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Identification of p-Coumaric Acid and Ethyl p-Coumarate as the Main Phenolic Components of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Roots
Article

Characterization of the Compounds Released in the Gaseous Waste Stream during the Slow Pyrolysis of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

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InnoRenew CoE, Livade 6, 6310 Izola, Slovenia
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Andrej Marušič Institute, University of Primorska, Muzejski Trg 2, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
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Biorefinery Laboratory, Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry, Str. Dzerbenes 27, LV-1006 Riga, Latvia
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Faculty of Mathematics Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Muzejski Trg 2, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
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Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Plaza Europa 1, 20018 San Sebastián, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Severina Pacifico
Molecules 2022, 27(9), 2794; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092794
Received: 4 April 2022 / Revised: 21 April 2022 / Accepted: 23 April 2022 / Published: 27 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Hemp Chemistry and Nutraceutical Perspectives)
This study aims to characterize and valorize hemp residual biomass by a slow pyrolysis process. The volatile by-products of hemp carbonization were characterized by several methods (TGA, UV-VIS, TLC, Flash Prep-LC, UHPLC, QTOF-MS) to understand the pyrolysis reaction mechanisms and to identify the chemical products produced during the process. The obtained carbon yield was 29%, generating a gaseous stream composed of phenols and furans which was collected in four temperature ranges (F1 at 20–150 °C, F2 at 150–250 °C, F3 at 250–400 °C and F4 at 400–1000 °C). The obtained liquid fractions were separated into subfractions by flash chromatography. The total phenolic content (TPC) varied depending on the fraction but did not correlate with an increase in temperature or with a decrease in pH value. Compounds present in fractions F1, F3 and F4, being mainly phenolic molecules such as guaiacyl or syringyl derivatives issued from the lignin degradation, exhibit antioxidant capacity. The temperature of the pyrolysis process was positively correlated with detectable phenolic content, which can be explained by the decomposition order of the hemp chemical constituents. A detailed understanding of the chemical composition of pyrolysis products of hemp residuals allows for an assessment of their potential valorization routes and the future economic potential of underutilized biomass. View Full-Text
Keywords: residual stream; hemp by-products; slow pyrolysis; gaseous phase; thermal decomposition; biocompounds residual stream; hemp by-products; slow pyrolysis; gaseous phase; thermal decomposition; biocompounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marrot, L.; Meile, K.; Zouari, M.; DeVallance, D.; Sandak, A.; Herrera, R. Characterization of the Compounds Released in the Gaseous Waste Stream during the Slow Pyrolysis of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Molecules 2022, 27, 2794. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092794

AMA Style

Marrot L, Meile K, Zouari M, DeVallance D, Sandak A, Herrera R. Characterization of the Compounds Released in the Gaseous Waste Stream during the Slow Pyrolysis of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Molecules. 2022; 27(9):2794. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092794

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marrot, Laetitia, Kristine Meile, Mariem Zouari, David DeVallance, Anna Sandak, and Rene Herrera. 2022. "Characterization of the Compounds Released in the Gaseous Waste Stream during the Slow Pyrolysis of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)" Molecules 27, no. 9: 2794. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092794

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