Special Issue "Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Nghia P. Truong
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, HCI F531, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 5, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
Interests: polymer chemistry; nanomedicine; drug delivery; antimicrobial materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Vi-Khanh Truong
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nanobiotechnology Lab, School of Science, RMIT University, 124 La Trobe Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
Interests: cell-nanomaterial interactions; biomaterials; antibacterial nanomaterials; antifungal nanomaterials; implants
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Scott Rice
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Singapore Centre for Life Sciences Engineering and the School of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Nanyang Technological University. 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798
Interests: biofilm formation; biofilm control strategies; quorum sensing; interspecies interactions; microbial ecology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to submit high-quality work in the synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial mechanism study of novel antimicrobial nanoparticles to this Special Issue of Nanomaterials.

Despite our increasing understanding of its threat and causes, antibiotic resistance remains one of the biggest threats to global health. As a consequence of this rise in drug resistance, deaths associated with microbial infections are on the rise and are predicted to eclipse the mortality rates of cancer by 2050. Therefore, considerable efforts are urgently needed to develop better antibiotics/materials that can eradicate antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Antibacterial nanoparticles represent one potential solution to antimicrobial resistance. These compounds not only kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria via different modes of action, but can also be used with existing clinically relevant antibiotics to help further overcome antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. As such, antibacterial nanomaterials are gaining increasing attention.

This Special Issue aims to highlight outstanding works and review articles that will advance the field of antibacterial nanomaterials. All manuscripts reporting the novel synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial mechanism of antimicrobial nanoparticles are welcome to submit to our Special Issue.

We look forward to receiving your high-quality manuscript.

Dr. Nghia P. Truong
Dr. Vi-Khanh Truong
Prof. Dr. Scott Rice
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • antimicrobial nanomaterials
  • nanocomposites
  • coating
  • antibiotic-resistance
  • anti-biofilm
  • antibacterial mechanisms
  • multidrug resistance

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
In-Vitro Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Surfactin-Loaded Nanoparticles for Periodontitis Treatment
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020356 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease associated with biofilm formation and gingival recession. The practice of nanotechnology in the clinical field is increased overtime due to its potential advantages in drug delivery applications. Nanoparticles can deliver drugs into the targeted area with high efficiency [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease associated with biofilm formation and gingival recession. The practice of nanotechnology in the clinical field is increased overtime due to its potential advantages in drug delivery applications. Nanoparticles can deliver drugs into the targeted area with high efficiency and cause less damages to the tissues. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of surfactin-loaded κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides linked cellulose nanofibers (CO-CNF) nanoparticles. Three types of surfactin-loaded nanoparticles were prepared based on the increasing concentration of surfactin such as 50SNPs (50 mg surfactin-loaded CO-CNF nanoparticles), 100SNPs (100 mg surfactin-loaded CO-CNF nanoparticles), and 200SNPs (200 mg surfactin-loaded CO-CNF nanoparticles). The results showed that the nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The reduction in biofilm formation and metabolic activity of the bacteria were confirmed by crystal violet and MTT assay, respectively. Besides, an increase in oxidative stress was also observed in bacteria. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects of surfactin-loaded CO-CNF nanoparticles was observed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. A decrease in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), transcription factor, and cytokines were observed in the presence of nanoparticles. Collectively, these observations supported the use of surfactin-loaded CO-CNF as a potential candidate for periodontitis management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Antibacterial Activity of Green-Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Areca catechu Extract against Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010205 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 576
Abstract
In this work, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Areca catechu extracts against three species of antibiotic-susceptible and three species of resistant bacteria was investigated. The effects of this plant were more promising when compared with other medicinal plants tested. [...] Read more.
In this work, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Areca catechu extracts against three species of antibiotic-susceptible and three species of resistant bacteria was investigated. The effects of this plant were more promising when compared with other medicinal plants tested. The hydrothermal extract of Areca catechu was mixed with silver nitrate to synthesize AgNPs. The synthesized particle characteristics were analyzed by UV–Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration tests were conducted to confirm antibacterial activity and the results showed that AgNPs synthesized using Areca catechu extracts effectively inhibited the growth of bacterial species. Moreover, the SEM images of the bacterial species treated with AgNPs synthesized with Areca catechu extracts showed that clusters of AgNPs were attached to the surface of the bacterial cell wall, which could induce destruction of the cell membranes. The results suggest that AgNPs synthesized with Areca catechu extracts have the potential to treat antibiotic-resistant bacteria known as the major cause of nosocomial infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Bioactive Flowable Resin Composite Containing a Zinc-Doped Phosphate-Based Glass
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2311; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112311 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 651
Abstract
Flowable resins used for dental restoration are subject to biofilm formation. Zinc has antibacterial properties. Thus, we prepared a zinc-doped phosphate-based glass (Zn-PBG) to dope a flowable resin and evaluated the antibacterial activity of the composite against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) [...] Read more.
Flowable resins used for dental restoration are subject to biofilm formation. Zinc has antibacterial properties. Thus, we prepared a zinc-doped phosphate-based glass (Zn-PBG) to dope a flowable resin and evaluated the antibacterial activity of the composite against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) to extrapolate the preventative effect toward secondary caries. The composites were prepared having 0 (control), 1.9, 3.8, and 5.4 wt.% Zn-PBG. The flexural strength, elastic modulus, microhardness, depth of cure, ion release, inhibition zone size, and number of colony-forming units were evaluated and analyzed using ANOVA. The flexural strength of the control was significantly higher than those of Zn-PBG samples (p < 0.05). However, all samples meet the International Standard, ISO 4049. The microhardness was not significantly different for the control group and 1.9 and 3.8 wt.% groups, but the 5.4 wt.% Zn-PBG group had a significantly lower microhardness (p < 0.05). Further, the composite resins increasingly released P, Ca, Na, and Zn ions with an increase in Zn-PBG content (p < 0.05). The colony-forming unit count revealed a significant reduction in S. mutans viability (p < 0.05) with increase in Zn-PBG content. Therefore, the addition of Zn-PBG to flowable composite resins enhances antibacterial activity and could aid the prevention of secondary caries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Therapeutic Applications of Biostable Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Peel Extract of Benincasa hispida: Antibacterial and Anticancer Activities
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101954 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to fabricate biostable inorganic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fresh peel (aqueous) extract of Benincasa hispida. A fast, robust, and eco-friendly approach was used for the synthesis of AgNPs, where bioactive components of peel extract of B. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to fabricate biostable inorganic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fresh peel (aqueous) extract of Benincasa hispida. A fast, robust, and eco-friendly approach was used for the synthesis of AgNPs, where bioactive components of peel extract of B. hispida acted as reducing and stabilizing agents. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized using a UV–Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and electron microscopy. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited maximum absorption at 418 nm under the typical AgNPs surface plasmon resonance band range. They depicted a mean size of 26 ± 2 nm with a spherical shape. Their therapeutic prospective was determined by evaluating their antimicrobial and anticancer potential. The bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited strong antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 50) values of 14.5, 8.6, 6.063, and 13.4 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 14593), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), and Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 13883), respectively. The biosynthesized AgNPs showed potent in vitro cytotoxicity against human cervical cancer cell line with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.066 μg/mL; however, no cytotoxic effect was observed on normal human primary osteoblasts cell line. This study explored B. hispida extract and confirmed its effectiveness as a promising source in producing AgNPs that could be employed for several therapeutic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Efficient Antibacterial Application In Vitro against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Pathogens
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081614 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
In this study, the antibacterial activity of cerium oxide nanoparticles on two Gram-negative and three Gram-positive foodborne pathogens was investigated. CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 nps) were synthesized by a Wet Chemical Synthesis route, using the precipitation method and the Simultaneous Addition of [...] Read more.
In this study, the antibacterial activity of cerium oxide nanoparticles on two Gram-negative and three Gram-positive foodborne pathogens was investigated. CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 nps) were synthesized by a Wet Chemical Synthesis route, using the precipitation method and the Simultaneous Addition of reactants (WCS–SimAdd). The as-obtained precursor powders were investigated by thermal analysis (TG–DTA), to study their decomposition process and to understand the CeO2 nps formation. The composition, structure, and morphology of the thermally treated sample were investigated by FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, TEM, and DLS. The cubic structure and average particle size ranging between 5 and 15 nm were evidenced. Optical absorption measurements (UV–Vis) reveal that the band gap of CeO2 is 2.61 eV, which is smaller than the band gap of bulk ceria. The antioxidant effect of CeO2 nps was determined, and the antibacterial test was carried out both in liquid and on solid growth media against five pathogenic microorganisms, namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. Cerium oxide nanoparticles showed growth inhibition toward all five pathogens tested with notable results. This paper highlights the perspectives for the synthesis of CeO2 nps with controlled structural and morphological characteristics and enhanced antibacterial properties, using a versatile and low-cost chemical solution method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
The Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Staphylococcus Epidermidis Strains with Different Biofilm-Forming Ability
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10051010 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
Among many infectious diseases, infections caused by pathogens of Staphylococcus species exert a substantial influence upon human health, mainly due to their continuous presence on human skin and mucous membranes. For that reason, an intensive search for new, effective anistaphyloccocal agents can currently [...] Read more.
Among many infectious diseases, infections caused by pathogens of Staphylococcus species exert a substantial influence upon human health, mainly due to their continuous presence on human skin and mucous membranes. For that reason, an intensive search for new, effective anistaphyloccocal agents can currently be observed worldwide. In recent years, there has been growing interest in nanoparticles, as compounds with potential antibacterial effect. The antibacterial activity of silver containing substances has been well recognized, but thoughtful studies focused on the effect of silver nanoparticles on bacterial biofilm are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with particle sizes in the range between 10 and 100 nm, and a concentration range from 1 to 10 µg/mL, upon Staphylococcus epidermidis strains with different biofilm-forming abilities (BFAs). The studies revealed the highest level of antimicrobial activity for AgNPs in relation to S. epidermidis strains with BFA, and what is more, the observed effect was proportional to the increasing particles’ size, and strains not forming biofilm were more susceptible to silver nanoparticles with the smallest examined size, which was 10 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Biocompatible Titanium–Gadolinium Quantum Dot as a Bacterial Detecting Agent with High Antibacterial Activity
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040778 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
In this study, the titanium–gadolinium quantum dots (TGQDs) were novel, first of its type to be synthesized, and fully characterized to date. Multiple physical characterization includes scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning electrochemical microscope (SCEM), x-ray fluorescence, spectrophotometry, and dynamic light scattering were carried [...] Read more.
In this study, the titanium–gadolinium quantum dots (TGQDs) were novel, first of its type to be synthesized, and fully characterized to date. Multiple physical characterization includes scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning electrochemical microscope (SCEM), x-ray fluorescence, spectrophotometry, and dynamic light scattering were carried out. The obtained results confirmed appropriate size and shape distributions in addition to processing optical features with high quantum yield. The synthesized TGQD was used as a fluorescent dye for bacterial detection and imaging by fluorescent microscopy and spectrophotometry, where TGQD stained only bacterial cells, but not human cells. The significant antibacterial activities of the TGQDs were found against a highly pathogenic bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus) and its antibiotic resistant strains (vancomycin and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) using growth curve analysis and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis. Live/dead cell imaging assay using phase-contrast microscope was performed for further confirmation of the antibacterial activity. Cell wall disruption and release of cell content was observed to be the prime mode of action with the reduction of cellular oxygen demand (OD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Green Silver Nanoparticles Formed by Phyllanthus urinaria, Pouzolzia zeylanica, and Scoparia dulcis Leaf Extracts and the Antifungal Activity
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030542 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Phytoconstituents presenting in herbal plant broths are the biocompatible, regenerative, and cost-effective sources that can be utilized for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Different plant extracts can form nanoparticles with specific sizes, shapes, and properties. In the study, we prepared silver nanoparticles (P.uri.AgNPs, [...] Read more.
Phytoconstituents presenting in herbal plant broths are the biocompatible, regenerative, and cost-effective sources that can be utilized for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Different plant extracts can form nanoparticles with specific sizes, shapes, and properties. In the study, we prepared silver nanoparticles (P.uri.AgNPs, P.zey.AgNPs, and S.dul.AgNPs) based on three kinds of leaf extracts (Phyllanthus urinaria, Pouzolzia zeylanica, and Scoparia dulcis, respectively) and demonstrated the antifungal capacity. The silver nanoparticles were simply formed by adding silver nitrate to leaf extracts without using any reducing agents or stabilizers. Formation and physicochemical properties of these silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. P.uri.AgNPs were 28.3 nm and spherical. P.zey.AgNPs were 26.7 nm with hexagon or triangle morphologies. Spherical S.dul.AgNPs were formed and they were relatively smaller than others. P.uri.AgNPs, P.zey.AgNPs and S.dul.AgNPs exhibited the antifungal ability effective against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Fusarium oxysporum, demonstrating their potentials as fungicides in the biomedical and agricultural applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Peptide-Carbon Quantum Dots conjugate, Derived from Human Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder Protein 2, against Antibiotic-Resistant Gram Positive and Gram Negative Pathogenic Bacteria
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020325 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections have become global issues for public health, which increases the utter need to develop alternatives to antibiotics. Here, the HSER (Homo sapiens retinoic acid receptor) peptide was designed from retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 of Homo sapiens, and [...] Read more.
Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections have become global issues for public health, which increases the utter need to develop alternatives to antibiotics. Here, the HSER (Homo sapiens retinoic acid receptor) peptide was designed from retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 of Homo sapiens, and was conjugated with synthesized CQDs (carbon quantum dots) for enhanced antibacterial activity in combination, as individually they are not highly effective. The HSER–CQDs were characterized using spectrophotometer, HPLC coupled with electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI–qTOF) mass spectrometer, zeta potential, zeta size, and FTIR. Thereafter, the antibacterial activity against Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and Escherichia coli (carbapenem resistant) was studied using growth curve analysis, further supported by microscopic images showing the presence of cell debris and dead bacterial cells. The antibacterial mechanism of HSER–CQDs was observed to be via cell wall disruption and also interaction with gDNA (genomic DNA). Finally, toxicity test against normal human epithelial cells showed no toxicity, confirmed by microscopic analysis. Thus, the HSER–CQDs conjugate, having high stability and low toxicity with prominent antibacterial activity, can be used as a potential antibacterial agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Antibacterial Properties of Novel ZnMn2O4–Chitosan Nanocomposites
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111589 - 09 Nov 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
The development of productive antibacterial agents from nontoxic materials via a simple methodology has been an immense research contribution in the medicinal chemistry field. Herein, a sol–gel one-pot reaction was used to synthesize hybrid composites of hausmannite–chitosan (Mn3O4–CS) and [...] Read more.
The development of productive antibacterial agents from nontoxic materials via a simple methodology has been an immense research contribution in the medicinal chemistry field. Herein, a sol–gel one-pot reaction was used to synthesize hybrid composites of hausmannite–chitosan (Mn3O4–CS) and its innovative derivative zinc manganese oxide–chitosan (ZnMn2O4–CS). Fixed amounts of CS with different metal matrix w/v ratios of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% for Mn and Zn precursors were used to synthesize ZnMn2O4–CS hybrid composites. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of polycrystalline tetragonal-structured ZnMn2O4 with a CS matrix in the hybrids. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic analysis confirmed the formation of ZnMn2O4–CS hybrids. Detailed investigations of the surface modifications were conducted using scanning electron microscopy; micrographs at different magnifications revealed that the composites’ surface changed depending on the ratio of the source materials used to synthesize the ZnMn2O4–CS hybrids. The antibacterial activity of the Mn3O4–CS and ZnMn2O4–CS composites was tested against various bacterial species, including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration values were deduced to demonstrate the efficacy of the ZnMn2O4–CS nanocomposites as antibacterial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
CdSe QD Biosynthesis in Yeast Using Tryptone-Enriched Media and Their Conjugation with a Peptide Hecate for Bacterial Detection and Killing
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101463 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
The physical and chemical synthesis methods of quantum dots (QDs) are generally unfavorable for biological applications. To overcome this limitation, the development of a novel “green” route to produce highly-fluorescent CdSe QDs constitutes a promising substitute approach. In the present work, CdSe QDs [...] Read more.
The physical and chemical synthesis methods of quantum dots (QDs) are generally unfavorable for biological applications. To overcome this limitation, the development of a novel “green” route to produce highly-fluorescent CdSe QDs constitutes a promising substitute approach. In the present work, CdSe QDs were biosynthesized in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a novel method, where we showed for the first time that the concentration of tryptone highly affects the synthesis process. The optimum concentration of tryptone was found to be 25 g/L for the highest yield. Different methods were used to optimize the QD extraction from yeast, and the best method was found to be by denaturation at 80 °C along with an ultrasound needle. Multiple physical characterizations including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and spectrophotometry confirmed the optical features size and shape distribution of the QDs. We showed that the novel conjugate of the CdSe QDs and a cell-penetrating peptide (hecate) can detect bacterial cells very efficiently under a fluorescent microscope. The conjugate also showed strong antibacterial activity against vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Escherichia coli, which may help us to cope with the problem of rising antibiotic resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Bacterial Compatibility/Toxicity of Biogenic Silica (b-SiO2) Nanoparticles Synthesized from Biomass Rice Husk Ash
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101440 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Biogenic silica (b-SiO2) nanopowders from rice husk ash (RHA) were prepared by chemical method and their bacterial compatibility/toxicity was analyzed. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns of the b-SiO2 nanopowders indicated an amorphous feature due to the absence of any sharp [...] Read more.
Biogenic silica (b-SiO2) nanopowders from rice husk ash (RHA) were prepared by chemical method and their bacterial compatibility/toxicity was analyzed. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns of the b-SiO2 nanopowders indicated an amorphous feature due to the absence of any sharp peaks. Micrographs of the b-SiO2 revealed that sticky RHA synthesized SiO2 nanopowder (S1) had clustered spherical nanoparticles (70 nm diameter), while b-SiO2 nanopowder synthesized from red RHA (S2) and b-SiO2 nanopowder synthesized from brown RHA (S3) were purely spherical (20 nm and 10 nm diameter, respectively). Compared to the S1 (11.36 m2g−1) and S2 (234.93 m2g−1) nanopowders, the S3 nanopowders showed the highest surface area (280.16 m2g−1) due to the small particle size and high porosity. The core level of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed that Si was constituted by two components, Si 2p (102.2 eV) and Si 2s (153.8 eV), while Oxygen 1s was observed at 531.8 eV, confirming the formation of SiO2. The anti-bacterial activity of the b-SiO2 nanopowders was investigated using both gram-positive (Escherichia coli) and gram-negative (Staphylococcus aureus) microorganisms. Compared to S2 and S3 silica nanopowders, S1 demonstrated enhanced antibacterial activity. This study signifies the medical, biomedical, clinical, and biological importance and application of RHA-mediated synthesized b-SiO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Antimicrobial Activity of Zinc Oxide Nano/Microparticles and Their Combinations against Pathogenic Microorganisms for Biomedical Applications: From Physicochemical Characteristics to Pharmacological Aspects
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020263 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano/microparticles (NPs/MPs) have been studied as antibiotics to enhance antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria and viruses with or without antibiotic resistance. They have unique physicochemical characteristics that can affect biological and toxicological responses in microorganisms. Metal ion release, particle adsorption, [...] Read more.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano/microparticles (NPs/MPs) have been studied as antibiotics to enhance antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria and viruses with or without antibiotic resistance. They have unique physicochemical characteristics that can affect biological and toxicological responses in microorganisms. Metal ion release, particle adsorption, and reactive oxygen species generation are the main mechanisms underlying their antimicrobial action. In this review, we describe the physicochemical characteristics of ZnO NPs/MPs related to biological and toxicological effects and discuss the recent findings of the antimicrobial activity of ZnO NPs/MPs and their combinations with other materials against pathogenic microorganisms. Current biomedical applications of ZnO NPs/MPs and combinations with other materials are also presented. This review will provide the better understanding of ZnO NPs/MPs as antibiotic alternatives and aid in further development of antibiotic agents for industrial and clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessReview
The Potential of Silver Nanoparticles for Antiviral and Antibacterial Applications: A Mechanism of Action
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081566 - 09 Aug 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2855
Abstract
Rapid development of nanotechnology has been in high demand, especially for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) since they have been proven to be useful in various fields such as medicine, textiles, and household appliances. AgNPs are very important because of their unique physicochemical and antimicrobial [...] Read more.
Rapid development of nanotechnology has been in high demand, especially for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) since they have been proven to be useful in various fields such as medicine, textiles, and household appliances. AgNPs are very important because of their unique physicochemical and antimicrobial properties, with a myriad of activities that are applicable in various fields, including wound care management. This review aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of AgNPs that are responsible for their antiviral properties and their antibacterial activity towards the microorganisms. AgNPs can be synthesized through three different methods—physical, chemical, and biological synthesis—as indicated in this review. The applications and limitations of the AgNPs such as their cytotoxicity towards humans and the environment, will be discussed. Based on the literature search obtained, the properties of AgNPs scrutinizing the antibacterial or antiviral effect shown different interaction towards bacteria which dependent on the synthesis processes followed by the morphological structure of AgNPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessReview
Limitations of Recent Studies Dealing with the Antibacterial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles: Fact and Opinion
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121775 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
Due to the constant increase in the number of infectious diseases and the concomitant lack of treatment available, metallic nanoparticles (e.g., silver nanoparticles) have been of particular interest in the last decades. Indeed, several studies suggest that silver nanoparticles have valuable antimicrobial activities, [...] Read more.
Due to the constant increase in the number of infectious diseases and the concomitant lack of treatment available, metallic nanoparticles (e.g., silver nanoparticles) have been of particular interest in the last decades. Indeed, several studies suggest that silver nanoparticles have valuable antimicrobial activities, especially against bacteria, which may lead us to think that these nanoparticles may one day be an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of bacterial infections. Unfortunately, when we look a little closer to these studies, we can see a very great heterogeneity (e.g., in the study design, in the synthetic process of nanoparticles, in the methods that explore the antibacterial properties of nanoparticles and in the bacteria chosen) making cross-interpretation between these studies impossible, and significantly limiting the interest of silver nanoparticles as promising antibacterial agents. We have selected forty-nine international publications published since 2015, and propose to discuss, not the results obtained, but precisely the different methodologies developed in these publications. Through this discussion, we highlighted the aspects to improve, or at least to homogenize, in order to definitively establish the interest of silver nanoparticles as valuable antibacterial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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