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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Nazim Sekeroglu
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Kilis 7 Aralık University, 79000 Kilis, Turkey
Interests: from nature to fields; cultivation and processing of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs); good collection and agricultural practices of MAPs; from plant raw material to final products; good manufacturing practices and quality aspects; bioactivities of plant secondary metabolites
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Anake Kijjoa
Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de Abel Salazar and CIIMAR, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira, nº228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
Interests: antibacterial compounds from higher plants; marine invertebrates;soil and marine-derived fungi; cosmetic ingredients from marine resources; natural biopesticides
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Sevgi Gezici
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Biology & Genetics, Faculty of Science & Art, Kilis 7 Aralık University, 79000 Kilis, Turkey
Interests: human genetics; molecular biology of cancer; cancer genetics; apoptosis and signaling pathways; cancer proteomics; medical biology; medicinal and aromatic plants; bioactivities of plant secondary metabolites; in vivo and in vitro anticancer and antitumor research
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Interest in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) has been increasing throughout the world in recent decades. These plants are also well-known as Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFP). From nature to standardized natural products, all these plants and products are of interest in a number of sectors such as food, beverage, medicine, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmeticeuticals, perfumery, food additives, cleaning, and self-care products. Thus, their market size has gradually increased over time. Due to significant development in many sectors involving natural products, scientific research for supporting ethnobotanical heritage and investigation to obtain new information has been carried out. To keep pace with the research and development of MAPs, governmental regulations for biodiversity conservation and the protection of public health are necessary, as the private sector has increased its efforts to get a share from the market. Moreover, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are also working on all related areas including biodiversity conservation, the sustainable use of natural resources, and raising the awareness of the public for their uses and cultivation, as well as the stimulation of multidisciplinary actions of all related sectors for human welfare. Thus, scientific organizations, symposia, and conferences are important forums to bring together all the stakeholders on a large scale from research to practice for MAPs and/or NWFPs.

On the other hand, four editions of the International Symposium on Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences (ISPBS), which started in Japan in 2016 through scientific cooperation between Turkish and Japanese Universities with the name JATUSPAB (Japan-Turkey International Symposium on Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences), have been successfully organized alternately between Japan and Turkey. The abstracts and articles of these four symposia were published online as abstract books and articles in Special Issues of reputed journals.

To consolidate the platform of MESMAP-5 and ISPBS-5, the international organizing committee of the 5th Edition of both symposia have decided to jointly organize these two scientific events in in Cappadocia, Turkey, during 24–28 April 2019. Cappadocia, one of the wonders of the world with a fascinating atmosphere, was selected as a joint scientific meeting venue to give an exotic environment and high-quality services for participants. Due to the reputation of both symposia, the committees have also a conviction that high-quality scientific papers will be presented in this joint symposia and should be published in a reputed scientific ISI journal with a high impact factor. In this context, the organizers have proposed a Special Issue for the peer-reviewed, open-access journal Molecules (with a five-year impact factor of 3.5). Furthermore, we wish to state that the manuscripts from participants of this joint symposia will have the privilege of receiving a 40% discount of a publication fee if their manuscripts are accepted for publication in this Special Issue.

The MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5 joint meeting scientific program covers all the related aspects of MAPs and NWFPs such as agriculture and forestry, botany, ethnobotany, herbal medicines, plant biotechnology, phytopharmacology, pharmacognosy, plant biology, phytochemistry, and aromatherapy. Detailed topics of the joint symposia can be found on the conference website:  http://www.mesmap.com/

Finally, the organizing committee wish to welcome participants from all continents to this important scientific gathering in CAPPADOCIA, “the most extraordinary natural and historical heritage of the world". We are sure that all participants will have a wonderful experience at the scientific forum, and that  CAPPADOCIA will be memorable. The editorial of this Special Issue plans to receive full paper submissions from May 30 to July 31, 2019. We wish you all the best, and we look forward to meeting you in Cappadocia, Turkey, in the spring of 2019.

Prof. Dr. Nazim Sekeroglu
Prof. Dr. Anake Kijjoa
Prof. Dr. Sevgi Gezici
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • medicinal and aromatic plants
  • bioactive natural products
  • herbal medicine, phytocosmeceuticals
  • nutraceuticals
  • quality aspects and quality control
  • safety and regulations

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Kleeb Bua Daeng, a Thai Traditional Herbal Formula, Ameliorated Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Cognitive Impairment in ICR Mice
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4587; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244587 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Thai traditional herbal formula ‘’Kleeb Bua Daeng (KBD)’’consists of a 1:1:1 ratio (dry weight) of three medicinal plants: Piper nigrum fruit, the aerial part of Centella asiatica and the petals of Nelumbo nucifera. Oral administration of KBD to unpredictable chronic mild stress [...] Read more.
Thai traditional herbal formula ‘’Kleeb Bua Daeng (KBD)’’consists of a 1:1:1 ratio (dry weight) of three medicinal plants: Piper nigrum fruit, the aerial part of Centella asiatica and the petals of Nelumbo nucifera. Oral administration of KBD to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) mice significantly improved their cognitive function caused by chronic mild stress. Daily administration of KBD significantly decreased the serum corticosterone (CORT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels but increased the catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in both frontal cortex and hippocampus. The effects of KBD were similar to those caused by oral administration of vitamin E. HPLC analysis of the KBD extract revealed the presence of piperine, madecassoside, asiaticoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, kaempferol-3-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol and ferulic acid as major constituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Puerarin on the Ovariectomy-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in ICR Mice and Its Possible Mechanism of Action
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4569; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244569 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Daily treatment of ovariectomized (OVX) ICR mice with puerarin, a glycosyl isoflavone isolated from the root bark of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, and 17β-estradiol attenuated ovariectomy-induced depression-like behavior, as indicated by a decrease in immobility times in the tail suspension test (TST) [...] Read more.
Daily treatment of ovariectomized (OVX) ICR mice with puerarin, a glycosyl isoflavone isolated from the root bark of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, and 17β-estradiol attenuated ovariectomy-induced depression-like behavior, as indicated by a decrease in immobility times in the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST), an increase in the uterine weight and volume, a decrease in serum corticosterone levels, and dose-dependently normalized the downregulated transcription of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and estrogen receptor (Erβ and Erα) mRNAs. Like 17β-estradiol, puerarin also inhibited ovariectomy-induced suppression of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (increased the number of doublecortin (DCX)-immunosuppressive cells). These results suggest that puerarin exerts antidepressant-like effects in OVX animals, possibly by attenuating the OVX-induced hyperactivation of the HPA axis and/or normalizing the downregulated transcription of BDNF and ER mRNA in the brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Harvest Age Effect on Phytochemical Content of White and Black Glutinous Rice Cultivars
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4432; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244432 - 04 Dec 2019
Abstract
Many studies have been conducted on the bioactive compounds of rice seeds, however, there is limited information on the bioactive compounds of rice sprouts. This study focused on the age effect on the phytochemical content of white and black glutinous rice sprouts harvested [...] Read more.
Many studies have been conducted on the bioactive compounds of rice seeds, however, there is limited information on the bioactive compounds of rice sprouts. This study focused on the age effect on the phytochemical content of white and black glutinous rice sprouts harvested between 5 and 25 days old. We assessed yield, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total anthocyanin content, total chlorophyll content, and proximate analysis. HPLC results identified protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, and rutin in the sprouts of both cultivars, ranging between 0.56–1.58, 0.65–7.69, and 0.47–1.68 mg/g extract, respectively. The amount of bioactive compounds and proximate compositions in black glutinous rice were generally higher than white glutinous rice in an age-dependent manner (p < 0.05). At 5–7 days, black glutinous rice contained the highest total anthocyanin content, while white glutinous rice contained the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content (p < 0.05). High total chlorophyll content was initially detected in white glutinous rice at a younger age than black glutinous rice (p < 0.05), while total chlorophyll content in both cultivars was not significantly different. Our study confirms the presence of phytoconstituents in the rice sprouts of white and black glutinous rice and their potential as functional foods and for being further development as natural health products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Evaluation of Chemically Analyzed Hypericum Triquetrifolium Extract Efficacy in Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest of the HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cell Line
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4139; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224139 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Naturally derived drugs and plant-based products are attractive commodities that are being explored for cancer treatment. This in vitro study aimed to investigate the role of Hypericum triquetrifolium (50% ethanol: 50% water) extract (HTE) treatment on apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, and cell cycle [...] Read more.
Naturally derived drugs and plant-based products are attractive commodities that are being explored for cancer treatment. This in vitro study aimed to investigate the role of Hypericum triquetrifolium (50% ethanol: 50% water) extract (HTE) treatment on apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, and cell cycle arrest in human colon cancer cell line (HCT-116). HTE induced cell death via an apoptotic process, as assayed by an Annexin V-Cy3 assay. Exposing HCT-116 cells to 0.064, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/mL of HTE for 24 h led to 50 ± 9%, 71.6 ± 8%, 85 ± 5%, and 96 ± 1.5% apoptotic cells, respectively. HCT-116 cells treated with 0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL HTE for 3 h resulted in 38.9 ± 1.5% and 57.2 ± 3% cleavage of caspase-3-specific substrate, respectively. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the HTE extract had no effect on mRNA levels of Apaf-1 and NOXA. Moreover, the addition of 0.125 mg/mL and 0.25 mg/mL HTE for 24 h was clearly shown to attenuate the cell cycle progression machinery in HCT-116 cells. GC/MS analysis of the extract identified 21 phytochemicals that are known as apoptosis inducers and cell cycle arrest agents. All the compounds detected are novel in H. triquetrifolium. These results suggest that HTE-induced apoptosis of human colon cells is mediated primarily through the caspase-dependent pathway. Thus, HTE appears to be a potent therapeutic agent for colon cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Activity, and Anti-obesogenic Bioactivity of Mao Luang Fruits (Antidesma bunius L.)
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4109; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224109 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
To investigate the anti-obesity potential of Antidesma bunius L. (MM), a Thai local fruit which is named “Mao Luang,” we have focused on the effects on pancreatic α-amylase and lipase enzyme activity and on adipocyte life cycle using the 3T3-L1 cell line as [...] Read more.
To investigate the anti-obesity potential of Antidesma bunius L. (MM), a Thai local fruit which is named “Mao Luang,” we have focused on the effects on pancreatic α-amylase and lipase enzyme activity and on adipocyte life cycle using the 3T3-L1 cell line as a model. In addition, the phytochemical composition and anti-oxidation potential were also analyzed using HPLC-PDA UV and colorimetric methods. The ethanolic extract of MM fruits prepared by a maceration method was used in the experiments. MM extract, yield 12.08% w/w, is composed primarily of phenolics and anthocyanins as the major phytochemicals, among which, gallic acid, catechin, anthocyanin-3-glucoside, and protocatechuic acid were initially identified. In addition, susceptibly inhibitory effects on oxidation in a DPPH assay; on lipase enzyme activity rather than amylase enzyme; and on adipocyte adipogenesis of MM were demonstrated. Interestingly, a concentration-dependent bi-modular manner of activity on adipocyte adipogenesis was discovered, whereby a significant anti-adipogenic effect was demonstrated at high concentration, whilst low concentrations of MM showed adipogenic induction. Lipolytic induction was manifested. Conclusively, the ethanolic MM extract was discovered to be a potential anti-obesity agent contributed by inhibitory effects on lipase enzyme and anti-differentiation and -adipogenesis in adipocytes which significantly correlated to the total phenolics content, as well as anti-oxidation as the mechanism of action. Nevertheless, to achieve effective application, further investigation in in vivo models should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Genotoxicity Assessment of Two Heterocyclic Compounds Containing 1,2,3-Selena- or 1,2,3-Thiadiazole Rings
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4082; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224082 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
New 1,2,3-thiadiazole and 1,2,3-selenadiazole derivatives, (4-[4-((4-bromobenzyl)oxy)-phenyl]-1,2,3-thiadiazole (5a), 4-[4-((4-chlorobenzyl)oxy)-phenyl]-1,2,3-thiadiazole (5b)), (4-[4-((4-bromobenzyl)oxy)-phenyl]-1,2,3-selenadiazole (6a), and 4-[4-((4-chlorobenzyl)oxy)-phenyl]-1,2,3-selenadiazole (6b)), were prepared and screened in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic microbes. In addition, two compounds (5a and 6a) [...] Read more.
New 1,2,3-thiadiazole and 1,2,3-selenadiazole derivatives, (4-[4-((4-bromobenzyl)oxy)-phenyl]-1,2,3-thiadiazole (5a), 4-[4-((4-chlorobenzyl)oxy)-phenyl]-1,2,3-thiadiazole (5b)), (4-[4-((4-bromobenzyl)oxy)-phenyl]-1,2,3-selenadiazole (6a), and 4-[4-((4-chlorobenzyl)oxy)-phenyl]-1,2,3-selenadiazole (6b)), were prepared and screened in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic microbes. In addition, two compounds (5a and 6a) were examined for their in vivo genotoxicity using rats and an 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) assay. Compounds 5a and 5b were found to be highly active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, a significant inhibition of urinary 8-OHdG level (50.2%) was observed upon treatment of animals with 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of compound 6a (p < 0.0001). However, compound 5a increased urinary 8-OHdG levels. The lethal dose (LD50) values for compounds 5a and 6a were determined by an up-and-down procedure (OECD 425; OECD 1998), which showed that these compounds are safe, since the LD50 was >5000 mg/kg b.w. Thus, the tested compounds might have the potential for use as antibiotics, since they have low genotoxicity and strong antimicrobial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Orally Consumed Rosa damascena Mill. Hydrosol on Hematology, Clinical Chemistry, Lens Enzymatic Activity, and Lens Pathology in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4069; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224069 - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a multisystemic metabolic disorder that may affect the eyes, kidneys, vessels, and heart. Chronic hyperglycemia causes non-enzymatic glycation of proteins and elevation of the polyol pathway resulting in oxidative stress that damages organs. The current study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a multisystemic metabolic disorder that may affect the eyes, kidneys, vessels, and heart. Chronic hyperglycemia causes non-enzymatic glycation of proteins and elevation of the polyol pathway resulting in oxidative stress that damages organs. The current study aimed to investigate the dose-dependent effects of orally consumed Rosa damascena Mill. hydrosol on hematology, clinical biochemistry, lens enzymatic activity, and lens pathology in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced into male Sprague–Dawley rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight). Rose hydrosols containing 1515 mg/L and 500 mg/L total volatiles (expressed as citronellol) were introduced to rats orally for 45 days. Consumption of 1515 mg/L volatile containing rose hydrosol successfully ameliorated hematologic, hepatic, and renal functions. Hydrosols also attenuated hyperglycemia and decreased the advanced glycation end-product formation in a dose-dependent manner. Rose hydrosol components significantly increased the lens enzymatic activities of glutathione peroxidase and decreased the activity of aldose reductase to prevent cataractogenesis. Histopathological examinations of rat lenses also indicated that increasing the dose of rose hydrosol had a protective effect on lenses in diabetic conditions. Additionally, in silico modeling of aldose reductase inhibition with rose hydrosol volatiles was carried out for extrapolating the current study to humans. The present results suggest that rose hydrosol exerts significant protective properties in diabetes mellitus and has no toxic effect on all studied systems in healthy test groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Role of L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1) for the Selective Cytotoxicity of Sesamol in Human Melanoma Cells
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3869; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213869 - 27 Oct 2019
Abstract
Sesamol is effective against melanoma cells with less damage to normal cells. The underlying selective cytotoxicity of sesamol in melanoma vs. non-cancerous cells is undefined. Melanoma cells differ from normal cells by over-expression of the L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1). We sought [...] Read more.
Sesamol is effective against melanoma cells with less damage to normal cells. The underlying selective cytotoxicity of sesamol in melanoma vs. non-cancerous cells is undefined. Melanoma cells differ from normal cells by over-expression of the L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1). We sought to clarify the transport mechanism on selective cytotoxicity of sesamol in melanoma cells. A human melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-2) and African monkey epithelial cell line (Vero) were used to study the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of sesamol. The intracellular concentration of sesamol was quantified by UV-HPLC. The cytotoxicity was determined by neutral red uptake assay. Sesamol showed a higher distribution volume and uptake clearance in SK-MEL-2 than Vero cells. Sesamol was distributed by both carrier-mediated and passive transport by having greater carrier-mediated transport into SK-MEL-2 cells than Vero cells. Higher mRNA expression and function of LAT1 over LAT2 were evident in SK-MEL-2 cells compared to Vero cells. Sesamol uptake and sesamol cytotoxicity were inhibited by the LAT1 inhibitor, suggesting LAT1 had a role in sesamol transport and its bioactivity in melanoma. The LAT1-mediated transport of sesamol is indicative of how it engages cytotoxicity in melanoma cells with promising therapeutic benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessCommunication
Antileukemic Activity of Twig Components of Caucasian Beech in Turkey
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3850; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213850 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Despite the development of a range of anti-cancer agents, cancer diagnoses are still increasing in number, remaining a leading cause of death. Anticancer drug treatment is particularly important for leukemia. We screened Turkish plants and found the unique antileukemic activity of twig components [...] Read more.
Despite the development of a range of anti-cancer agents, cancer diagnoses are still increasing in number, remaining a leading cause of death. Anticancer drug treatment is particularly important for leukemia. We screened Turkish plants and found the unique antileukemic activity of twig components in Turkish Caucasian beech, selectively inducing apoptosis in leukemia cells. This effect is unique among some kinds of beeches, presumably related to oxidative stress. This study would lead to effective use of discarded material, i.e., twig of beech, and a new anti-leukemic drug based on large tree. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pentacyclic Triterpene Derivatives: Optimization of Anti-ABL Kinase Activity
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3535; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193535 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Imatinib, an Abelson (ABL) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a lead molecular-targeted drug against chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). To overcome its resistance and adverse effects, new inhibitors of ABL kinase are needed. Our previous study showed that the benzyl ester of gypsogenin (1c [...] Read more.
Imatinib, an Abelson (ABL) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a lead molecular-targeted drug against chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). To overcome its resistance and adverse effects, new inhibitors of ABL kinase are needed. Our previous study showed that the benzyl ester of gypsogenin (1c), a pentacyclic triterpene, has anti-ABL kinase and a subsequent anti-CML activity. To optimize its activities, benzyl esters of carefully selected triterpenes (PT1–PT6), from different classes comprising oleanane, ursane and lupane, and new substituted benzyl esters of gypsogenin (GP1–GP5) were synthesized. All of the synthesized compounds were purified and charachterized by different spectroscopic methods. Cytotoxicity of the parent triterpenes and the synthesized compounds against CML cell line K562 was examined; revealing three promising compounds PT5, GP2 and GP5 (IC50 5.46, 4.78 and 3.19 μM, respectively). These compounds were shown to inhibit extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) downstream signaling, and induce apoptosis in K562 cells. Among them, PT5 was identified to have in vitro activity (IC50 = 1.44 μM) against ABL1 kinase, about sixfold of 1c, which was justified by molecular docking. The in vitro activities of GP2 and GP5 are less than PT5, hence they were supposed to possess other more mechanisms of cytotoxicity. In general, our design and derivatizations resulted in enhancing the activity against ABL1 kinase and CML cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of Cell-Based Assay for Quantification of Sesamol Uptake and Its Application for Measuring Target Exposure
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3522; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193522 - 28 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The intracellular drug concentration is needed for determination of target exposure at the site of action regarding its pharmacological action and adverse effects. Sesamol is an antiproliferative molecule from Sesamum indicum with promising health benefits. We present a method for measuring the intracellular [...] Read more.
The intracellular drug concentration is needed for determination of target exposure at the site of action regarding its pharmacological action and adverse effects. Sesamol is an antiproliferative molecule from Sesamum indicum with promising health benefits. We present a method for measuring the intracellular sesamol content using reverse-phase HPLC with a UV diode array in melanoma cells. Sesamol was completely resolved by isocratic elution (4.152 ± 0.008 min) with methanol/water (70%, v/v) through a 30 °C, 5-µm C-18 column and detection at 297 nm. The present assay offers high sensitivity, fast elution, and an accurate and linear nominal concentration range of 10–1000 ng/mL (R2 = 0.9972). The % accuracy of the sesamol quality control sample was −3.36% to 1.50% (bias) with a 0.84% to 5.28% relative standard deviation (RSD), representing high repeatability and high reproducibility. The % recovery was 94.80% to 99.29%, which determined that there was no loss of sesamol content during the sample preparation. The validated method was applied to monitor intracellular sesamol concentration after treatment from 5 min to 24 h. The remaining intracellular sesamol content was correlated with its antiproliferative effect (R2 = 0.9483). In conclusion, this assay demonstrated low manipulation, quick elution, and high sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and recovery, and it was successfully applied to the quantification of sesamol in target cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Dipterocarpus alatus Leaf on the Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depression in ICR Mice and Its Possible Mechanism of Action
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3396; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183396 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Treatment of the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) mice with the ethanol extract of Dipterocarpus alatus leaf attenuated anhedonia (increased sucrose preference) and behavioral despair (decreased immobility time in tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST)). The extract not only decreased [...] Read more.
Treatment of the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) mice with the ethanol extract of Dipterocarpus alatus leaf attenuated anhedonia (increased sucrose preference) and behavioral despair (decreased immobility time in tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST)). The extract not only decreased the elevation of serum corticosterone level and the index of over-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, caused by UCMS, but also ameliorated UCMS-induced up-regulation of serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) mRNA expression and down-regulation of cyclic AMP-responsive element binding (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNAs in frontal cortex and hippocampus. In vitro monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition assays showed that the extract exhibited the partial selective inhibition on MAO-A. HPLC analysis of the extract showed the presence of flavonoids (luteolin-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, rutin) and phenolic acids (gallic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid) as major constituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis Induction of Coumarins and Carbazole Alkaloids from Clausena harmandiana
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3385; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183385 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Seven compounds, carbazole alkaloids (heptaphylline, 7-methoxyheptaphylline, 7-methoxymukonal) and coumarins (clausarin, dentatin, nordentatin, and xanthoxyletin), were isolated from the root bark of Clausena harmandiana. Antioxidation, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction were evaluated in vitro. Results showed that clausarin exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging [...] Read more.
Seven compounds, carbazole alkaloids (heptaphylline, 7-methoxyheptaphylline, 7-methoxymukonal) and coumarins (clausarin, dentatin, nordentatin, and xanthoxyletin), were isolated from the root bark of Clausena harmandiana. Antioxidation, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction were evaluated in vitro. Results showed that clausarin exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging and 7-methoxymukonal had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power. In contrary, dentatin was the least DPPH radical scavenger, and heptaphylline was the least reducing antioxidant power. The isolated compounds showed different cytotoxicity. The hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) was generally more sensitive to the isolated compounds than lung cancer (SK-LU-1), colon cancer (HCT-116), and noncancerous (Vero) cell lines, respectively. Clausarin possessed the highest cytotoxicity selectively against cancer cell lines tested. 7-Methoxymukonal and 7-methoxyheptaphylline exhibited less cytotoxicity only in HepG2 cells and were inactive in the SK-LU-1 and HCT116 cells. Despite xantoxyletin possessing low antioxidant and low cytotoxic activity, it induced the highest apoptosis percentage with the lowest necrosis percentage of HepG2 cells after 24 h. In conclusion, xantoxyletin primarily show potential anticancer activity. The root bark of C. harmandiana is a good source of bioactive compounds or the lead for the development of new pharmaceutical agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potential of Thymus Sipyleus Boiss. Subsp. Rosulans (Borbas) Jalas
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3353; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183353 - 14 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. rosulans (Borbas) Jalas (TS) is a commonly used plant in the treatment of various complaints, including skin wounds in Turkish folk medicine. Despite the widespread traditional use of TS, there is not any scientific report confirming the effectiveness of [...] Read more.
Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. rosulans (Borbas) Jalas (TS) is a commonly used plant in the treatment of various complaints, including skin wounds in Turkish folk medicine. Despite the widespread traditional use of TS, there is not any scientific report confirming the effectiveness of this plant on the healing process. This research aimed to investigate the effects of different extracts obtained from TS on biological events during wound healing, on a cellular basis. In this context, proliferative activities of the extracts, as well as the effects on wound closure and hydroxyproline synthesis, were determined. In addition to wound healing properties, the antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts were evaluated. Decoction (D) and infusion (I) extracts contained the highest amount of phenolic content and showed the most potent activity against DPPH radical. All extracts exhibited complete protection against the damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by increasing cell viability compared to only H2O2-treated groups, both in co-treatment and pre-treatment protocols. None of the extracts exhibited cytotoxic activity, and most of the extracts from the TS stimulated fibroblast proliferation and migration. All TS extracts exert anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO). The most pronounced activity on hydroxyproline synthesis was observed in D extract. In summary, it was observed that TS extracts can promote the healing process by enhancing fibroblast migration, proliferation and collagen synthesis as well as suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines. The obtained data in this work support the traditional use of TS as a valuable plant-based compound for the treatment of wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Antiproliferative S-Trityl-l-Cysteine -Derived Compounds as SIRT2 Inhibitors: Repurposing and Solubility Enhancement
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3295; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183295 - 10 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
S-trityl-l-cysteine (STLC) is a well-recognized lead compound known for its anticancer activity owing to its potent inhibitory effect on human mitotic kinesin Eg5. STLC contains two free terminal amino and carboxyl groups that play pivotal roles in binding [...] Read more.
S-trityl-l-cysteine (STLC) is a well-recognized lead compound known for its anticancer activity owing to its potent inhibitory effect on human mitotic kinesin Eg5. STLC contains two free terminal amino and carboxyl groups that play pivotal roles in binding to the Eg5 pocket. On the other hand, such a zwitterion structure complicates the clinical development of STLC because of the solubility issues. Masking either of these radicals reduces or abolishes STLC activity against Eg5. We recently identified and characterized a new class of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase isoform 2 of sirtuin protein (SIRT2) inhibitors that can be utilized as cytotoxic agents based on an S-trityl-l-histidine scaffold. Herein, we propose new STLC-derived compounds that possess pronounced SIRT2 inhibition effects. These derivatives contain modified amino and carboxyl groups, which conferred STLC with SIRT2 bioactivity, representing an explicit repurposing approach. Compounds STC4 and STC11 exhibited half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 10.8 ± 1.9 and 9.5 ± 1.2 μM, respectively, against SIRT2. Additionally, introduction of the derivatizations in this study addressed the solubility limitations of free STLC, presumably due to interruption of the zwitterion structure. Therefore, we could obtain drug-like STLC derivatives that work by a new mechanism of action. The new derivatives were designed, synthesized, and their structure was confirmed using different spectroscopic approaches. In vitro and cellular bioassays with various cancer cell lines and in silico molecular docking and solubility calculations of the synthesized compounds demonstrated that they warrant attention for further refinement of their bioactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Armed 1,2,3-Selenadiazole and 1,2,3-Thiadiazole Benzene Derivatives as Novel Glyoxalase-I Inhibitors
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3210; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183210 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Glyoxalase-I (Glo-I) enzyme was established to be a valid target for anticancer drug design. It performs the essential detoxification step of harmful byproducts, especially methylglyoxal. A robust computer-aided drug design approach was used to design and validate a series of compounds with selenium [...] Read more.
Glyoxalase-I (Glo-I) enzyme was established to be a valid target for anticancer drug design. It performs the essential detoxification step of harmful byproducts, especially methylglyoxal. A robust computer-aided drug design approach was used to design and validate a series of compounds with selenium or sulfur based heterorings. A series of in-house multi-armed 1,2,3-selenadiazole and 1,2,3-thiadiazole benzene derivatives were tested for their Glo-I inhibitory activity. Results showed that these compounds bind Glo-I active sites competitively with strong potential to inhibit this enzyme with IC50 values in micro-molar concentration. Docking poses revealed that these compounds interact with the zinc atom at the bottom of the active site, which plays an essential role in its viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytochemical Profile and Antimicrobial Potential of Extracts Obtained from Thymus marschallianus Willd
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3101; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173101 - 26 Aug 2019
Abstract
Thymus marschallianus Willd. is a Lamiaceae species spread in a large variety of habitats worldwide. The aim of the present research was to analyse two different samples belonging to this species, one obtained from the spontaneous flora and one from culture. The total [...] Read more.
Thymus marschallianus Willd. is a Lamiaceae species spread in a large variety of habitats worldwide. The aim of the present research was to analyse two different samples belonging to this species, one obtained from the spontaneous flora and one from culture. The total polyphenols, flavonoids, and phenolic acid contents were spectrophotometrically determined. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols was performed by an HPLC-DAD-ESI (+)-MS method. For the antibacterial assay, the well-diffusion and the broth microdilution methods were used. Analysis of polyphenols revealed for both samples the presence of flavonoids like luteolin, quercetin, apigenin and their derivatives, but also of rosmarinic acid and methyl-rosmarinate. Differences regarding the amount of these compounds were emphasized. Significantly larger amounts of flavonoids were found for the sample harvested in the spontaneous flora, while for the rosmarinic acid, larger amounts were found for the cultured sample. Both samples displayed promising antibacterial activity, particularly towards Gram positive organisms. T. marschallianus represents, therefore, a rich source of polyphenolic compounds that prove its promising potential as a medicinal species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity Activities of Leaves, Bark, Twigs and Oleo-Resin of Dipterocarpus alatus
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3083; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173083 - 25 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Dipterocarpus alatus (Dipterocarpaceae) is a medicinal plant whose use is well known for the treatment of genito-urinary diseases. However, there is no report of its cytotoxic potential. In this study, the chemical composition, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts of the leaves, bark, [...] Read more.
Dipterocarpus alatus (Dipterocarpaceae) is a medicinal plant whose use is well known for the treatment of genito-urinary diseases. However, there is no report of its cytotoxic potential. In this study, the chemical composition, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts of the leaves, bark, twigs and oleo-resin from D. alatus are investigated. Cytotoxicity was measured by the neutral red (NR) assay against HCT116, SKLU1, SK-MEL2, SiHa and U937 cancer cell lines and antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Leaf, bark and twig extracts exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than oleo-resin, with bark extract showing the highest antioxidant activity and the highest total phenolic content. All samples showed more cytotoxic activity against the U937 cell line than HCT116, SKLU1, SK-MEL2 and SiHa cells with oleo-resin being more cytotoxic than melphalan against U937 cells. Chemical composition analysis of oleo-resin by GC-MS showed that the major components were sesquiterpenes, namely α-gurjunene (30.31%), (-)-isoledene (13.69%), alloaromadendrene (3.28%), β-caryophyllene (3.14%), γ-gurjunene (3.14%) and spathulenol (1.11%). The cytotoxic activity of oleo-resin can be attributed to the sesquiterpene content, whereas the cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of leaf, bark and twig extracts correlated to total phenolic content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Zinnia elegans Jacq. Fractions
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 2934; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24162934 - 13 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Zinnia elegans (syn. Zinnia violacea) is a common ornamental plant of the Asteraceae family, widely cultivated for the impressive range of flower colors and persistent bloom. Given its uncomplicated cultivation and high adaptability to harsh landscape conditions, we investigated the potential use [...] Read more.
Zinnia elegans (syn. Zinnia violacea) is a common ornamental plant of the Asteraceae family, widely cultivated for the impressive range of flower colors and persistent bloom. Given its uncomplicated cultivation and high adaptability to harsh landscape conditions, we investigated the potential use of Z. elegans as a source of valuable secondary metabolites. Preliminary classification of compounds found in a methanolic extract obtained from inflorescences of Z. elegans cv. Caroussel was accomplished using HR LC-MS techniques. The extract was then subjected to solid-phase extraction and separation using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, which resulted in several fractions further investigated for their antioxidant properties through lipoxygenase inhibition and metal chelating activity assays. Moreover, following additional purification procedures, structures of some active ingredients were established by NMR spectroscopy. The investigated fractions contained polyphenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acids and apigenin, kaempferol, and quercetin glycosides. Antioxidant assays showed that certain fractions exhibit moderate 15-LOX inhibition (Fr 2, IC50 = 18.98 μg/mL) and metal chelation (e.g., Fr 1-2, EC50 = 0.714–1.037 mg/mL) activities as compared to positive controls (20.25 μg/mL for kaempferol and 0.068 mg/mL for EDTA, respectively). For Fr 2, the 15-LOX inhibition activity seems to be related to the abundance of kaempferol glycosides. The NMR analyses revealed the presence of a kaempferol 3-O-glycoside, and a guanidine alkaloid previously not described in this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Joint Symposia of MESMAP-5 & ISPBS-5)
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