Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy and Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 27992

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Microsystems, University of South-Eastern Norway, 3603 Tønsberg, Norway
Interests: laser displays; MEMS/NEMS; energy storage; supercapacitors; 1/f noise; THz
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Guest Editor
Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
Interests: electrochemical materials and devices; low dimensional materials; supercapacitor; electrochemical sensors

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Technology, Natural Sciences and Maritime Sciences, Department of Microsystems, University of Southeast Norway, N-3184 Borre, Norway
Interests: bioelectrochemistry; microbes-material interaction; electrode material; CO2 and gas conversion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrochemical devices have drawn remarkable interest and elicited spectacular growth over decades for a broad range of applications, including energy storage, sensing, electrochemical processing, etc. Recent advances in nanomaterials and nanotechnology have boosted great promise for electrochemistry to offer reliable and high-performance devices. The nanotechnology promoted nanomaterials provide high surface area, nanosize-induced physical effects, and controllably three-dimensional structure construction, which lead to prominent properties from those presented by the bulk materials, and thus have great potential applications in electrochemical devices.

Considering your outstanding contribution in this research field, we would like to invite you to submit a paper to this Special Issue entitled Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices. This Special Issue aims to publish recent advances in the design, manufacture, and applications of nano-electrochemical materials and devices. This special issue is focused on, but not confined to, four main research topics involving advanced nano-electrochemical devices as follow:

  • Advanced nanomaterials and techniques for energy storage devices, including batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, photovoltaic cells, etc.
  • Electrochemical materials and devices for electrocatalysis, electroanalysis, and electrochemical sensing. 
  • New mechanisms and principles in nanotechnology-based electrochemical devices, including experimental and theoretical results.
  • Development and application of electrochemical materials and devices for biological application such as carbon dioxide conversion, microbial fuel cell, and microbial electrochemical systems.

This Special Issue will attempt to present a collection of original research papers and reviews of the latest advances in nano-electrochemical devices. We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Xuyuan Chen
Prof. Dr. Mei Wang
Dr. Nabin Aryal
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electrochemical nanomaterials
  • electrochemical devices
  • electrochemical cell
  • electrochemical sensor
  • supercapacitor
  • battery
  • fuel cells
  • electrode material
  • electrocatalysis
  • microbial electrochemical system
  • heterogeneous electron transfer
  • micro/nano-structures
  • nanotechnology
  • photovoltaic cells

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

4 pages, 158 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices
by Mei Wang, Xuyuan Chen and Nabin Aryal
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(8), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14080712 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Nano-electrochemical materials and devices are at the frontier of research and development, advancing electrochemistry and its applications in energy storage, sensing, electrochemical processing, etc [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices)

Research

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10 pages, 1172 KiB  
Article
Optimizing the Performance of Low-Loaded Electrodes for CO2-to-CO Conversion Directly from Capture Medium: A Comprehensive Parameter Analysis
by Alessio Mezza, Mattia Bartoli, Angelica Chiodoni, Juqin Zeng, Candido F. Pirri and Adriano Sacco
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(16), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13162314 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Gas-fed reactors for CO2 reduction processes are a solid technology to mitigate CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere. However, since it is necessary to feed them with a pure CO2 stream, a highly energy-demanding process is required to separate CO2 [...] Read more.
Gas-fed reactors for CO2 reduction processes are a solid technology to mitigate CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere. However, since it is necessary to feed them with a pure CO2 stream, a highly energy-demanding process is required to separate CO2 from the flue gasses. Recently introduced bicarbonate zero-gap flow reactors are a valid solution to integrate carbon capture and valorization, with them being able to convert the CO2 capture medium (i.e., the bicarbonate solution) into added-value chemicals, such as CO, thus avoiding this expensive separation process. We report here a study on the influence of the electrode structure on the performance of a bicarbonate reactor in terms of Faradaic efficiency, activity, and CO2 utilization. In particular, the effect of catalyst mass loading and electrode permeability on bicarbonate electrolysis was investigated by exploiting three commercial carbon supports, and the results obtained were deepened via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which is introduced for the first time in the field of bicarbonate electrolyzers. As an outcome of the study, a novel low-loaded silver-based electrode fabricated via the sputtering deposition technique is proposed. The silver mass loading was optimized by increasing it from 116 μg/cm2 to 565 μg/cm2, thereby obtaining an important enhancement in selectivity (from 55% to 77%) and activity, while a further rise to 1.13 mg/cm2 did not provide significant improvements. The tremendous effect of the electrode permeability on activity and proficiency in releasing CO2 from the bicarbonate solution was shown. Hence, an increase in electrode permeability doubled the activity and boosted the production of in situ CO2 by 40%. The optimized Ag-electrode provided Faradaic efficiencies for CO close to 80% at a cell voltage of 3 V and under ambient conditions, with silver loading of 565 μg/cm2, the lowest value ever reported in the literature so far. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices)
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10 pages, 2963 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Performance of a PVDF-HFP-LiClO4-Li6.4La3.0Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 Composite Solid Electrolyte at Different Temperatures
by Xinghua Liang, Yujuan Ning, Linxiao Lan, Guanhua Yang, Minghua Li, Shufang Tang and Jianling Huang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(19), 3390; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12193390 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2396
Abstract
The stability and wide temperature performance range of solid electrolytes are the keys to the development of high-energy density all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this work, a PVDF-HFP-LiClO4-Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 (LLZTO) composite solid electrolyte was [...] Read more.
The stability and wide temperature performance range of solid electrolytes are the keys to the development of high-energy density all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this work, a PVDF-HFP-LiClO4-Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 (LLZTO) composite solid electrolyte was prepared using the solution pouring method. The PVDF-HFP-LiClO4-LLZTO composite solid electrolyte shows excellent electrochemical performance in the temperature range of 30 to 60 °C. By assembling this electrolyte into the battery, the LiFePO4/PVDF-HFP-LiClO4-LLZTO/Li battery shows outstanding electrochemical performance in the temperature range of 30 to 60 °C. The ionic conductivity of the composite electrolyte membrane at 30 °C and 60 °C is 5.5 × 10−5 S cm−1 and 1.0 × 10−5 S cm−1, respectively. At a current density of 0.2 C, the LiFePO4/PVDF-HFP-LiClO4-LLZTO/Li battery shows a high initial specific discharge capacity of 133.3 and 167.2 mAh g−1 at 30 °C and 60 °C, respectively. After 50 cycles, the reversible electrochemical capacity of the battery is 121.5 and 154.6 mAh g−1 at 30 °C and 60 °C; the corresponding capacity retention rates are 91.2% and 92.5%, respectively. Therefore, this work provides an effective strategy for the design and preparation of solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices)
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9 pages, 1676 KiB  
Article
Secondary-Heteroatom-Doping-Derived Synthesis of N, S Co-Doped Graphene Nanoribbons for Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Activity
by Bing Li, Tingting Xiang, Yuqi Shao, Fei Lv, Chao Cheng, Jiali Zhang, Qingchao Zhu, Yifan Zhang and Juan Yang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(19), 3306; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12193306 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
The rareness and weak durability of Pt-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) have hindered the large-scale application of fuel cells. Here, we developed an efficient metal-free catalyst consisting of N, S co-doped graphene nanoribbons (N, S-GNR-2s) for ORRs. GNRs were firstly synthesized [...] Read more.
The rareness and weak durability of Pt-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) have hindered the large-scale application of fuel cells. Here, we developed an efficient metal-free catalyst consisting of N, S co-doped graphene nanoribbons (N, S-GNR-2s) for ORRs. GNRs were firstly synthesized via the chemical unzipping of carbon nanotubes, and then N, S co-doping was conducted using urea as the primary and sulfourea as the secondary heteroatom sources. The successful incorporation of nitrogen and sulfur was confirmed by elemental mapping analysis as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical testing revealed that N, S-GNR-2s exhibited an Eonset of 0.89 V, E1/2 of 0.79 V and an average electron transfer number of 3.72, as well as good stability and methanol tolerance. As a result, N, S-GNR-2s displayed better ORR property than either N-GNRs or N, S-GNRs, the control samples prepared with only a primary heteroatom source, strongly clarifying the significance of secondary-heteroatom-doping on enhancing the catalytic activity of carbon-based nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices)
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12 pages, 7774 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Study of a Simple Three-Matrix Solid Electrolyte Membrane in Air
by Xinghua Liang, Xingtao Jiang, Linxiao Lan, Shuaibo Zeng, Meihong Huang and Dongxue Huang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(17), 3069; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12173069 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
Solid-state lithium batteries have attracted much attention due to their special properties of high safety and high energy density. Among them, the polymer electrolyte membrane with high ionic conductivity and a wide electrochemical window is a key part to achieve stable cycling of [...] Read more.
Solid-state lithium batteries have attracted much attention due to their special properties of high safety and high energy density. Among them, the polymer electrolyte membrane with high ionic conductivity and a wide electrochemical window is a key part to achieve stable cycling of solid-state batteries. However, the low ionic conductivity and the high interfacial resistance limit its practical application. This work deals with the preparation of a composite solid electrolyte with high mechanical flexibility and non-flammability. Firstly, the crystallinity of the polymer is reduced, and the fluidity of Li+ between the polymer segments is improved by tertiary polymer polymerization. Then, lithium salt is added to form a solpolymer solution to provide Li+ and anion and then an inorganic solid electrolyte is added. As a result, the composite solid electrolyte has a Li+ conductivity (3.18 × 10−4 mS cm−1). The (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4)LNMO/SPLL (PES-PVC-PVDF-LiBF4-LAZTP)/Li battery has a capacity retention rate of 98.4% after 100 cycles, which is much higher than that without inorganic oxides. This research provides an important reference for developing all-solid-state batteries in the greenhouse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices)
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14 pages, 5876 KiB  
Article
Quasi-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Assembled by Composite Polymer Electrolyte and Nitrogen Doped Porous Carbon Fiber Composite Cathode
by Xinghua Liang, Yu Zhang, Yujuan Ning, Dongxue Huang, Linxiao Lan and Siying Li
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(15), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12152614 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
Solid-state lithium sulfur batteries are becoming a breakthrough technology for energy storage systems due to their low cost of sulfur, high energy density and high level of safety. However, its commercial application has been limited by the poor ionic conductivity and sulfur shuttle [...] Read more.
Solid-state lithium sulfur batteries are becoming a breakthrough technology for energy storage systems due to their low cost of sulfur, high energy density and high level of safety. However, its commercial application has been limited by the poor ionic conductivity and sulfur shuttle effect. In this paper, a nitrogen-doped porous carbon fiber (NPCNF) active material was prepared by template method as a sulfur-host of the positive sulfur electrode. The morphology was nano fiber-like and enabled high sulfur content (62.9 wt%). A solid electrolyte membrane (PVDF/LiClO4/LATP) containing polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3) was prepared by pouring and the thermosetting method. The ionic conductivity of PVDF/LiClO4/LATP was 8.07 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 25 °C. The assembled battery showed good electrochemical performance. At 25 °C and 0.5 C, the first discharge specific capacity was 620.52 mAh g−1. After 500 cycles, the capacity decay rate of each cycle was only 0.139%. The synergistic effect between the composite solid electrolyte and the nitrogen-doped porous carbon fiber composite sulfur anode studied in this paper may reveal new approaches for improving the cycling performance of a solid-state lithium-sulfur battery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices)
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11 pages, 2067 KiB  
Article
Boosting the Oxygen Evolution Reaction by Controllably Constructing FeNi3/C Nanorods
by Xu Yu, Zhiqiang Pan, Zhixin Zhao, Yuke Zhou, Chengang Pei, Yifei Ma, Ho Seok Park and Mei Wang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(15), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12152525 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
Transition bimetallic alloy-based catalysts are regarded as attractive alternatives for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), attributed to their competitive economics, high conductivity and intrinsic properties. Herein, we prepared FeNi3/C nanorods with largely improved catalytic OER activity by combining hydrothermal reaction and [...] Read more.
Transition bimetallic alloy-based catalysts are regarded as attractive alternatives for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), attributed to their competitive economics, high conductivity and intrinsic properties. Herein, we prepared FeNi3/C nanorods with largely improved catalytic OER activity by combining hydrothermal reaction and thermal annealing treatment. The temperature effect on the crystal structure and chemical composition of the FeNi3/C nanorods was revealed, and the enhanced catalytic performance of FeNi3/C with an annealing temperature of 400 °C was confirmed by several electrochemical tests. The outstanding catalytic performance was assigned to the formation of bimetallic alloys/carbon composites. The FeNi3/C nanorods showed an overpotential of 250 mV to afford a current density of 10 mA cm−2 and a Tafel slope of 84.9 mV dec−1, which were both smaller than the other control samples and commercial IrO2 catalysts. The fast kinetics and high catalytic stability were also verified by electrochemical impendence spectroscopy and chronoamperometry for 15 h. This study is favorable for the design and construction of bimetallic alloy-based materials as efficient catalysts for the OER. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices)
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9 pages, 2334 KiB  
Article
Aramid Fibers Modulated Polyethylene Separator as Efficient Polysulfide Barrier for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries
by Jifeng Gu, Jiaping Zhang, Yun Su and Xu Yu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(15), 2513; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12152513 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
The separators with high absorbability of polysulfides are essential for improving the electrochemical performance of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries. Herein, the aramid fibers coated polyethylene (AF-PE) films are designed by roller coating, the high polarity of AFs can strongly increase the binding force at [...] Read more.
The separators with high absorbability of polysulfides are essential for improving the electrochemical performance of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries. Herein, the aramid fibers coated polyethylene (AF-PE) films are designed by roller coating, the high polarity of AFs can strongly increase the binding force at AF/PE interfaces to guarantee the good stability of the hybrid film. As confirmed by the microscopic analysis, the AF-PE-6 film with the nanoporous structure exhibits the highest air permeability by the optimal coating content of AFs. The high absorbability of polysulfides for AF-PE-6 film can effectively hinder the migration of polysulfides and alleviate the shuttle effect of the Li–S battery. AF-PE-6 cell shows the specific capacity of 661 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C. After 200 charge/discharge cycles, the reversible specific capacity is 542 mAh g−1 with the capacitance retention of 82%, implying the excellent stability of AF-PE-6. The enhanced cell performance is attributed to the porous architecture of the aramid layer for trapping the dissolved sulfur-containing species and facilitating the charge transfer, as confirmed by SEM and EDS after 200 cycles. This work provides a facile way to construct the aramid fiber-coated separator for the inhibition of polysulfides in the Li–S battery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices)
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10 pages, 2002 KiB  
Article
Facile Synthesis of 4,4′-biphenyl Dicarboxylic Acid-Based Nickel Metal Organic Frameworks with a Tunable Pore Size towards High-Performance Supercapacitors
by Wenlei Zhang, Hongwei Yin, Zhichao Yu, Xiaoxia Jia, Jianguo Liang, Gang Li, Yan Li and Kaiying Wang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12122062 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2938
Abstract
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted significant research interest for supercapacitor applications due to their high-tunable conductivity and their structure’s pore size. In this work, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method to synthesize nickel-based metal-organic frameworks (MOF) using organic linker 4,4′-biphenyl dicarboxylic acid [...] Read more.
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted significant research interest for supercapacitor applications due to their high-tunable conductivity and their structure’s pore size. In this work, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method to synthesize nickel-based metal-organic frameworks (MOF) using organic linker 4,4′-biphenyl dicarboxylic acid (BPDC) for high-performance supercapacitors. The pore size of the Ni-BPDC-MOF nanostructure is tuned through different synthesization temperatures. Among them, the sample synthesized at 180 °C exhibits a nanoplate morphology with a specific surface area of 311.99 m2·g−1, a pore size distribution of 1–40 nm and an average diameter of ~29.2 nm. A high specific capacitance of 488 F·g−1 has been obtained at a current density of 1.0 A·g−1 in a 3 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. The electrode shows reliable cycling stability, with 85% retention after 2000 cycles. The hydrothermal process Ni-BPDC-MOF may provide a simple and efficient method to synthesize high-performance hybrid MOF composites for future electrochemical energy storage applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices)
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12 pages, 2231 KiB  
Article
Porous Carbon Boosted Non-Enzymatic Glutamate Detection with Ultra-High Sensitivity in Broad Range Using Cu Ions
by Yifei Ma, Jiemin Han, Zhaomin Tong, Jieling Qin, Mei Wang, Jonghwan Suhr, Jaedo Nam, Liantuan Xiao, Suotang Jia and Xuyuan Chen
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12121987 - 9 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
A non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor, based on the electrode of a chitosan-derived carbon foam, has been successfully developed for the detection of glutamate. Attributed to the chelation of Cu ions and glutamate molecules, the glutamate could be detected in an amperometric way by means [...] Read more.
A non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor, based on the electrode of a chitosan-derived carbon foam, has been successfully developed for the detection of glutamate. Attributed to the chelation of Cu ions and glutamate molecules, the glutamate could be detected in an amperometric way by means of the redox reactions of chelation compounds, which outperform the traditional enzymatic sensors. Moreover, due to the large electroactive surface area and effective electron transportation of the porous carbon foam, a remarkable electrochemical sensitivity up to 1.9 × 104 μA/mM∙cm2 and a broad-spectrum detection range from nM to mM scale have been achieved, which is two-orders of magnitude higher and one magnitude broader than the best reported values thus far. Furthermore, our reported glutamate detection system also demonstrates a desirable anti-interference ability as well as a durable stability. The experimental revelations show that the Cu ions chelation-assisted electrochemical sensor with carbon foam electrode has significant potential for an easy fabricating, enzyme-free, broad-spectrum, sensitive, anti-interfering, and stable glutamate-sensing platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

42 pages, 7755 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress in Multifunctional Graphene-Based Nanocomposites for Photocatalysis and Electrocatalysis Application
by Zanhe Yang, Siqi Zhou, Xiangyu Feng, Nannan Wang, Oluwafunmilola Ola and Yanqiu Zhu
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(13), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13132028 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2175
Abstract
The global energy shortage and environmental degradation are two major issues of concern in today’s society. The production of renewable energy and the treatment of pollutants are currently the mainstream research directions in the field of photocatalysis. In addition, over the last decade [...] Read more.
The global energy shortage and environmental degradation are two major issues of concern in today’s society. The production of renewable energy and the treatment of pollutants are currently the mainstream research directions in the field of photocatalysis. In addition, over the last decade or so, graphene (GR) has been widely used in photocatalysis due to its unique physical and chemical properties, such as its large light-absorption range, high adsorption capacity, large specific surface area, and excellent electronic conductivity. Here, we first introduce the unique properties of graphene, such as its high specific surface area, chemical stability, etc. Then, the basic principles of photocatalytic hydrolysis, pollutant degradation, and the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 are summarized. We then give an overview of the optimization strategies for graphene-based photocatalysis and the latest advances in its application. Finally, we present challenges and perspectives for graphene-based applications in this field in light of recent developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices)
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27 pages, 11502 KiB  
Review
Application of Polypyrrole-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for the Early Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer
by Xindan Zhang, Xiao Tan, Ping Wang and Jieling Qin
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(4), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13040674 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3528
Abstract
Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is easy to treat surgically and can be combined with postoperative chemotherapy, its five-year survival rate is still not optimistic. Therefore, developing sensitive, efficient, and compliant detection technology is essential to diagnose CRC at an early stage, providing more [...] Read more.
Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is easy to treat surgically and can be combined with postoperative chemotherapy, its five-year survival rate is still not optimistic. Therefore, developing sensitive, efficient, and compliant detection technology is essential to diagnose CRC at an early stage, providing more opportunities for effective treatment and intervention. Currently, the widely used clinical CRC detection methods include endoscopy, stool examination, imaging modalities, and tumor biomarker detection; among them, blood biomarkers, a noninvasive strategy for CRC screening, have shown significant potential for early diagnosis, prediction, prognosis, and staging of cancer. As shown by recent studies, electrochemical biosensors have attracted extensive attention for the detection of blood biomarkers because of their advantages of being cost-effective and having sound sensitivity, good versatility, high selectivity, and a fast response. Among these, nano-conductive polymer materials, especially the conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy), have been broadly applied to improve sensing performance due to their excellent electrical properties and the flexibility of their surface properties, as well as their easy preparation and functionalization and good biocompatibility. This review mainly discusses the characteristics of PPy-based biosensors, their synthetic methods, and their application for the detection of CRC biomarkers. Finally, the opportunities and challenges related to the use of PPy-based sensors for diagnosing CRC are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices)
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18 pages, 3238 KiB  
Review
Carbon Tube-Based Cathode for Li-CO2 Batteries: A Review
by Deyu Mao, Zirui He, Wanni Lu and Qiancheng Zhu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12122063 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2856
Abstract
Metal–air batteries are considered the research, development, and application direction of electrochemical devices in the future because of their high theoretical energy density. Among them, lithium–carbon dioxide (Li–CO2) batteries can capture, fix, and transform the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide while storing [...] Read more.
Metal–air batteries are considered the research, development, and application direction of electrochemical devices in the future because of their high theoretical energy density. Among them, lithium–carbon dioxide (Li–CO2) batteries can capture, fix, and transform the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide while storing energy efficiently, which is an effective technique to achieve “carbon neutrality”. However, the current research on this battery system is still in the initial stage, the selection of key materials such as electrodes and electrolytes still need to be optimized, and the actual reaction path needs to be studied. Carbon tube-based composites have been widely used in this energy storage system due to their excellent electrical conductivity and ability to construct unique spatial structures containing various catalyst loads. In this review, the basic principle of Li–CO2 batteries and the research progress of carbon tube-based composite cathode materials were introduced, the preparation and evaluation strategies together with the existing problems were described, and the future development direction of carbon tube-based materials in Li–CO2 batteries was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Electrochemical Materials and Devices)
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