Special Issue "Nanotechnology and Cancer"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Stefano Leporatti

CNR Nanotec-Istituto di Nanotecnologia, Via Monteroni, c/o Campus Ekotecne, 73100 Lecce (LE), Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39-083-231-9829
Interests: nanomedicine; cytomechanics; drug delivery; scanning force microscopy; polymer nanocapsules; halloysite clay nanotubes; drug nanocolloids; nano-micelles

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Cancers, “Nanotechnology and Cancer”, focuses on the application of nanotechnology in cancer, either as a novel therapy (e.g., drug delivery) and also as a new tool for diagnoses (e.g., lab-on-chip).

Nanotechnology is a field where the use and development of particles and/or devices on a nano-scale has future application in Medicine or in Oncology. A part of nanotechnology, called nanomedicine, uses nanoscience and nanoengineering to interact with life sciences. Nanotechnology is, therefore, expected to lead to the development of novel tools, such as micro- and nano-devices or nano-particles for diagnosis and therapy.

This Special Issue will focus on use of nanotechnology to treat and/or diagnose cancer. The publication of original articles will contribute to the progress in the area of Nanomedicine and Oncology, and will further stimulate the entering into clinical praxis of these new tools and devices, envisaging the possible use of nanotechnology in defeating cancer.

Prof. Stefano Leporatti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanotechnology
  • Cancer
  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanoparticles
  • Drug Delivery
  • Lab-on-Chip
  • Micro and Nano-devices
  • Theranostic Tools

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle miRNA-205 Nanoformulation Sensitizes Prostate Cancer Cells to Chemotherapy
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090289
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5881 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The therapeutic application of microRNA(s) in the field of cancer has generated significant attention in research. Previous studies have shown that miR-205 negatively regulates prostate cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and drug resistance. However, the delivery of miR-205 is an unmet clinical need. Thus, [...] Read more.
The therapeutic application of microRNA(s) in the field of cancer has generated significant attention in research. Previous studies have shown that miR-205 negatively regulates prostate cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and drug resistance. However, the delivery of miR-205 is an unmet clinical need. Thus, the development of a viable nanoparticle platform to deliver miR-205 is highly sought. A novel magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-based nanoplatform composed of an iron oxide core with poly(ethyleneimine)-poly(ethylene glycol) layer(s) was developed. An optimized nanoplatform composition was confirmed by examining the binding profiles of MNPs with miR-205 using agarose gel and fluorescence methods. The novel formulation was applied to prostate cancer cells for evaluating cellular uptake, miR-205 delivery, and anticancer, antimetastasis, and chemosensitization potentials against docetaxel treatment. The improved uptake and efficacy of formulations were studied with confocal imaging, flow cytometry, proliferation, clonogenicity, Western blot, q-RT-PCR, and chemosensitization assays. Our findings demonstrated that the miR-205 nanoplatform induces significant apoptosis and enhancing chemotherapeutic effects in prostate cancer cells. Overall, these study results provide a strong proof-of-concept for a novel nonviral-based nanoparticle protocol for effective microRNA delivery to prostate cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology and Cancer)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Morphomechanical Alterations Induced by Transforming Growth Factor-β1 in Epithelial Breast Cancer Cells
Cancers 2018, 10(7), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10070234
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process that drives epithelial tumor cells to acquire an invasive phenotype. The role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in EMT is still debated. We used confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning force spectroscopy to perform [...] Read more.
The Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process that drives epithelial tumor cells to acquire an invasive phenotype. The role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in EMT is still debated. We used confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning force spectroscopy to perform a morphomechanical analysis on epithelial breast cancer cells (MCF-7), comparing them before and after TGF-β1 exogenous stimulation (5 ng/mL for 48 h). After TGF-β1 treatment, loss of cell–cell adherence (mainly due to the reduction of E-cadherin expression of about 24%) and disaggregation of actin cortical fibers were observed in treated MCF-7. In addition, TGF-β1 induced an alteration of MCF-7 nuclei morphology as well as a decrease in the Young’s modulus, owing to a rearrangement that involved the cytoskeletal networks and the nuclear region. These relevant variations in morphological features and mechanical properties, elicited by TGF-β1, suggested an increased capacity of MCF-7 to migrate, which was confirmed by a wound healing assay. By means of our biophysical approach, we highlighted the malignant progression of breast cancer cells induced by TGF-β1 exposure. We are confirming TGF-β1’s role in EMT by means of morphomechanical evidence that could represent a turning point in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in cancer progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology and Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Determining the Radiation Enhancement Effects of Gold Nanoparticles in Cells in a Combined Treatment with Cisplatin and Radiation at Therapeutic Megavoltage Energies
Cancers 2018, 10(5), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10050150
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3342 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Combined use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is commonly used in cancer treatment, but the toxic effects on normal tissue are a major limitation. This study assesses the potential to improve radiation therapy when combining gold nanoparticle (GNP) mediated radiation sensitization with chemoradiation [...] Read more.
Combined use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is commonly used in cancer treatment, but the toxic effects on normal tissue are a major limitation. This study assesses the potential to improve radiation therapy when combining gold nanoparticle (GNP) mediated radiation sensitization with chemoradiation compared to chemoradiation alone. Incorporation of GNPs with 2 Gy, 6 MV (megavoltage) radiation resulted in a 19 ± 6% decrease in survival of MDA-MB-231 cells. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed to assess dosimetric differences in the presence of GNPs in radiation. The results show that physics dosimetry represents a small fraction of the observed effect. The survival fraction of the cells exposed to GNPs, cisplatin, and radiation was 0.16 ± 0.007, while cells treated with cisplatin and radiation only was 0.23 ± 0.011. The presence of GNPs resulted in a 30 ± 6% decrease in the survival, having an additive effect. The concentration of the GNPs and free drug used for this study was 0.3 and 435 nM, respectively. These concentrations are relatively lower and achievable in an in vivo setting. Hence, the results of our study would accelerate the incorporation of GNP-mediated chemoradiation into current cancer therapeutic protocols in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology and Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Cell-Penetrating CaCO3 Nanocrystals for Improved Transport of NVP-BEZ235 across Membrane Barrier in T-Cell Lymphoma
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
PDF Full-text (3476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Owing to their nano-sized porous structure, CaCO3 nanocrystals (CaCO3NCs) hold the promise to be utilized as desired materials for encapsulating molecules which demonstrate wide promise in drug delivery. We evaluate the possibility to encapsulate and release NVP-BEZ235, a novel and [...] Read more.
Owing to their nano-sized porous structure, CaCO3 nanocrystals (CaCO3NCs) hold the promise to be utilized as desired materials for encapsulating molecules which demonstrate wide promise in drug delivery. We evaluate the possibility to encapsulate and release NVP-BEZ235, a novel and potent dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor that is currently in phase I/II clinical trials for advanced solid tumors, from the CaCO3NCs. Its chemical nature shows some intrinsic limitations which induce to administer high doses leading to toxicity; to overcome these problems, here we proposed a strategy to enhance its intracellular penetration and its biological activity. Pristine CaCO3 NCs biocompatibility, cell interactions and internalization in in vitro experiments on T-cell lymphoma line, were studied. Confocal microscopy was used to monitor NCs-cell interactions and cellular uptake. We have further investigated the interaction nature and release mechanism of drug loaded/released within/from the NCs using an alternative approach based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Our approach provides a good loading efficiency, therefore this drug delivery system was validated for biological activity in T-cell lymphoma: the anti-proliferative test and western blot results are very interesting because the proposed nano-formulation has an efficiency higher than free drug at the same nominal concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology and Cancer)
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Graphical abstract

Review

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Open AccessReview Micelles Structure Development as a Strategy to Improve Smart Cancer Therapy
Cancers 2018, 10(7), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10070238
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micelles as colloidal suspension have attracted considerable attention due to their potential use for both cancer diagnosis and therapy. These structures have proven their ability to deliver poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs, improve drug stability, and have good penetration and site-specificity, leading to enhance [...] Read more.
Micelles as colloidal suspension have attracted considerable attention due to their potential use for both cancer diagnosis and therapy. These structures have proven their ability to deliver poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs, improve drug stability, and have good penetration and site-specificity, leading to enhance therapeutic efficacy. Micelles are composed of hydrophobic and hydrophilic components assembled into nanosized spherical, ellipsoid, cylindrical, or unilamellar structures. For their simple formation, they are widely studied, either by using opposite polymers attachment consisting of two or more block copolymers, or by using fatty acid molecules that can modify themselves in a rounded shape. Recently, hybrid and responsive stimuli nanomicelles are formed either by integration with metal nanoparticles such as silver, gold, iron oxide nanoparticles inside micelles or by a combination of lipids and polymers into single composite. Herein, through this special issue, an updated overview of micelles development and their application for cancer therapy will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology and Cancer)
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