Special Issue "Biomedical Applications of Metallic Nanoparticles"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022 | Viewed by 2642

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Sultan Akhtar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Research and Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
Interests: nanomaterials; material analysis; characterization; SEM/TEM

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) have shown great potential in biomedical analysis and the treatment of various diseases due to their fascinating intrinsic physicochemical properties along with high surface area and multifunctional properties. MNPs such as silver (Ag), gold (Au), titanium (TiO2), and iron oxides (Fe3O4) are the most emerging trend to design bioengineering materials, which could be used as modern diagnostic tools and devices to combat fatal diseases and bio infections.  However, the individual MNPs could be toxic and hazardous materials for living cells. Thus, a big challenge is how to make the MNPs biocompatible and biodegradable for various biomedical applications. The concept of encapsulation of metal NPs in host molecules or films can be considered a potential approach to address this problem. The modern MNPs are composed of inorganic or metal oxide core and a shell made of either organic/inorganic material or metal oxide. In this regard, several methods have been introduced to produce novel MNPs; in particular, the biological routes garnered great interest due to their non-toxic nature, simplicity, sustainability, eco-friendliness, and control on particle size.

The present Special Issue of Nanomaterials entitledBiomedical Applications of Metallic Nanoparticles” is aimed at presenting the current state-of-the-art approaches or strategies for the synthesis of innovative metallic nanoparticles for biomedical applications. In this issue, we focus on the current trends in the synthesis of MNPs for biomedical purposes and the parameters that can be tuned to obtain the nanoparticles with desired morphology, composition, and crystallinity for better biological activities. We cordially invite you to publish your relevant latest research in this issue. The journal is now open to submissions for consideration.

Dr. Sultan Akhtar
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • metal nanoparticles
  • synthesis routes
  • chemical properties
  • physical properties
  • characterization tools
  • anticancer applications
  • biomedical applications

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Influence of ZrO2 Nanoparticle Addition on the Optical Properties of Denture Base Materials Fabricated Using Additive Technologies
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(23), 4190; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12234190 - 25 Nov 2022
Viewed by 215
Abstract
This study investigated the translucency of 3D-printed denture base resins modified with zirconium dioxide nanoparticles (ZrO2NPs) under thermal cycling. A total of 110 specimens were fabricated and divided into 3 groups according to the materials, i.e., heat-polymerized resin, and 3D-printed resins [...] Read more.
This study investigated the translucency of 3D-printed denture base resins modified with zirconium dioxide nanoparticles (ZrO2NPs) under thermal cycling. A total of 110 specimens were fabricated and divided into 3 groups according to the materials, i.e., heat-polymerized resin, and 3D-printed resins (NextDent, and ASIGA). The 3D-printed resins were modified with 0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 wt.% of ZrO2NPs. All the specimens were subjected to 5000 thermal cycles. The translucency was measured using a spectrophotometer. The results showed that the heat-polymerized resin had considerably higher translucency than the 3D-printed resins. Compared to the unmodified group, the translucency decreased significantly after adding 5% ZrO2NPs to NextDent and 3% ZrO2NPs to ASIGA resins. The highest translucency was achieved for NextDent by adding 0.5% ZrO2NPs and for ASIGA without any ZrO2NPs. It was found that the average concentration level in ASIGA was significantly higher than that in NextDent. These findings revealed that 3D-printed resins have lower translucency than heat-polymerized acrylic resin, and adding ZrO2NPs at low concentrations did not affect the translucency of the 3D-printed resins. Therefore, in terms of translucency, 3D-printed nanocomposite denture base resins could be considered for clinical applications when ZrO2NPs are added at low concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Metallic Nanoparticles)
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Article
Effects of Different Parts of the Okra Plant (Abelmoschus esculentus) on the Phytosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Evaluation of Synthesis Conditions, Nonlinear Optical and Antibacterial Properties
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(23), 4174; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12234174 - 24 Nov 2022
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Abstract
In this work, stable and spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ from silver salt (silver nitrate) using the aqueous extract of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus) at room temperature and ambient pH conditions. The influences of different parts of [...] Read more.
In this work, stable and spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ from silver salt (silver nitrate) using the aqueous extract of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus) at room temperature and ambient pH conditions. The influences of different parts of the plant (such as the leaves, stems, and pods) on the chemical-reducing effectiveness of silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles were investigated. The aqueous extract of the leaves was found to be more effective in the chemical reduction of silver nanoparticles and in stabilizing them at the same time. The silver nanoparticles produced were stable and did not precipitate even after storage for 1 month. The extract of the stem was less effective in the reduction capacity followed by the extract of the pods. The results indicate that the different amounts of phytochemicals present in the leaves, stems, and pods of the okra plant are responsible for the chemical reduction and stabilizing effect. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 460 nm confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were spherical with an average size of 16 nm and polycrystalline with face-centered cubic (fcc) structures. The z-scan technique was used to study the nonlinear refraction and absorption coefficients of AgNPs at wavelengths of 488 and 514 nm under C.W. mode excitation. The nonlinear refraction index and nonlinear absorption coefficients were calculated in the theoretical equations in the experimental data. The antibacterial properties of the nanoparticles were evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Metallic Nanoparticles)
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Article
Hydrothermal Synthesis of Multifunctional Bimetallic Ag-CuO Nanohybrids and Their Antimicrobial, Antibiofilm and Antiproliferative Potential
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(23), 4167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12234167 - 24 Nov 2022
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Abstract
The rapidly growing global problem of infectious pathogens acquiring resistance to conventional antibiotics is an instigating reason for researchers to continue the search for functional as well as broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Hence, we aimed in this study to synthesis silver–copper oxide (Ag-CuO) nanohybrids as [...] Read more.
The rapidly growing global problem of infectious pathogens acquiring resistance to conventional antibiotics is an instigating reason for researchers to continue the search for functional as well as broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Hence, we aimed in this study to synthesis silver–copper oxide (Ag-CuO) nanohybrids as a function of Ag concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 g) via the one-step hydrothermal method. The bimetallic Ag-CuO nanohybrids Ag-C-1, Ag-C-2, Ag-C-3 and Ag-C-4 were characterized for their physico-chemical properties. The SEM results showed pleomorphic Ag-CuO crystals; however, the majority of the particles were found in spherical shape. TEM results showed that the Ag-CuO nanohybrids in formulations Ag-C-1 and Ag-C-3 were in the size range of 20–35 nm. Strong signals of Ag, Cu and O in the EDX spectra revealed that the as-synthesized nanostructures are bimetallic Ag-CuO nanohybrids. The obtained Ag-C-1, Ag-C-2, Ag-C-3 and Ag-C-4 nanohybrids have shown their MICs and MBCs against E. coli and C. albicans in the range of 4–12 mg/mL and 2–24 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, dose-dependent toxicity and apoptosis process stimulation in the cultured human colon cancer HCT-116 cells have proven the Ag-CuO nanohybrids as promising antiproliferative agents against mammalian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Metallic Nanoparticles)
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Article
Encapsulation of Imazalil in HKUST-1 with Versatile Antimicrobial Activity
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(21), 3879; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12213879 - 03 Nov 2022
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Based on high surface areas, adjustable porosity and microbicide activity, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) HKUST-1 are widely used as drug release carriers for their slow degradation characteristics under slightly acidic conditions. In this work, porous HKUST-1 was reacted rapidly by cholinium salt (as the [...] Read more.
Based on high surface areas, adjustable porosity and microbicide activity, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) HKUST-1 are widely used as drug release carriers for their slow degradation characteristics under slightly acidic conditions. In this work, porous HKUST-1 was reacted rapidly by cholinium salt (as the deprotonation agent and template) in an aqueous solution at room temperature. A novel antimicrobial system based on an imazalil encapsulated metal organic framework (imazalil [email protected]) was established. Imazalil [email protected] could achieve synergism in inhibiting pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Moreover, six days after treatment, the slow and constant release of imazalil from imazalil [email protected] exhibited better sustainability and microbicidal activity than imazalil. We believe that the method may provide a new strategy for related plant diseases caused by bacteria or fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Metallic Nanoparticles)
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Article
The Effect of Capping Agents on Gold Nanostar Stability, Functionalization, and Colorimetric Biosensing Capability
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(14), 2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12142470 - 19 Jul 2022
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Capping agents (organic ligands, polymers, and surfactants) are pivotal for stabilizing nanoparticles; however, they may influence the surface chemistry, as well as the physico-chemical and biological characteristics, of gold nanostar (AuNS)-based biosensors. In this study, we proved that various capping agents affected capped [...] Read more.
Capping agents (organic ligands, polymers, and surfactants) are pivotal for stabilizing nanoparticles; however, they may influence the surface chemistry, as well as the physico-chemical and biological characteristics, of gold nanostar (AuNS)-based biosensors. In this study, we proved that various capping agents affected capped and bioconjugated AuNS stability, functionality, biocatalysis, and colorimetric readouts. Capped and bioconjugated AuNSs were applied as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based H2O2 sensors using glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model enzyme. Furthermore, our analyses revealed that the choice of capping agent influenced the properties of the AuNSs, their stability, and their downstream applications. Our analyses provide new insights into factors governing the choice of capping agents for gold nanostars and their influences on downstream applications with conjugated enzymes in confined environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Metallic Nanoparticles)
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Article
3D-Printed Nanocomposite Denture-Base Resins: Effect of ZrO2 Nanoparticles on the Mechanical and Surface Properties In Vitro
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(14), 2451; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12142451 - 18 Jul 2022
Viewed by 885
Abstract
Due to the low mechanical performances of 3D-printed denture base resins, ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2NPs) were incorporated into different 3D-printed resins and their effects on the flexure strength, elastic modulus, impact strength, hardness, and surface roughness were evaluated. A total of [...] Read more.
Due to the low mechanical performances of 3D-printed denture base resins, ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2NPs) were incorporated into different 3D-printed resins and their effects on the flexure strength, elastic modulus, impact strength, hardness, and surface roughness were evaluated. A total of 286 specimens were fabricated in dimensions per respective test and divided according to materials into three groups: heat-polymerized as a control group and two 3D-printed resins (NextDent and ASIGA) which were modified with 0.5 wt.%, 1 wt.%, 3 wt.%, and 5 wt.% ZrO2NPs. The flexure strength and elastic modulus, impact strength, hardness, and surface roughness (µm) were measured using the three-point bending test, Charpy’s impact test, Vickers hardness test, and a profilometer, respectively. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test (α = 0.05). The results showed that, in comparison to heat-polymerized resin, the unmodified 3D-printed resins showed a significant decrease in all tested properties (p < 0.001) except surface roughness (p = 0.11). In between 3D-printed resins, the addition of ZrO2NPs to 3D-printed resins showed a significant increase in flexure strength, impact strength, and hardness (p < 0.05) while showing no significant differences in surface roughness and elastic modulus (p > 0.05). Our study demonstrated that the unmodified 3D-printed resins showed inferior mechanical behavior when compared with heat-polymerized acrylic resin while the addition of ZrO2NPs improved the properties of 3D-printed resins. Therefore, the introduced 3D-printable nanocomposite denture-base resins are suitable for clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Metallic Nanoparticles)
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