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Special Issue "Lichens: Chemistry, Ecological and Biological Activities II"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sophie Tomasi

UMR CNRS ISCR 6226, Equipe PNSCM, Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes cedex, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: lichens; lichen-associated bacteria; actinobacteria; natural products isolation and identification; symbiosis; chemical ecology; fermentation; drug discovery
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Joel Boustie

UMR CNRS ISCR 6226, Equipe PNSCM, Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes cedex, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: lichens; symbiosis; phytochemistry; bioactivity; chemical profiling; in-situ imaging; herbarium

Special Issue Information

The discovery of metabolites of interest from untapped sources is a great challenge for researchers. Lichens are self-supply organisms combining fungal, algal and/or bacterial partners and can grow in very drastic environments, resulting in the potential production of various defense weapons in response to biotic or abiotic stresses. In this context, an increasing number of studies focus on this original symbiotic association for the discovery of novel and active metabolites.

This Special Issue aims to overview the recent discoveries regarding lichens, relating studies describing the new analytical methods used to study the chemical profiling of lichens and of partners involved in this holobiont. Interdisciplinary studies highlighting the ability of lichens or symbiotic partners to produce interesting metabolites for future ecological or therapeutic applications are welcome. Biotechnological approaches for metabolite production will be also encouraged.

Prof. Sophie Tomasi
Prof. Joel Boustie
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • lichen
  • symbiosis
  • secondary metabolites
  • phytochemistry
  • chemical
  • ecology
  • bioactive compounds
  • biotechnology
  • thallus-associated microflora

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Carbon Consumption Patterns of Microbial Communities Associated with Peltigera Lichens from a Chilean Temperate Forest
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2746; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112746
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 21 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
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Abstract
Lichens are a symbiotic association between a fungus and a green alga or a cyanobacterium, or both. They can grow in practically any terrestrial environment and play crucial roles in ecosystems, such as assisting in soil formation and degrading soil organic matter. In
[...] Read more.
Lichens are a symbiotic association between a fungus and a green alga or a cyanobacterium, or both. They can grow in practically any terrestrial environment and play crucial roles in ecosystems, such as assisting in soil formation and degrading soil organic matter. In their thalli, they can host a wide diversity of non-photoautotrophic microorganisms, including bacteria, which play important functions and are considered key components of the lichens. In this work, using the BioLog® EcoPlate system, we studied the consumption kinetics of different carbon-sources by microbial communities associated with the thallus and the substrate of Peltigera lichens growing in a Chilean temperate rain forest dominated by Nothofagus pumilio. Based on the similarity of the consumption of 31 carbon-sources, three groups were formed. Among them, one group clustered the microbial metabolic profiles of almost all the substrates from one of the sampling sites, which exhibited the highest levels of consumption of the carbon-sources, and another group gathered the microbial metabolic profiles from the lichen thalli with the most abundant mycobiont haplotypes. These results suggest that the lichen thallus has a higher impact on the metabolism of its microbiome than on the microbial community of its substrate, with the latter being more diverse in terms of the metabolized sources and whose activity level is probably related to the availability of soil nutrients. However, although significant differences were detected in the microbial consumption of several carbon-sources when comparing the lichen thallus and the underlying substrate, d-mannitol, l-asparagine, and l-serine were intensively metabolized by both communities, suggesting that they share some microbial groups. Likewise, some communities showed high consumption of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, d-galacturonic acid, and itaconic acid; these could serve as suitable sources of microorganisms as bioresources of novel bioactive compounds with biotechnological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lichens: Chemistry, Ecological and Biological Activities II)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle tert-Butylphenolic Derivatives from Paenibacillus odorifer—A Case of Bioconversion
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081951
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 28 July 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
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Abstract
Two compounds (1) and (2) containing tert-butylphenol groups were, for the first time, produced during the culture of Paenibacillus odorifer, a bacterial strain associated with the crustose lichen, Rhizocarpon geographicum. Their entire structures were identified by
[...] Read more.
Two compounds (1) and (2) containing tert-butylphenol groups were, for the first time, produced during the culture of Paenibacillus odorifer, a bacterial strain associated with the crustose lichen, Rhizocarpon geographicum. Their entire structures were identified by one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR and high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) spectroscopic analyses. Among them, Compound 1 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against B16 murine melanoma and HaCaT human keratinocyte cell lines with micromolar half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Furthermore, after supplementation studies, a putative biosynthesis pathway was proposed for Compound 1 throughout a bioconversion by this bacterial strain of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), an antioxidant polymer additive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lichens: Chemistry, Ecological and Biological Activities II)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessCommunication Can Parietin Transfer Energy Radiatively to Photosynthetic Pigments?
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071741
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
The main role of lichen anthraquinones is in protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, such as UV radiation. These compounds are frequently deposited as crystals outside the fungal hyphae and most of them emit visible fluorescence when excited by UV. We wondered whether
[...] Read more.
The main role of lichen anthraquinones is in protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, such as UV radiation. These compounds are frequently deposited as crystals outside the fungal hyphae and most of them emit visible fluorescence when excited by UV. We wondered whether the conversion of UV into visible fluorescence might be photosynthetically used by the photobiont, thereby converting UV into useful energy. To address this question, thalli of Xanthoria parietina were used as a model system. In this species the anthraquinone parietin accumulates in the outer upper cortex, conferring the species its characteristic yellow-orange colouration. In ethanol, parietin absorbed strongly in the blue and UV-B and emitted fluorescence in the range 480–540 nm, which partially matches with the absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments. In intact thalli, it was determined by confocal microscopy that fluorescence emission spectra shifted 90 nm towards longer wavelengths. Then, to study energy transfer from parietin, we compared the response to UV of untreated and parietin-free thalli (removed with acetone). A chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic assessment provided evidence of UV-induced electron transport, though independently of the presence of parietin. Thus, a role for anthraquinones in energy harvesting is not supported for X. parietina under presented experimental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lichens: Chemistry, Ecological and Biological Activities II)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Author: Holger Thüs
Affiliation: State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany 
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