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Special Issue "Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2022) | Viewed by 33256

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Severina Pacifico
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy
Interests: food chemistry; natural products chemistry; nutraceuticals; mass spectrometry polyphenols; chemoprevention
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The renewed interest in the no-drug type of Cannabis sativa L. represents the basis of new value chains for the sustainable development and the genesis of innovative products in food and nutraceutical sectors. In this context, the selection of seed varieties of Cannabis sativa L., the careful study of bioactive components from fruit and other plant organs, also those not directly useful in the food sector, open up to technology transfer for products’ innovation and process.

The production of hemp-based goods with high added value promotes the creation of a dynamic and circular supply chain in which the recovery of bioactive compounds, beyond phytocannabinoids, from hemp products, by-products and wastes is the driving force for the development of nutraceuticals and/or cosmeceuticals.

This Special Issue welcomes submissions (both in the form of original research papers and reviews) that deal with the deep investigation of hemp chemistry, as a key issue to pursue not only to provide a proper revival of ancient but overlooked/unknown food usages, but, above all to ensure bioactivity and effectiveness of hemp unique and diverse phytochemicals.

Prof. Dr. Severina Pacifico
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Cannabis sativa L.
  • hemp seed
  • hemp by-product
  • hemp chemistry
  • advanced analytical techniques
  • industrial hemp bioactivity investigation
  • functional food
  • nutraceuticals

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Article
Quality of Oil Pressed from Hemp Seed Varieties: ‘Earlina 8FC’, ‘Secuieni Jubileu’ and ‘Finola’
Molecules 2022, 27(10), 3171; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27103171 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 726
Abstract
In the last decade, the demand for edible niche oils has increased. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the seeds hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) varieties: ‘Finola’ (FIN-314)’, ‘Earlina 8FC’, and ‘Secuieni Jubileu’, and cold and hot pressed oils were [...] Read more.
In the last decade, the demand for edible niche oils has increased. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the seeds hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) varieties: ‘Finola’ (FIN-314)’, ‘Earlina 8FC’, and ‘Secuieni Jubileu’, and cold and hot pressed oils were prepared from each seed. The seeds were examined for moisture content, granulometric distribution, bulk density, and fat content. Seeds were pressed without and with preconditioning (60 °C), and oil yield and pressing time were recorded. The oil was filtered through cellulose membranes. Oil–water content, oil color, fatty acid profile, and sterol content were studied. From the study conducted, there are significant differences in the parameters of oil recovery and its quality compared to ‘Finola’ seed oil, which is widely reported in the literature. ‘Finola’ oil yield was the lowest, with an average of 79% compared to ‘Earlina’ (82%) and ‘S. Jubileu’ (84%). All oil samples contained a comparable amount of sterols, with campesterol (0.32 mg/g), β-sitosterol (1.3 mg/g) and Δ5-avenasterol (0.15 mg/g) predominating. From the organoleptic evaluation, it was evident that both varieties hemp oils and marc (‘Earlina’ and ‘S. Jubileu’) were not bitter like the “Finola” oil and marc. More detailed studies in this direction have to be undertaken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Article
Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of β-Caryophyllene in Healthy Subjects Using the VESIsorb® Formulation Technology, a Novel Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS)
Molecules 2022, 27(9), 2860; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092860 - 30 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1754
Abstract
β-Caryophyllene (BCP), a common constituent of many spice and food plants, is gaining increased attention due to recent research identifying numerous potential health benefits. Due to limited oral bioavailability observed in preclinical models, the described benefits of BCP may be maximized by using [...] Read more.
β-Caryophyllene (BCP), a common constituent of many spice and food plants, is gaining increased attention due to recent research identifying numerous potential health benefits. Due to limited oral bioavailability observed in preclinical models, the described benefits of BCP may be maximized by using a suitable delivery system. Additionally, human pharmacokinetics (PK) remain unknown. This study evaluates the relative oral bioavailability of BCP formulated in a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) based on VESIsorb® formulation technology (BCP-SEDDS) compared to BCP neat oil. Hence, a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, single oral dose study (100 mg BCP) in 24 healthy subjects (12 men/12 women) was performed under fasting conditions. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed from individual concentration-time curves. The data show that BCP-SEDDS resulted in a 2.2/2.0-fold increase in AUC0–12h/AUC0–24h and a 3.6-fold increase in Cmax compared to BCP neat oil. Moreover, BCP was absorbed faster from BCP-SEDDS (Tmax: 1.43 h) compared to BCP neat oil (Tmax: 3.07 h). Gender analysis revealed that there is no significant difference between men and women for both the investigated formulations and all investigated PK endpoints. In conclusion, BCP-SEDDS offers a well-tolerated and effective oral delivery system to significantly enhance the oral bioavailability of BCP in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Article
Characterization of the Compounds Released in the Gaseous Waste Stream during the Slow Pyrolysis of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
Molecules 2022, 27(9), 2794; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092794 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 677
Abstract
This study aims to characterize and valorize hemp residual biomass by a slow pyrolysis process. The volatile by-products of hemp carbonization were characterized by several methods (TGA, UV-VIS, TLC, Flash Prep-LC, UHPLC, QTOF-MS) to understand the pyrolysis reaction mechanisms and to identify the [...] Read more.
This study aims to characterize and valorize hemp residual biomass by a slow pyrolysis process. The volatile by-products of hemp carbonization were characterized by several methods (TGA, UV-VIS, TLC, Flash Prep-LC, UHPLC, QTOF-MS) to understand the pyrolysis reaction mechanisms and to identify the chemical products produced during the process. The obtained carbon yield was 29%, generating a gaseous stream composed of phenols and furans which was collected in four temperature ranges (F1 at 20–150 °C, F2 at 150–250 °C, F3 at 250–400 °C and F4 at 400–1000 °C). The obtained liquid fractions were separated into subfractions by flash chromatography. The total phenolic content (TPC) varied depending on the fraction but did not correlate with an increase in temperature or with a decrease in pH value. Compounds present in fractions F1, F3 and F4, being mainly phenolic molecules such as guaiacyl or syringyl derivatives issued from the lignin degradation, exhibit antioxidant capacity. The temperature of the pyrolysis process was positively correlated with detectable phenolic content, which can be explained by the decomposition order of the hemp chemical constituents. A detailed understanding of the chemical composition of pyrolysis products of hemp residuals allows for an assessment of their potential valorization routes and the future economic potential of underutilized biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Communication
Identification of p-Coumaric Acid and Ethyl p-Coumarate as the Main Phenolic Components of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Roots
Molecules 2022, 27(9), 2781; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092781 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) contains a variety of secondary metabolites, including cannabinoids, such as psychoactive (−)-trans-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol. The present study was conducted to identify the major phenolic components contained in hemp root, which has been relatively under-researched compared to other parts [...] Read more.
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) contains a variety of secondary metabolites, including cannabinoids, such as psychoactive (−)-trans-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol. The present study was conducted to identify the major phenolic components contained in hemp root, which has been relatively under-researched compared to other parts of hemp. The aqueous ethanol extract of hemp roots was fractionated into methylene chloride (MC), ethyl acetate (EA), and water (WT) fractions, and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis was performed. The main ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing phenolic compound contained in the EA fraction was identified as p-coumaric acid by comparing the retention time and UV absorption spectrum with a standard. Silica gel column chromatography was performed to isolate a hydrophobic derivative of p-coumaric acid contained in the MC fraction. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis identified the isolated compound as ethyl p-coumarate. For comparative purposes, ethyl p-coumarate was also chemically synthesized by the esterification reaction of p-coumaric acid. The content of p-coumaric acid and ethyl p-coumarate in the total extract of hemp root was estimated to be 2.61 mg g−1 and 6.47 mg g−1, respectively, by HPLC-DAD analysis. These values correspond to 84 mg Kg−1 dry root and 216 mg Kg1 dry root, respectively. In conclusion, this study identified p-coumaric acid and ethyl p-coumarate as the main phenolic compounds contained in the hemp roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Article
Cannabidiolic acid in Hemp Seed Oil Table Spoon and Beyond
Molecules 2022, 27(8), 2566; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27082566 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 718
Abstract
Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) is the main precannabinoid in industrial hemp. It represents a common constituent of hemp seed oil, but mainly abundant in the aerial parts of the plant (including their processing waste). Thus, the optimization of fast and low-cost purification strategies is [...] Read more.
Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) is the main precannabinoid in industrial hemp. It represents a common constituent of hemp seed oil, but mainly abundant in the aerial parts of the plant (including their processing waste). Thus, the optimization of fast and low-cost purification strategies is mandatory, as well as a deep investigation on its nutraceutical and cosmeceutical properties. To this purpose, CBDA content in hemp seed oil is evaluated, and its recovery from wasted leaves is favorably achieved. The cytotoxicity screening towards HaCaT cells, by means of MTT, SRB and LDH release assays, suggested it was not able to decrease cell viability or perturb cell integrity up to 10 μM concentration. Thus, the ability of CBDA to differentially modulate the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines mediators has been evaluated, finding that CBDA decreased IFN-γ, CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL4 and CCL5, mostly in a dose-dependent manner, with 10 μM tested concentration exerting the highest activity. These data, together with those from assessing antimicrobial activity against Gram(+) and Gram(−) bacteria and the antibiofilm formation, suggest that CBDA is able to counteract the inflammatory response, also preventing bacteria colonization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Article
Hemp Seeds of the Polish ‘Bialobrzeskie’ and ‘Henola’ Varieties (Cannabis sativa L. var. sativa) as Prospective Plant Sources for Food Production
Molecules 2022, 27(4), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041448 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
This publication characterizes the nutritional value of the Polish hemp seeds of the ‘Bialobrzeskie’ and ‘Henola’ varieties, including the profile/content of fatty acids and amino acids. Hemp seeds were found to be rich in protein, fat, and dietary fiber. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) [...] Read more.
This publication characterizes the nutritional value of the Polish hemp seeds of the ‘Bialobrzeskie’ and ‘Henola’ varieties, including the profile/content of fatty acids and amino acids. Hemp seeds were found to be rich in protein, fat, and dietary fiber. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) dominated the unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) profile. Their average share within the total fatty acids (FA) was as high as 75%. Linoleic acid belonging to this group accounted for 55% of the total FA. Lipid profile indices (Σ n − 6/Σ n − 3, Σ PUFA/Σ SFA, the thrombogenicity index, the atherogenicity index and the hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) proved the high nutritional value of hemp oil. Considering the tyrosine + phenylalanine and histidine contents, hemp protein exhibited a great degree of similarity to egg protein, which is known and valued for its high biological value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Article
A Multimethodological Characterization of Cannabis sativa L. Inflorescences from Seven Dioecious Cultivars Grown in Italy: The Effect of Different Harvesting Stages
Molecules 2021, 26(10), 2912; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102912 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
The chemical profile of the female inflorescence extracts from seven Cannabis sativa L. dioecious cultivars (Carmagnola, Fibranova, Eletta Campana, Antal, Tiborszallasi, Kompolti, and Tisza) was monitored at three harvesting stages (4, 14, and 30 September), reaching from the beginning of flowering to end [...] Read more.
The chemical profile of the female inflorescence extracts from seven Cannabis sativa L. dioecious cultivars (Carmagnola, Fibranova, Eletta Campana, Antal, Tiborszallasi, Kompolti, and Tisza) was monitored at three harvesting stages (4, 14, and 30 September), reaching from the beginning of flowering to end of flowering/beginning of seed formation, using untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and targeted (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and spectrophotometry) analyses. The tetrahydrocannabinol content was always below the legal limits (<0.6%) in all the analyzed samples. The NMR metabolite profile (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, and minor compounds) subjected to principal components analysis (PCA) showed a strong variability according to the harvesting stages: samples harvested in stage I were characterized by a high content of sucrose and myo-inositol, whereas the ones harvested in stage II showed high levels of succinic acid, alanine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and threonine. Samples harvested in stage III were characterized by high levels of glucose, fructose, choline, trigonelline, malic acid, formic acid, and some amino acids. The ratio between chlorophylls and carotenoids content indicated that all plants grew up exposed to the sun, the Eletta Campana cultivar having the highest pigment amount. Tiborszallasi cultivar showed the highest polyphenol content. The highest antioxidant activity was generally observed in stage II. All these results suggested that the Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences of each analyzed dioecious hemp cultivar presented a peculiar chemical profile affected by the harvesting stage. This information could be useful for producers and industries to harvest inflorescences in the appropriate stage to obtain samples with a peculiar chemical profile suitable for proper applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Article
Chemical Analysis of Minor Bioactive Components and Cannabidiolic Acid in Commercial Hemp Seed Oil
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3710; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163710 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2263
Abstract
Although hemp seed (HS) oil is characterized by more than 80% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), a very high ω-6-to-ω-3 ratio is not a popular commodity. The aim of this work was to provide useful data about the bioactive components and cannabidiolic acid content [...] Read more.
Although hemp seed (HS) oil is characterized by more than 80% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), a very high ω-6-to-ω-3 ratio is not a popular commodity. The aim of this work was to provide useful data about the bioactive components and cannabidiolic acid content in thirteen different commercial hemp seed oils. The investigated HS oils showed a good ω-6/ω-3 ratio, ranging from 1.71 to 2.27, massively differed in their chlorophylls (0.041–2.64 µg/g) and carotenoids contents (0.29–1.73 µg/g), as well as in total phenols (22.1–160.8 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/g) and tocopherols (3.47–13.25 mg/100 g). Since the high content of PUFAs in HS oils, photo-oxidative stability was investigated by determining the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay and extinction coefficient K232 and K270 after the photo-oxidative test. The percentage of increase in K232 and K270 ranged from 1.2 to 8.5% and from 3.7 to 26.0%, respectively, indicating good oxidative stability, but TBARS showed a 1.5- to 2.5-fold increase in oxidative behavior when compared to the initial values. Therefore, the diversity in bioactive compounds in HS oils, and their high nutritional value, suggest the need for a disciplinary booklet that well defines agronomic and post-harvest management conditions for achieving a good food objective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Article
Comparative Effects of Dietary Hemp and Poppy Seed Oil on Lipid Metabolism and the Antioxidant Status in Lean and Obese Zucker Rats
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2921; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122921 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3812
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the dietary inclusion of hemp seed oil (HO) and poppy seed oil (PO) on the lipid metabolism and antioxidant status of lean and genetically obese Zucker rats. The rats were fed a [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the dietary inclusion of hemp seed oil (HO) and poppy seed oil (PO) on the lipid metabolism and antioxidant status of lean and genetically obese Zucker rats. The rats were fed a control diet for laboratory rodents or a modification with HO or PO. Both oils reduced body and epididymal fat and liver cholesterol levels and promoted oxidative stress in the liver of obese rats. The HO reduced plasma triglycerides and had a stronger liver cholesterol-lowering effect in obese rats than PO. In the lean rats, HO and PO had no effects on the body fat content, plasma lipid profile, or lipid metabolism in the liver. HO considerably elevated the content of α-linolenic acid in the liver and increased the liver ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in the lean rats. In conclusion, the regular consumption of both oils increases the accumulation of essential fatty acids in the liver of healthy animals, whilst not having any adverse effects on the body, whereas in genetically obese rats, the effects of both dietary oils on the lipid metabolism and antioxidant status are unequivocal and only partially beneficial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Review

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Review
The Medicinal Natural Products of Cannabis sativa Linn.: A Review
Molecules 2022, 27(5), 1689; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27051689 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
Cannabis sativa is known among many cultures for its medicinal potential. Its complexity contributes to the historical application of various parts of the plant in ethno-medicines and pharmacotherapy. C. sativa has been used for the treatment of rheumatism, epilepsy, asthma, skin burns, pain, [...] Read more.
Cannabis sativa is known among many cultures for its medicinal potential. Its complexity contributes to the historical application of various parts of the plant in ethno-medicines and pharmacotherapy. C. sativa has been used for the treatment of rheumatism, epilepsy, asthma, skin burns, pain, the management of sexually transmitted diseases, difficulties during child labor, postpartum hemorrhage, and gastrointestinal activity. However, the use of C. sativa is still limited, and it is illegal in most countries. Thus, this review aims to highlight the biological potential of the plant parts, as well as the techniques for the extraction, isolation, and characterization of C. sativa compounds. The plant produces a unique class of terpenophenolic compounds, called cannabinoids, as well as non-cannabinoid compounds. The exhaustive profiling of bioactive compounds and the chemical characterization and analysis of C. sativa compounds, which modern research has not yet fully achieved, is needed for the consistency, standardization, and the justified application of Cannabis sativa products for therapeutic purposes. Studies on the clinical relevance and applications of cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid phenols in the prevention and treatment of life-threatening diseases is indeed significant. Furthermore, psychoactive cannabinoids, when chemically standardized and administered under medical supervision, can be the legal answer to the use of C. sativa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Review
Applications of Cannabis Sativa L. in Food and Its Therapeutic Potential: From a Prohibited Drug to a Nutritional Supplement
Molecules 2021, 26(24), 7699; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26247699 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a herbaceous anemophilous plant that belongs to the Cannabinaceae family. The cannabis seed (hemp) has long been utilized as a food source and is commercially important as an edible oil source. In this review, the positive and [...] Read more.
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a herbaceous anemophilous plant that belongs to the Cannabinaceae family. The cannabis seed (hemp) has long been utilized as a food source and is commercially important as an edible oil source. In this review, the positive and negative health effects of cannabis, the relationship between cannabis and various diseases, and the use of cannabis in various food products have been discussed. In addition, the scientific literature on the potential use of cannabis and its derivatives as a dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory and chronic degenerative diseases in animals and humans has been reviewed. Cannabis is being developed as a key ingredient in a variety of food items, including bakery, confectionery, beverages, dairy, fruits, vegetables, and meat. Hemp seeds are high in readily digestible proteins, lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), insoluble fiber, carbs, and favorable omega-6 PUFA acid to omega-3 PUFA ratio and have high nutritional value. The antioxidants of cannabis, such as polyphenols, help with anxiety, oxidative stress, and the risk of chronic illnesses, including cancer, neurological disorders, digestive problems, and skin diseases. Cannabis has been shown to have negative health impacts on the respiratory system, driving, and psychomotor functions, and the reproductive system. Overall, the purpose of this research is to stimulate more in-depth research on cannabis’s adaptation in various foods and for the treatment of chronic illnesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Review
Cannabinoids—Characteristics and Potential for Use in Food Production
Molecules 2021, 26(21), 6723; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216723 - 06 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
Scientific demonstrations of the beneficial effects of non-psychoactive cannabinoids on the human body have increased the interest in foods containing hemp components. This review systematizes the latest discoveries relating to the characteristics of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L. var. sativa, it also [...] Read more.
Scientific demonstrations of the beneficial effects of non-psychoactive cannabinoids on the human body have increased the interest in foods containing hemp components. This review systematizes the latest discoveries relating to the characteristics of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L. var. sativa, it also presents a characterization of the mentioned plant. In this review, we present data on the opportunities and limitations of cannabinoids in food production. This article systematizes the data on the legal aspects, mainly the limits of Δ9-THC in food, the most popular analytical techniques (LC-MS and GC-MS) applied to assay cannabinoids in finished products, and the available data on the stability of cannabinoids during heating, storage, and access to light and oxygen. This may constitute a major challenge to their common use in food processing, as well as the potential formation of undesirable degradation products. Hemp-containing foods have great potential to become commercially popular among functional foods, provided that our understanding of cannabinoid stability in different food matrices and cannabinoid interactions with particular food ingredients are expanded. There remains a need for more data on the effects of technological processes and storage on cannabinoid degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Review
Cancer Initiation, Progression and Resistance: Are Phytocannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L. Promising Compounds?
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092668 - 02 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4125
Abstract
Cannabis sativa L. is a source of over 150 active compounds known as phytocannabinoids that are receiving renewed interest due to their diverse pharmacologic activities. Indeed, phytocannabinoids mimic the endogenous bioactive endocannabinoids effects through activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors widely described in [...] Read more.
Cannabis sativa L. is a source of over 150 active compounds known as phytocannabinoids that are receiving renewed interest due to their diverse pharmacologic activities. Indeed, phytocannabinoids mimic the endogenous bioactive endocannabinoids effects through activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors widely described in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. All phytocannabinoids have been studied for their protective actions towards different biological mechanisms, including inflammation, immune response, oxidative stress that, altogether, result in an inhibitory activity against the carcinogenesis. The role of the endocannabinoid system is not yet completely clear in cancer, but several studies indicate that cannabinoid receptors and endogenous ligands are overexpressed in different tumor tissues. Recently, in vitro and in vivo evidence support the effectiveness of phytocannabinoids against various cancer types, in terms of proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis, actions partially due to their ability to regulate signaling pathways critical for cell growth and survival. The aim of this review was to report the current knowledge about the action of phytocannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L. against cancer initiation and progression with a specific regard to brain, breast, colorectal, and lung cancer as well as their possible use in the therapies. We will also report the known molecular mechanisms responsible for such positive effects. Finally, we will describe the actual therapeutic options for Cannabis sativa L. and the ongoing clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Review
Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) as an Emerging Source for Value-Added Functional Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4078; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184078 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 5825
Abstract
Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae) is an ancient cultivated plant originating from Central Asia and historically has been a multi-use crop valued for its fiber, food, and medicinal uses. Various oriental and Asian cultures kept records of its production and numerous [...] Read more.
Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae) is an ancient cultivated plant originating from Central Asia and historically has been a multi-use crop valued for its fiber, food, and medicinal uses. Various oriental and Asian cultures kept records of its production and numerous uses. Due to the similarities between industrial hemp (fiber and grain) and the narcotic/medical type of Cannabis, the production of industrial hemp was prohibited in most countries, wiping out centuries of learning and genetic resources. In the past two decades, most countries have legalized industrial hemp production, prompting a significant amount of research on the health benefits of hemp and hemp products. Current research is yet to verify the various health claims of the numerous commercially available hemp products. Hence, this review aims to compile recent advances in the science of industrial hemp, with respect to its use as value-added functional food ingredients/nutraceuticals and health benefits, while also highlighting gaps in our current knowledge and avenues of future research on this high-value multi-use plant for the global food chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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Review
(‒)-Cannabidiolic Acid, a Still Overlooked Bioactive Compound: An Introductory Review and Preliminary Research
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2638; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112638 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3742
Abstract
Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) is the main phytocannabinoid in fiber and seed-oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) plants, but its potential health-related capabilities have been masked for years by a greater scientific interest towards its neutral derivative cannabidiol (CBD). This review aims to collect [...] Read more.
Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) is the main phytocannabinoid in fiber and seed-oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) plants, but its potential health-related capabilities have been masked for years by a greater scientific interest towards its neutral derivative cannabidiol (CBD). This review aims to collect from the literature and critically discuss all the information about this molecule, starting from its biosynthesis, and focusing on its bioactivity, as an anti-inflammatory, anti-emetic, anti-convulsant, and anti-cancerogenic drug. Furthermore, in the awareness that, despite its multiple bioactive effects, currently poor efforts have been made to achieve its reliable purification, herein, we propose a relatively simple, fast, and inexpensive procedure for its recovery from pollen of industrial hemp cultivars. Spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques allowed us to unequivocally identify pure isolated CBDA and to distinguish it from the constitutional isomer tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA-A). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
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