set out to define a method for measuring the pressure exerted by aligners on the teeth, and specifically to identify the precise points of pressure [...] Read more.
The analysis of forces, moments and pressure points has long been of great interest in orthodontics. Hence, we set out to define a method for measuring the pressure exerted by aligners on the teeth, and specifically to identify the precise points of pressure exertion. Intraoral scans were performed on a patient with optimal alignment and levelling before and after 2º vestibularisation of the upper central incisor. Pressure sensor film was placed in a dedicated housing between the aligner and teeth in order to record the pressure exerted after 15 s of aligner application. The images captured by the film were scanned, digitised, and subsequently analysed. Areas and amounts of pressure generated by the aligners were evaluated, and the net force of each was calculated, adjusted to take into consideration passive values. The method revealed the areas of contact by which the aligner transmits force on the teeth, and the pressures at which it does so. The pressure exerted by an aligner is not evenly distributed across the entire surface of the tooth during lingual tipping of an upper incisor. The areas of force concentration were not identical, as these are influenced by factors resulting from the manufacturing and casting processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of a Molybdenum and Tungsten Disulfide Coating to Improve Tribological Properties of Orthodontic Archwires
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050753 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Coatings incorporating nanoparticles of molybdenum and tungsten disulfide (MoS2 and WS2)—known for their lubricating properties—are applied to orthodontic stainless steel wires to verify if there is an improvement in terms of tribological properties during the sliding of the wire along [...] Read more.
Coatings incorporating nanoparticles of molybdenum and tungsten disulfide (MoS2 and WS2)—known for their lubricating properties—are applied to orthodontic stainless steel wires to verify if there is an improvement in terms of tribological properties during the sliding of the wire along the bracket. To simulate in vitro sliding of the wire along the bracket and evaluate friction 0.019 × 0.025 inches orthodontic stainless steel (SS) wires were subjected to the application, by electrodeposition, of Ni, Ni + MoS2, and Ni + WS2. The samples produced were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and assessment of resistance to bending. Thirty-two test conditions have been analyzed, arising from the combination of four types of coatings (SS bare wires and strings with three types of coating), two types of self-ligating bracket (Damon Q, Ormco and In-Ovation R, GAC International), two bracket-wire angles (0° and 5°), two environments (dry and wet). Analyses carried out on the samples show acceptable coatings incorporating MoS2 and WS2 and a resistance of coatings after a minimum bending. In “dry conditions” a statistically significant decrease in friction occurs for wires coated with MoS2 and WS2 if associated with the In-Ovation bracket. In “wet conditions” this decrease is observed only in isolated test conditions. Analysis of the wires after sliding tests show little wear of the applied coatings. Nanoparticles are acceptable and similar in their behavior. Improvements in terms of friction are obtained pairing coatings incorporating MoS2 and WS2 with the In-Ovation bracket in dry conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nanoparticles as Anti-Microbial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Remineralizing Agents in Oral Care Cosmetics: A Review of the Current Situation
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010140 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 16
Abstract
Many investigations have pointed out widespread use of medical nanosystems in various domains of dentistry such as prevention, prognosis, care, tissue regeneration, and restoration. The progress of oral medicine nanosystems for individual prophylaxis is significant for ensuring bacterial symbiosis and high-quality oral health. [...] Read more.
Many investigations have pointed out widespread use of medical nanosystems in various domains of dentistry such as prevention, prognosis, care, tissue regeneration, and restoration. The progress of oral medicine nanosystems for individual prophylaxis is significant for ensuring bacterial symbiosis and high-quality oral health. Nanomaterials in oral cosmetics are used in toothpaste and other mouthwash to improve oral healthcare performance. These processes cover nanoparticles and nanoparticle-based materials, especially domains of application related to biofilm management in cariology and periodontology. Likewise, nanoparticles have been integrated in diverse cosmetic produces for the care of enamel remineralization and dental hypersensitivity. This review summarizes the indications and applications of several widely employed nanoparticles in oral cosmetics, and describes the potential clinical implementation of nanoparticles as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and remineralizing agents in the prevention of dental caries, hypersensitivity, and periodontitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Open AccessReview
A Critical Review on the Production of Electrospun Nanofibres for Guided Bone Regeneration in Oral Surgery
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010016 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Nanofibre-based membranes or scaffolds exhibit high surface-to-volume ratio, which allows an improved cell adhesion, representing an attractive subgroup of biomaterials due to their unique properties. Among several techniques of nanofiber production, electrospinning is a cost-effective technique that has been, to date, attractive for [...] Read more.
Nanofibre-based membranes or scaffolds exhibit high surface-to-volume ratio, which allows an improved cell adhesion, representing an attractive subgroup of biomaterials due to their unique properties. Among several techniques of nanofiber production, electrospinning is a cost-effective technique that has been, to date, attractive for several medical applications. Among these, guided bone regeneration is a surgical procedure in which bone regeneration, due to bone atrophy following tooth loss, is “guided” by an occlusive barrier. The membrane should protect the initial blood clot from any compression, shielding the bone matrix during maturation from infiltration of soft tissues cells. This review will focus its attention on the application of electrospinning (ELS) in oral surgery bone regeneration. Despite the abundance of published papers related to the electrospinning technique applied in the field of bone regeneration of the jaws, to the authors’ knowledge, no articles report clinical application of these structures. Moreover, only a few records can be found with in vivo application. Therefore, no human studies have to date been detectable. New approaches such as multifunctional multilayering and coupling with bone promoting factors or antimicrobial agents, makes this technology very attractive. However, greater efforts should be made by researchers and companies to turn these results into clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Nanotechnology in Oral Cavity Carcinoma: Recent Trends and Treatment Opportunities
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111546 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Oral cavity carcinoma (OCC) remains an ongoing public health problem. Emerging nanotechnology provides alternative treatment approaches. This review covers the up-to-date literature in the human OCC treatment field. We explored the growing body of evidence to reveal novel and highly promising diagnostic and [...] Read more.
Oral cavity carcinoma (OCC) remains an ongoing public health problem. Emerging nanotechnology provides alternative treatment approaches. This review covers the up-to-date literature in the human OCC treatment field. We explored the growing body of evidence to reveal novel and highly promising diagnostic and therapeutic applications of nanotechnology in this field. Various types of nanoparticles have been tested for applications in OCC. Imaging modalities in addition to nanocarriers are discussed. The encouraging contribution of lymphotropic nanoparticles contrast in the diagnosis of metastatic cervical lymph nodes needs to be confirmed. The development of the sentinel lymph node procedure and photodynamic therapy may lead to breakthrough therapies in order improve clinical outcomes and quality of life. In this perspective, cancer nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of OCC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Open AccessReview
Nanostructured Zirconia-Based Ceramics and Composites in Dentistry: A State-of-the-Art Review
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101393 - 29 Sep 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the development of nanostructured zirconia-based ceramics and composites suitable for application in dentistry. Isi Web of Science, Science Direct, Scientific.net databases, and Google were searched electronically for the period of 1980 [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the development of nanostructured zirconia-based ceramics and composites suitable for application in dentistry. Isi Web of Science, Science Direct, Scientific.net databases, and Google were searched electronically for the period of 1980 to the present, matching the keywords “nano” with the keywords: “Zirconia, ZrO2, Y-TZP, and dental, dentistry”. A total of 74 papers were found, with the majority coming from Asia, indicating a more active scientific interest on the topic in this geographic area, followed by Europe, South America, and North America. The research shows, even though the scientific activity on nanostructured ceramics was intense in the last fifteen years, the development of fully dense zirconia-based nanoceramics is yet at an initial stage, most of all from the point of view of the clinical applications. It has been demonstrated that nanostructured ceramics can show improved properties because of the reduction of the grain size to the nanoscale. This is also true for zirconia-based nanoceramics, where some improvements in mechanical, optical, as well as resistance in low-temperature degradation have been observed. Potential applications of this class of material in the dental field are discussed, summarizing the results of the latest scientific research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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