Special Issue "Polymetallic Metallogenic System"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Deposits".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Liqiang Yang
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, China
Interests: orogenic gold; porphyry polymetal systems; water-rock reaction; mineral exploration; igneous petrology; structural geology in mineral deposit; ore-forming evolution

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Within the last decade, the high and continuing demand for precious and base metals, as well as critical elements, has prompted a global rush on a scale never before seen. This eventually resulted in the demand for considerable innovation and improvement in mineral deposit genetic modelling and ore formation regimes for the many different types of gold deposits, now recognized, and paralleled by the wide employment of exploration techniques and a rapid expansion of geological databases.

This Special Issue will show case studies of porphyry polymetal systems, orogenic gold formations, water–rock reaction, ore-forming structure evolution, mineralogy and petrology of ore deposit, ore formation regime, geochronology and geochemistry of ore deposit, ore-forming evolution, mineral exploration and cutting-edge technology in ore deposit study.

We invite contributions on mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry, geochronology, and structure geology of ore-deposit formation and mineral exploration across all scales. Contributions from areas that integrate quantitative and qualitative techniques, including isotopic tracer and microanalysis, with field-based observations, as well as experimental analogues and theoretical models, are also welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Liqiang Yang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Porphyry polymetal systems
  • Orogenic gold deposit
  • Water-rock reaction
  • Ore-forming structure evolution
  • Mineralogy and petrology of ore deposit
  • Ore formation regime
  • Geochronology and geochemistry of ore deposit
  • Ore-forming evolution
  • Mineral exploration
  • New technology in ore deposit study

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Polymetallic Metallogenic System”
Minerals 2019, 9(7), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9070435 - 15 Jul 2019
Abstract
In the last century, following the development of Earth System Science, the metallogenic system has become an important topic in the study of mineral deposits [...] Full article
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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Trace Element Geochemistry in Quartz in the Jinqingding Gold Deposit, Jiaodong Peninsula, China: Implications for the Gold Precipitation Mechanism
Minerals 2019, 9(5), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9050326 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Lots of studies on gold precipitation mechanisms have focused on fluid inclusions within quartz. However, the trace elements in quartz reflect the properties of the ore fluid, and a comparison of the trace element content in different types of quartz can reveal the [...] Read more.
Lots of studies on gold precipitation mechanisms have focused on fluid inclusions within quartz. However, the trace elements in quartz reflect the properties of the ore fluid, and a comparison of the trace element content in different types of quartz can reveal the precipitation mechanism. The Jinqingding gold deposit is the largest gold deposit in the Muping–Rushan gold belt and contains the largest single sulfide–quartz vein type orebody in the gold belt. This study distinguished four types of quartz in this orebody through field work and investigations of the mineralogy and cathodoluminescence (CL) of the quartz and crosscutting relationships as seen under a microscope. In situ studies via electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were used to determine the trace element content of the different quartz types. Type Qa displayed a comb structure in the field and zoning under the microscope and in CL. Milky white and smoke grey Qb was the most common quartz type and hosted the most sulfide and gold. Qc was Qa and Qb quartz that recrystallized around pyrite or overgrew and appeared different from Qa and Qb in CL images. Qd occurred within fractures in pyrite. Qa formed prior to the mineralization of gold, and Qd formed post-mineralization. Qb and Qc provided information regarding the ore fluid during mineralization. Sericites occurred with pyrite in fractures in the quartz, and some, along with free gold, filled in fractures in pyrite. Free gold occurred within Qa, Qb, Qc, and in brittle fractures in pyrite. Qc had the lowest Al content of all of the quartz types. As Al content is related to the acidity of the ore fluid in previous study, this indicated an acidity decrease during mineralization, which could be attributed to the sericitization. Sericitization could indicate a potential gold occurrence. The Ti content decreased from Qb to Qc, indicating a decrease in temperature during quartz overgrowth formation. Change in acidity and cooling can therefore be identified as possible causes of gold precipitation in the sulfide–quartz vein type in the Jinqingding gold deposit. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geochemical Characteristics of A-Type Granite near the Hongyan Cu-Polymetallic Deposit in the Eastern Hegenshan-Heihe Suture Zone, NE China: Implications for Petrogenesis, Mineralization and Tectonic Setting
Minerals 2019, 9(5), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9050309 - 18 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the eastern Hegenshan-Heihe suture zone (HHSZ) of NE China, Cu-Au hydrothermal mineralization at the newly discovered Hongyan deposit is associated with the Shanshenfu alkali-feldspar granite (SAFG). Zircon U-Pb dating showed that the inner phase and outer phase of the SAFG were formed [...] Read more.
In the eastern Hegenshan-Heihe suture zone (HHSZ) of NE China, Cu-Au hydrothermal mineralization at the newly discovered Hongyan deposit is associated with the Shanshenfu alkali-feldspar granite (SAFG). Zircon U-Pb dating showed that the inner phase and outer phase of the SAFG were formed at 298.8 ± 1.0 Ma and 298.5 ± 1.0 Ma, respectively. Whole rock geochemistry suggests that the SAFG can be classified as an A-type granite. Halfnium isotopes and trace elements in zircon suggest that the SAFG has high Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperature (721–990 °C), high magmatic oxygen fugacity and largely positive εHf(t) (from +6.0 to +9.9). We proposed that the SAFG was derived from crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization of juvenile crust metasomatized by subducting oceanic crust. The high oxygen fugacity of the SAFG suggests the chalcophile elements (e.g., Cu, Au) remained in the magma as opposed to the magma source. An arc-related juvenile source favors enrichment of Cu and Au in the resulting magma. Combined, these magmatic characteristics suggest Cu ± Au exploration potential for magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization related to the SAFG, and similar bodies along the HHSZ. The results obtained combined with regional geological background suggest that the Permian A-type granites and related mineralization along the HHSZ were formed in a post-collisional slab break-off process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geochemistry, Zircon U–Pb Geochronology, and Lu–Hf Isotopes of the Chishan Alkaline Complex, Western Shandong, China
Minerals 2019, 9(5), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9050293 - 13 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Mass alkaline magmatic activities in Western Shandong during the late Mesozoic controlled the mineralization processes of gold and rare earth element (REE) polymetallic deposits in the region. The Chishan alkaline complex is closely associated with the mineralization of the Chishan REE deposit, which, [...] Read more.
Mass alkaline magmatic activities in Western Shandong during the late Mesozoic controlled the mineralization processes of gold and rare earth element (REE) polymetallic deposits in the region. The Chishan alkaline complex is closely associated with the mineralization of the Chishan REE deposit, which, as the third largest light REE deposit in China following the Baiyenebo (Inner Mongolia) and Mianning (Sichuan) deposits, is considered a typical example of alkaline rock mineralization throughout the North China Craton. To determine how the Chishan alkaline complex and REE deposit interact with each other, a systematic study was conducted on the petrology, rock geochemistry, zircon U–Pb geochronology, Lu–Hf isotopes of the quartz syenite, and alkali granite contained in the Chishan alkaline complex. The results reveal that the deposits feature similar geochemical characteristics typical of an alkaline rock series—both are rich in alkali, high in potassium, metaluminous, and poor in Ti, Fe, Mg, and Mn. In terms of REEs, the deposits are strongly rich in light REEs but poor in heavy REEs, with weak negative Eu anomalies. In terms of trace elements, they are rich in large ion lithophile elements Ba, Sr, and Rb but poor in high field-strength elements Nb, Ta, and Hf. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U–Pb dating indicated that the quartz syenite and alkali granite formed in Early Cretaceous at 125.8 ± 1.2 Ma and 127.3 ± 1.0 Ma, respectively; their εHf(t) values are −22.67 to −13.19, with depleted model ages (TDM) ranging from 1296 Ma to 1675 Ma and crustal model ages (TDMC) of 2036–2617 Ma. The Chishan alkaline complex originated from partial of the EM I-type (enriched mantle I) lithospheric mantle with assimilation of ancient crustal materials. The complex is of the same origin as the REE deposit, and developed in an extensional setting that resulted from plate subduction and lithospheric thinning and upwelling in the eastern area of the North China Craton. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Petrogenesis of the Early Cretaceous Tiantangshan A-Type Granite, Cathaysia Block, SE China: Implication for the Tin Mineralization
Minerals 2019, 9(5), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9050257 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The newly discovered Tiantangshan tin polymetallic deposit is located in the southeast Nanling Range, Cathaysia block, Southeast China. The tin orebodies are mainly hosted in the greisen and the fractured alteration zones of the tufflava and trachydacite. However, the genetic relationship between the [...] Read more.
The newly discovered Tiantangshan tin polymetallic deposit is located in the southeast Nanling Range, Cathaysia block, Southeast China. The tin orebodies are mainly hosted in the greisen and the fractured alteration zones of the tufflava and trachydacite. However, the genetic relationship between the hidden alkali-feldspar granite and volcanic rocks and the tin mineralization remains poorly understood. This paper presents SHRIMP zircon U–Pb dating, whole-rock major and trace element analyses, as well as Nd isotopic data of the trachydacite and alkali-feldspar granite. The SHRIMP zircon U–Pb dating of the alkali-feldspar granite and trachydacite yields weight mean 206Pb/238U ages of 138.4 ± 1.2, and 136.2 ± 1.2 Ma, respectively. These granitic rocks have high levels of SiO2 (64.2–75.4 wt%, mostly > 68 wt%), alkalis (K2O + Na2O > 8.3 wt%), REE (except for Eu), HFSE (Zr + Nb + Ce + Y > 350 ppm) and Ga/Al ratios (10,000 × Ga/Al > 2.6), suggesting that they belong to the A-type granite. According to the high Y/Nb and Yb/Ta ratios, they can be further classified into A1 subtype. Their εNd (T) range from −3.8 to −6.5. They were likely generated by the assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) of the coeval oceanic island basalts -like basaltic magma. This study suggests that the A1 type granite is also a potential candidate for the exploration of tin deposits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geochronology of Magmatism and Mineralization in the Dongbulage Mo-Polymetallic Deposit, Northeast China: Implications for the Timing of Mineralization and Ore Genesis
Minerals 2019, 9(5), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9050255 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The recently discovered Dongbulage Mo-polymetallic deposit is located in the southern part of the Great Xing’an Range, northeast China. Mineralization is closely related to the emplacement of Middle–Late Jurassic granitoids. In order to understand the petrogenetic link between mineralization and host granitoids, this [...] Read more.
The recently discovered Dongbulage Mo-polymetallic deposit is located in the southern part of the Great Xing’an Range, northeast China. Mineralization is closely related to the emplacement of Middle–Late Jurassic granitoids. In order to understand the petrogenetic link between mineralization and host granitoids, this study presents new zircon U–Pb ages, bulk-rock geochemistry, and molybdenite Re–Os ages for the Dongbulage deposits. LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb dating of the monzogranite and syenogranite intrusions yielded two weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages: of 164 ± 2 Ma and 165 ± 3 Ma, respectively. The subvolcanic rocks (red porphyritic granite and rhyolite) yielded a time interval between 161 ± 2 and 162 ± 3 Ma. In addition, molybdenite from the Dongbulage deposit gave a Re–Os isochron age of 162.6 ± 1.5 Ma, which was interpreted as the age of the mineralization. The new geochronology has established the close temporal and genetic relationships between the mineralization event and the emplacement of the Middle–Late Jurassic granitoids. Bulk-rock geochemistry shows that the Dongbulage granitoids are characterized by high SiO2, K2O, and A/CNK [Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O)(molar ratio)] values, and low TiO2, CaO, and MgO values, indicating a metaluminous to peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline affinity. The granitoids also featured enrichments of large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements (LREE), and a relative depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE), along with an increasing negative δEu anomaly. The high differentiation index (DI), ranging from 81.75 to 94.76, and obvious fractionation between LREE and HREE, indicate that the Dongbulage granitoids are highly fractionated, metaluminous–peraluminous, and high-K calc-alkaline I-type granites. Combined with the regional geology, the Dongbulage granitoids may have formed during post-orogenic extension that followed the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean closure coeval with subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Thermal and Dynamic Process of Core → Mantle → Crust and the Metallogenesis of Guojiadian Mantle Branch in Northwestern Jiaodong
Minerals 2019, 9(4), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9040249 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Jiaodong gold mineral province, with an overall endowment estimated as >3000 t, located at the eastern segment of the North China Craton (NCC), ranks as the greatest source of Au in China. The structural evolution, magmatic activity and metallogenesis during the Mesozoic [...] Read more.
The Jiaodong gold mineral province, with an overall endowment estimated as >3000 t, located at the eastern segment of the North China Craton (NCC), ranks as the greatest source of Au in China. The structural evolution, magmatic activity and metallogenesis during the Mesozoic played important roles in the large scale regional gold, silver and polymetallic mineralization in this area; among them, the intensive activation of fault structures is the most important factor for metallogenesis. This study takes the regional deep faults as main thread to discuss the controlling role of faults in large scale metallogenesis. The Jiaojia fault and Sanshandao faults in the northwest margin of the Guojiadian mantle branch not only are dominant migration channels for hydrothermal fluid but are very important favorable spaces for ore-forming and ore-hosting during the formation of world-class super large gold deposits in this area. The deep metallogenic process can be summarized as involving intensive Earth’s core, mantle and crust activity → magmatism → uplifting of metamorphic complex → detachment of cover rocks → formation of mantle branch → penetration of hydrothermal fluid along deep faults → concentration of metallogenic materials → formation of super large deposits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mineralogy and Garnet Sm–Nd Dating for the Hongshan Skarn Deposit in the Zhongdian Area, SW China
Minerals 2019, 9(4), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9040243 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Hongshan deposit is one of the largest Cu-polymetallic deposits in the Zhongdian area, southwest China. Two types of Cu–Mo ores, mainly developed in the skarns, have been recognized in the Hongshan deposit, i.e., massive or layered skarn and vein-type, with the former [...] Read more.
The Hongshan deposit is one of the largest Cu-polymetallic deposits in the Zhongdian area, southwest China. Two types of Cu–Mo ores, mainly developed in the skarns, have been recognized in the Hongshan deposit, i.e., massive or layered skarn and vein-type, with the former being dominant. The highly andraditic composition of garnet (Adr100 to Adr64Gr32) and diopsidic composition of pyroxene (Di90Hd9 to Di1Hd99) indicate the layered skarn ores are of magmatic-hydrothermal origin that formed under oxidized conditions. Sm–Nd dating of garnet yield a well-constrained isochron age of 76.48 ± 7.29 Ma (MSWD = 1.2) for the layered skarn ores. This age was consistent with the Re–Os age for the pyrrhotite from the layered skarn ores, and thereby indicated that the layered skarn mineralization was formed in the Late Cretaceous, rather than in the Triassic as was previously thought. The coincidence of the geochronology from the layered skarn ores and vein-type mineralization further indicated that both ores were the result of a single genetic event, rather than multiple events. The recognition of the Late Cretaceous post-collisional porphyry–skarn Cu–Mo–W belt in the Zhongdian area exhibited a promising prospecting potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geostatistical Determination of Ore Shoot Plunge and Structural Control of the Sizhuang World-Class Epizonal Orogenic Gold Deposit, Jiaodong Peninsula, China
Minerals 2019, 9(4), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9040214 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Jiaodong Peninsula in eastern China is the third largest gold-mining area and one of the most important orogenic gold provinces in the world. Ore shoots plunging in specific orientations are a ubiquitous feature of the Jiaodong lode deposits. The Sizhuang gold deposit, [...] Read more.
The Jiaodong Peninsula in eastern China is the third largest gold-mining area and one of the most important orogenic gold provinces in the world. Ore shoots plunging in specific orientations are a ubiquitous feature of the Jiaodong lode deposits. The Sizhuang gold deposit, located in northwestern Jiaodong, is characterized by orebodies of different occurrences. The orientation of ore shoots has remained unresolved for a long time. In this paper, geostatistical tools were used to determine the plunge and structural control of ore shoots in the Sizhuang deposit. The ellipses determined by variogram modeling reveal the anisotropy of mineralization, plus the shape, size, and orientation of individual ore shoots. The long axes of the anisotropy ellipses trend NE or SEE and plunge 48° NE down the dip. However, individual ore shoots plunge almost perpendicular to the plunge of the ore deposit as a whole. This geometry is interpreted to have resulted from two periods of fluid flow parallel to two sets of striations that we identified on ore-controlling faults. Thrust-related lineations with a sinistral strike-slip component were associated with early-stage mineralization. This was overprinted by dextral and normal movement of the ore-controlling fault that controlled the late-stage mineralization. This kinematic switch caused a change in the upflow direction of ore-forming fluid, which in turn controlled the orientation of the large-scale orebodies and the subvertical plunge of individual ore shoots. Thus, a regional transition from NW-to-SE-trending compression to NW-to-SE-trending extension is interpreted as the geodynamic background of the ore-forming process. This research exemplifies an effective exploration strategy for studying the structural control of the geometry, orientation, and grade distribution of orebodies via the integration of geostatistical tools and structural analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genesis of the Koka Gold Deposit in Northwest Eritrea, NE Africa: Constraints from Fluid Inclusions and C–H–O–S Isotopes
Minerals 2019, 9(4), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9040201 - 27 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The Koka gold deposit is located in the Elababu shear zone between the Nakfa terrane and the Adobha Abiy terrane, NW Eritrea. Based on a paragenetic study, two main stages of gold mineralization were identified in the Koka gold deposit: (1) an early [...] Read more.
The Koka gold deposit is located in the Elababu shear zone between the Nakfa terrane and the Adobha Abiy terrane, NW Eritrea. Based on a paragenetic study, two main stages of gold mineralization were identified in the Koka gold deposit: (1) an early stage of pyrite–chalcopyrite–sphalerite–galena–gold–quartz vein; and (2) a second stage of pyrite–quartz veins. NaCl-aqueous inclusions, CO2-rich inclusions, and three-phase CO2–H2O inclusions occur in the quartz veins at Koka. The ore-bearing quartz veins formed at 268 °C from NaCl–CO2–H2O(–CH4) fluids averaging 5 wt% NaCl eq. The ore-forming mechanisms include fluid immiscibility during stage I, and mixing with meteoric water during stage II. Oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon isotopes suggest that the ore-forming fluids originated as mixtures of metamorphic water and magmatic water, whereas the sulfur isotope suggests an igneous origin. The features of geology and ore-forming fluid at the Koka deposit are similar to those of orogenic gold deposits, suggesting that the Koka deposit might be an orogenic gold deposit related to granite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geological, Geochronological, and Geochemical Insights into the Formation of the Giant Pulang Porphyry Cu (–Mo–Au) Deposit in Northwestern Yunnan Province, SW China
Minerals 2019, 9(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9030191 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The giant Pulang porphyry Cu (–Mo–Au) deposit in Northwestern Yunnan Province, China, is located in the southern part of the Triassic Yidun Arc. The Cu orebodies are mainly hosted in quartz monzonite porphyry (QMP) intruding quartz diorite porphyry (QDP) and cut by granodiorite [...] Read more.
The giant Pulang porphyry Cu (–Mo–Au) deposit in Northwestern Yunnan Province, China, is located in the southern part of the Triassic Yidun Arc. The Cu orebodies are mainly hosted in quartz monzonite porphyry (QMP) intruding quartz diorite porphyry (QDP) and cut by granodiorite porphyry (GP). New LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb ages indicate that QDP (227 ± 2 Ma), QMP (218 ± 1 Ma, 219 ± 1 Ma), and GP (209 ± 1 Ma) are significantly different in age; however, the molybdenite Re–Os isochron age (218 ± 2 Ma) indicates a close temporal and genetic relationship between Cu mineralization and QMP. Pulang porphyry intrusions are enriched in light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), and depleted in heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) and high field-strength elements (HFSEs), with moderately negative Eu anomalies. They are high in SiO2, Al2O3, Sr, Na2O/K2O, Mg#, and Sr/Y, but low in Y, and Yb, suggesting a geochemical affinity to high-silica (HSA) adakitic rocks. These features are used to infer that the Pulang HSA porphyry intrusions were derived from the partial melting of a basaltic oceanic-slab. These magmas reacted with peridotite during their ascent through the mantle wedge. This is interpreted to indicate that the Pulang Cu deposit and associated magmatism can be linked to the synchronous westward subduction of the Ganzi–Litang oceanic lithosphere, which has been established as Late Triassic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ore-Fluid Evolution of the Sizhuang Orogenic Gold Deposit, Jiaodong Peninsula, China
Minerals 2019, 9(3), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9030190 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Sizhuang gold deposit with a proven gold resource of >120 t, located in northwest Jiaodong Peninsula in China, lies in the southern part of the Jiaojia gold belt. Gold mineralization can be divided into altered rock type, auriferous quartz vein type, and [...] Read more.
The Sizhuang gold deposit with a proven gold resource of >120 t, located in northwest Jiaodong Peninsula in China, lies in the southern part of the Jiaojia gold belt. Gold mineralization can be divided into altered rock type, auriferous quartz vein type, and sulfide-quartz veinlet in K-feldspar altered granite. According to mineral paragenesis and mineral crosscutting relationships, three stages of metal mineralization can be identified: early stage, main stage, and late stage. Gold mainly occurs in the main stage. The petrography and microthermometry of fluid inclusion shows three types of inclusions (type 1 H2O–CO2 inclusions, type 2 aqueous inclusions, and type 3 CO2 inclusions). Early stage quartz-hosted inclusions have a trapped temperatures range 303–390 °C. The gold-rich main stage contains a fluid-inclusion cluster with both type 1 and 2 inclusions (trapped between 279 and 298 °C), and a wide range of homogenization temperatures of CO2 occurs to the vapor phase (17.6 to 30.5 °C). The late stage calcite only contains type 1 inclusions with homogenization temperatures between 195 and 289 °C. With evidences from the H–O isotope data and the study of water–rock interaction, the metamorphic water of the Jiaodong Group is considered to be the dominating source for the ore-forming fluid. The ore-fluid belonged to a CO2–H2O–NaCl system with medium-low temperature (160–360 °C), medium-low salinity (3.00–11.83 wt% NaCl eq.), and low density (1.51–1.02 g/cm3). Fluid immiscibility caused by pressure fluctuation is the key mechanism in inducing gold mineralization in the Sizhuang gold deposit. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Origin and Evolution of Ore-Forming Fluid and Gold-Deposition Processes at the Sanshandao Gold Deposit, Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China
Minerals 2019, 9(3), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9030189 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Early Cretaceous Sanshandao gold deposit, the largest deposit in the Sanshandao-Cangshang goldfield, is located in the northwestern part of the Jiaodong peninsula. It is host to Mesozoic granitoids and is controlled by the north by northeast (NNE) to northeast (NE)-trending Sanshandao-Cangshang fault. [...] Read more.
The Early Cretaceous Sanshandao gold deposit, the largest deposit in the Sanshandao-Cangshang goldfield, is located in the northwestern part of the Jiaodong peninsula. It is host to Mesozoic granitoids and is controlled by the north by northeast (NNE) to northeast (NE)-trending Sanshandao-Cangshang fault. Two gold mineralizations were identified in the deposit’s disseminated and stockwork veinlets and quartz–sulfide veins, which are typically enveloped by broad alteration selvages. Based on the cross-cutting relationships and mineralogical and textural characteristics, four stages have been identified for both styles of mineralization: Pyrite–quartz (stage 1), quartz–pyrite (stage 2), quartz–pyrite–base metal–sulfide (stage 3), and quartz–carbonate (stage 4), with gold mainly occurring in stages 2 and 3. Three types of fluid inclusion have been distinguished on the basis of fluid-inclusion assemblages in quartz and calcite from the four stages: Pure CO2 gas (type I), CO2–H2O inclusions (type II), and aqueous inclusions (type III). Early-stage (stage 1) quartz primary inclusions are only type II inclusions, with trapping at 280–400 °C and salinity at 0.35 wt %–10.4 wt % NaCl equivalent. The main mineralizing stages (stages 2 and 3) typically contain primary fluid-inclusion assemblages of all three types, which show similar phase transition temperatures and are trapped between 210 and 320 °C. The late stage (stage 4) quartz and calcite contain only type III aqueous inclusions with trapping temperatures of 150–230 °C. The δ34S values of the hydrothermal sulfides from the main stage range from 7.7‰ to 12.6‰ with an average of 10.15‰. The δ18O values of hydrothermal quartz mainly occur between 9.7‰ and 15.1‰ (mainly 10.7‰–12.5‰, average 12.4‰); calculated fluid δ18O values are from 0.97‰ to 10.79‰ with a median value of 5.5‰. The δDwater values calculated from hydrothermal sericite range from −67‰ to −48‰. Considering the fluid-inclusion compositions, δ18O and δD compositions of ore-forming fluids, and regional geological events, the most likely ultimate potential fluid and metal would have originated from dehydration and desulfidation of the subducting paleo-Pacific slab and the subsequent devolatilization of the enriched mantle wedge. Fluid immiscibility occurred during the main ore-forming stage due to pressure decrease from the early stage (165–200 MPa) to the main stage (90–175 MPa). Followed by the changing physical and chemical conditions, the metallic elements (including Au) in the fluid could no longer exist in the form of complexes and precipitated from the fluid. Water–rock sulfidation and pressure fluctuations, with associated fluid unmixing and other chemical changes, were the two main mechanisms of gold deposition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Petrogenesis of Low Sr and High Yb A-Type Granitoids in the Xianghualing Sn Polymetallic Deposit, South China: Constrains from Geochronology and Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf Isotopes
Minerals 2019, 9(3), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9030182 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The nature and origin of the early Yanshanian granitoids, widespread in the South China Block, shed light on their geodynamic setting; however, understanding their magmatism processes remains a challenge. In this paper, we present both major and trace elements of bulk rock, Sr–Nd–Pb [...] Read more.
The nature and origin of the early Yanshanian granitoids, widespread in the South China Block, shed light on their geodynamic setting; however, understanding their magmatism processes remains a challenge. In this paper, we present both major and trace elements of bulk rock, Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic geochemistry, and zircon U–Pb–Hf isotopes of the low Sr and high Yb A2-type granites, which were investigated with the aim to further constrain their petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Zircon U–Pb dating indicates that these granites were emplaced at ca. 153 Ma. The granites are characterized by high SiO2 (>74 wt.%) and low Al2O3 content (11.0 wt.%–12.7 wt.%; <13.9 wt.%). They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) (e.g., Rb, Th, U, and K) and Yb, but depleted in high field-strength elements (HFSEs) (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf), Sr, Ba P, Ti and Eu concentrations. They exhibit enriched rare earth elements (REEs) with pronounced negative Eu anomalies. They have εNd(t) values in a range from −6.5 to −9.3, and a corresponding TDM model age of 1.5 to 1.7 Ga. They have a (206Pb/204Pb)t value ranging from 18.523 to 18.654, a (207Pb/204Pb)t value varying from 15.762 to 15.797, and a (208Pb/204Pb)t value ranging from 39.101 to 39.272. The yield εHf(t) ranges from −6.1 to −2.1, with crustal model ages (TDMC) of 1.3 to 1.6 Ga. These features indicate that the low Sr and high Yb weakly peraluminous A2-type granites were generated by overlying partial melting caused by the upwelling of the asthenosphere in an extensional tectonic setting. The rollback of the Paleo-Pacific Plate is the most plausible combined mechanism for the petrogenesis of A2-type granites, which contributed to the Sn–W polymetallic mineralization along the Shi-Hang zone in South China. Full article
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Lithospheric Architecture and Metallogenesis in Liaodong Peninsula, North China Craton: Insights from Zircon Hf-Nd Isotope Mapping
Minerals 2019, 9(3), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9030179 - 14 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Liaodong Peninsula is an important mineral province in northern China. Elucidating its lithospheric architecture and structural evolution is important for gold metallogenic research and exploration in the region. In this study, Hf-Nd isotope maps from magmatic rocks are constructed and compared to [...] Read more.
The Liaodong Peninsula is an important mineral province in northern China. Elucidating its lithospheric architecture and structural evolution is important for gold metallogenic research and exploration in the region. In this study, Hf-Nd isotope maps from magmatic rocks are constructed and compared to geological maps to correlate isotopic signatures with geological features. It is found that gold deposits of different age periods in Liaodong are located in areas with specific εHf(t) and εNd ranges (Triassic: from −8 to −4 and from −12 to −8, Jurassic: from −22 to −8 and from −14 to −8, Cretaceous: from −12 to −10 and from −22 to −20), respectively. This may reflect that when the Paleo-Pacific plate was subducted beneath the North China Craton, the magma was derived from the juvenile lower crust and the ancient lower crust, and formed the low-to-moderate hydrothermal Au-(Ag) and Pb-Zn deposits in the Triassic. In the Jurassic, continued subduction may have led to lithospheric thickening. Subsequently, the magma from the ancient lower crust upwelled and formed low-to-moderate hydrothermal Au deposits and porphyry Mo deposits. In the Cretaceous, crustal delamination may have taken place. The magma from the ancient lower crust upwelled and formed various low-to-moderate hydrothermal Au deposits. Full article
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Process and Mechanism of Gold Mineralization at the Zhengchong Gold Deposit, Jiangnan Orogenic Belt: Evidence from the Arsenopyrite and Chlorite Mineral Thermometers
Minerals 2019, 9(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020133 - 25 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The Zhengchong gold deposit, with a proven gold reserve of 19 t, is located in the central part of Jiangnan Orogenic Belt (JOB), South China. The orebodies are dominated by NNE- and NW- trending auriferous pyrite-arsenopyrite-quartz veins and disseminated pyrite-arsenopyrite-sericite-quartz alteration zone, structurally [...] Read more.
The Zhengchong gold deposit, with a proven gold reserve of 19 t, is located in the central part of Jiangnan Orogenic Belt (JOB), South China. The orebodies are dominated by NNE- and NW- trending auriferous pyrite-arsenopyrite-quartz veins and disseminated pyrite-arsenopyrite-sericite-quartz alteration zone, structurally hosted in the Neoproterozoic epimetamorphic terranes. Three stages of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization have been defined at the Zhengchong deposit: (i) Quartz–auriferous arsenopyrite and pyrite; (ii) Quartz–polymetallic sulfides–native gold–minor chlorite; (iii) Barren quartz–calcite vein. Both invisible and native gold occurred at the deposit. Disseminated arsenopyrite and pyrite with invisible gold in them formed at an early stage in the alteration zones have generally undergone syn-mineralization plastic-brittle deformation. This resulted in the generation of hydrothermal quartz, chlorite and sulfides in pressure shadows around the arsenopyrite and the formation of fractures of the arsenopyrite. Meanwhile, the infiltration of the ore-forming fluid carrying Sb, Cu, Zn, As and Au resulted in the precipitation of polymetallic sulfides and free gold. The X-ray elements mapping of arsenopyrite and spot composition analysis of arsenopyrite and chlorite were carried out to constrain the ore-forming physicochemical conditions. The results show that the early arsenopyrite and invisible gold formed at 322–397 °C with lgf(S2) ranging from −10.5 to −6.7. The crack-seal structure of the ores indicates cyclic pressure fluctuations controlled by fault-valve behavior. The dramatic drop of pressure resulted in the phase separation of ore-forming fluids. During the phase separation, the escape of H2S gas caused the decomposition of the gold-hydrosulfide complex, which further resulted in the deposition of the native gold. With the weakening of the gold mineralization, the chlorite formed at 258–274 °C with lgf(O2) of −50.9 to −40.1, as constrained by the results from mineral thermometer. Full article
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Geology, Geochronology and Geochemistry of Weilasituo Sn-Polymetallic Deposit in Inner Mongolia, China
Minerals 2019, 9(2), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020104 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The recently discovered Weilasituo Sn-polymetallic deposit in the Great Xing’an Range is an ultralarge porphyry-type deposit. The mineralization is closely associated with an Early Cretaceous quartz porphyry. Analysis of quartz porphyry samples, including zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopies, geochemical and molybdenite Re-Os [...] Read more.
The recently discovered Weilasituo Sn-polymetallic deposit in the Great Xing’an Range is an ultralarge porphyry-type deposit. The mineralization is closely associated with an Early Cretaceous quartz porphyry. Analysis of quartz porphyry samples, including zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopies, geochemical and molybdenite Re-Os isotopic testing, reveals a zircon U-Pb age of 138.6 ± 1.1 Ma and a molybdenite Re-Os isotopic age of 135 ± 7 Ma, suggesting the concurrence of the petrogenetic and metallogenic processes. The quartz porphyry has high concentrations of SiO2 (71.57 wt %–78.60 wt %), Al2O3 (12.69 wt %–16.32 wt %), and K2O + Na2O (8.85 wt %–10.44 wt %) and A/CNK ratios from 0.94–1.21, is mainly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline I-type granite and is relatively rich in LILEs (large ion lithophile elements, e.g., Th, Rb, U and K) and HFSEs (high field strength elements, e.g., Hf and Zr) and relatively poor in Sr, Ba, P, Ti and Nb. The zircon εHf(t) values range from 1.90 to 6.90, indicating that the magma source materials were mainly derived from the juvenile lower crust and experienced mixing with mantle materials. Given the regional structural evolution history, we conclude that the ore-forming magma originated from lower crust that had thickened and delaminated is the result of the subduction of the Paleo–Pacific Ocean. Following delamination, the lower crustal material entered the underlying mantle, where it was partially melted and reacted with mantle during ascent. The deposit formed at a time of transition from post-orogenic compression to extension following the subduction of the Paleo–Pacific Ocean. Full article
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Controls on the Distribution of Invisible and Visible Gold in the Orogenic Gold Deposits of the Yangshan Gold Belt, West Qinling Orogen, China
Minerals 2019, 9(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020092 - 04 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Six orogenic gold deposits constitute the Yangshan gold belt in the West Qinling Orogen. Gold is mostly invisible in solid solution or in the sulfide lattice, with minor visible gold associated with stibnite and in quartz-calcite veins. Detailed textural and trace-element analysis of [...] Read more.
Six orogenic gold deposits constitute the Yangshan gold belt in the West Qinling Orogen. Gold is mostly invisible in solid solution or in the sulfide lattice, with minor visible gold associated with stibnite and in quartz-calcite veins. Detailed textural and trace-element analysis of sulfides in terms of a newly-erected paragenetic sequence for these deposits, together with previously published data, demonstrate that early magmatic-hydrothermal pyrite in granitic dike host-rocks has much higher Au contents than diagenetic pyrite in metasedimentary host rocks, but lower contents of As, Au, and Cu than ore-stage pyrite. Combined with sulfur isotope data, replacement textures in the gold ores indicate that the auriferous ore-fluids post-dated the granitic dikes and were not magmatic-hydrothermal in origin. There is a strong correlation between the relative activities of S and As and their total abundances in the ore fluid and the siting of gold in the Yangshan gold ores. Mass balance calculations indicate that there is no necessity to invoke remobilization processes to explain the occurrence of gold in the ores. The only exception is the Py1-2 replacement of Py1m, where fluid-mediated coupled dissolution-reprecipitation reactions may have occurred to exchange Au between the two pyrite phases. Full article
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Metallogenic Epoch and Tectonic Setting of Saima Niobium Deposit in Fengcheng, Liaoning Province, NE China
Minerals 2019, 9(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020080 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Saima deposit is a newly discovered niobium deposit which is located in the eastern of Liaoning Province, NE China. Its mineralization age and geochemical characteristics are firstly reported in this study. The Nb orebodies are hosted by the grey–brown to grass-green aegirine [...] Read more.
The Saima deposit is a newly discovered niobium deposit which is located in the eastern of Liaoning Province, NE China. Its mineralization age and geochemical characteristics are firstly reported in this study. The Nb orebodies are hosted by the grey–brown to grass-green aegirine nepheline syenite. Detailed petrographical studies show that the syenite consists of orthoclase (~50%), nepheline (~30%), biotite (~15%) and minor arfvedsonite (~3%) and aegirine (~2%), with weak hydrothermal alteration dominated by silicification. In situ LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the aegirine nepheline syenite was emplaced in the Late Triassic (229.5 ± 2.2 Ma), which is spatially, temporally and genetically related to Nb mineralization. These aegirine nepheline syenites have SiO2 contents in the range of 55.86–63.80 wt. %, low TiO2 contents of 0.36–0.64 wt. %, P2O5 contents of 0.04–0.11 wt. % and Al2O3 contents of more than 15 wt. %. They are characterized by relatively high (K2O + Na2O) values of 9.72–15.51 wt. %, K2O/Na2O ratios of 2.42–3.64 wt. % and Rittmann indexes (σ = [ω(K2O + Na2O)]2/[ω(SiO2 − 43)]) of 6.84–17.10, belonging to the high-K peralkaline, metaluminous type. These syenites are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs, e.g., Cs, Rb and Ba) and light rare earth elements (LREEs) and relatively depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs, e.g., Nb, Zr and Ti) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), with transitional elements showing an obvious W-shaped distribution pattern. Based on these geochronological and geochemical features, we propose that the ore-forming intrusion associated with the Nb mineralization was formed under post-collision continental-rift setting, which is consistent with the tectonic regime of post-collision between the North China Craton and Paleo-Asian oceanic plate during the age in Ma for Indosinian (257–205 Ma). Intensive magmatic and metallogenic events resulted from partial melting of lithospheric mantle occurred during the post-collisional rifting, resulting in the development of large-scale Cu–Mo mineralization and rare earth deposits in the eastern part of Liaoning Province. Full article
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Petrogenesis of Ore-Hosting Diorite in the Zaorendao Gold Deposit at the Tongren-Xiahe-Hezuo Polymetallic District, West Qinling, China
Minerals 2019, 9(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020076 - 28 Jan 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The newly discovered Zaorendao gold deposit is in the Tongren-Xiahe-Hezuo polymetallic district in the westernmost West Qinling orogenic belt. The estimated pre-mining resource is approximately 13.6 t of Au at an average grade of 3.02 g/t. Mineralization is predominantly controlled by NW-trending and [...] Read more.
The newly discovered Zaorendao gold deposit is in the Tongren-Xiahe-Hezuo polymetallic district in the westernmost West Qinling orogenic belt. The estimated pre-mining resource is approximately 13.6 t of Au at an average grade of 3.02 g/t. Mineralization is predominantly controlled by NW-trending and EW-trending faults within diorite intrusions and surrounding sedimentary rocks. In the present study, in situ zircon U–Pb geochronology and Lu–Hf isotopic analyses of the ore-hosting diorite at Zaorendao were measured using LA-ICP-MS. The data suggest that the diorite was emplaced at ca. 246.5 ± 1.9 Ma. The large variation of zircon Hf isotopic composition (ɛHf(t) values ranging from −12.0 to −1.8) indicates a two-stage model age (TDM2) that ranges from 1.4 Ga to 2.0 Ga. Such Lu–Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the diorite was dominantly derived from a Paleo- to Meso-Proterozoic continental crust. The wide range of εHf(t) and the presence of inherited zircon can be interpreted to suggest the mixing of Paleo- to Meso-Proterozoic continental crust with a mantle component. Combining such characteristics with the geochemistry of coeval rocks that are associated with the diorite, we therefore proposed that the gold-hosting Triassic diorite in the Zaorendao gold deposit formed in an active continental margin that was associated with the northward subduction of the paleo-Tethyan ocean. Full article
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Geology, Geochemistry, and Geochronology of Gabbro from the Haoyaoerhudong Gold Deposit, Northern Margin of the North China Craton
Minerals 2019, 9(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010063 - 21 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The Haoyaoerhudong gabbro is a mafic intrusion located in the Haoyaoerhudong gold deposit, which is a giant gold deposit (148 t Au) hosted in Proterozoic strata on the northern margin of the North China Craton. In this paper, we present integrated SHRIMP U–Pb, [...] Read more.
The Haoyaoerhudong gabbro is a mafic intrusion located in the Haoyaoerhudong gold deposit, which is a giant gold deposit (148 t Au) hosted in Proterozoic strata on the northern margin of the North China Craton. In this paper, we present integrated SHRIMP U–Pb, geochemical and Sr–Nd isotopic data from gabbro of the Haoyaoerhudong gold deposit to reveal the magmatic processes behind its origin. SHRIMP zircon U–Pb dating constrains the timing of crystallization of the Haoyaoerhudong gabbro to 278.8 ± 0.81 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical results indicate that the Haoyaoerhudong gabbro has calc-alkaline features with enrichments of large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare-earth elements (REE) as well as depletions of high-field strength elements (HFSE). The relatively high (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7053 to 0.7078) and low εNd(t) (−4.6 to −15.1) values of the gabbro indicate the involvement of crustal materials. Low Ce/Pb ratios (1.35 to 7.38), together with nearly constant La/Sm and Th/Yb ratios and variable Ba/Th and Sr/Nd ratios, suggest that the ancient mantle was modified by slab dehydration fluids. Based on new geochemical data and regional geological investigations, we propose that both the Haoyaoerhudong gold deposit and the Haoyaoerhudong gabbro formed in a post-orogenic extensional setting. Full article
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Geological and Geochemical Characteristics of the Archean Basement-Hosted Gold Deposit in Pinglidian, Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China: Constraints on Auriferous Quartz-Vein Exploration
Minerals 2019, 9(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010062 - 21 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The gold deposits that are hosted in the Archean metamorphic rock, have yet to be explored beyond Pinglidian gold deposit in the northwestern Jiaodong Peninsula, eastern China. This kind of gold deposit differs from those that are hosted in Mesozoic granitoids, showing good [...] Read more.
The gold deposits that are hosted in the Archean metamorphic rock, have yet to be explored beyond Pinglidian gold deposit in the northwestern Jiaodong Peninsula, eastern China. This kind of gold deposit differs from those that are hosted in Mesozoic granitoids, showing good potential for the prospecting of auriferous quartz-vein gold deposits controlled by the structures in greenfield Archean metamorphic rock. Pinglidian gold deposit is located in the hanging wall of the Jiaojia fault and consists of eight separated orebodies that are enveloped by altered rock in Archean biotite plagiogneiss. These orebodies and wall-rock alterations are strongly controlled by local structures that formed during the Mesozoic rotation and kink folding of the foliated and fissile Archean basement host. The major wall-rock alterations comprise sericitization, silicification, pyritization, and carbonation, which is up to 18 m in width and progressively increases in intensity towards the auriferous quartz vein. The visible gold is present as discrete native gold and electrum grains, which have basically filled in all manner of fractures or are adjacent to galena. We recognize two types of gold bearing quartz veins that are associated with mineral paragenetic sequences during hydrothermal alteration in the Pinglidian gold deposit. The petrological features and geochemical compositions in the reaction fronts of the alteration zone suggest variations in the physicochemical conditions during ore formation. These minerals in the wall rock, such as plagioclase, biotite, zircon, titanite, and magnetite, have been broken down to hydrothermal albite, sericite, and quartz in a K–Na–Al–Si–O–H system, and sulfides in a Fe–S–O–H system. The major and trace elements were calculated by the mass-balance method, showing gains during early alteration and losses during late alteration. The contents of K2O, Na2O, CaO, and LOI varied within the K–Na–Al–Si–O–H system during alteration, while Fe2O3 and MgO were relatively stable. Rare-earth elements (REE) changed from gains to losses alongside the breakdown of accessory minerals, such as large ion lithophile elements (LILE). The Sr and Ba contents exhibited high mobility during sericite-quartz alteration. Most of the low-mobility high-field strength elements (HFSE) were moderately depleted, except for Pb, which was extremely high in anomalous samples. The behavior of trans-transition elements (TRTE) was related to complicated sulfides in the Fe–S–O–H system and was constrained by the parameters of the mineral assemblages and geochemical compositions, temperature, pressure, pH, and fO2. These factors during ore formation that were associated with the extents and intensity of sulfide alteration and gold precipitation can be utilized to evaluate the potential size and scale of an ore-forming hydrothermal system, and is an effective exploration tool for widespread auriferous quartz veins in Archean metamorphic basements. Full article
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Geochronological and Geochemical Constraints on the Formation of the Giant Zaozigou Au-Sb Deposit, West Qinling, China
Minerals 2019, 9(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010037 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The Zaozigou Au-Sb deposit has been controversial in its genesis and remains one of the most difficult ore systems to fully understand in West Qinling. The mineralization shows a broad spatial association with Triassic dikes and sills, which were previously thought to be [...] Read more.
The Zaozigou Au-Sb deposit has been controversial in its genesis and remains one of the most difficult ore systems to fully understand in West Qinling. The mineralization shows a broad spatial association with Triassic dikes and sills, which were previously thought to be genetically related to mineralization. Our U-Pb zircon dating in this contribution indicates that the ore-hosting porphyritic dacites were formed at 246.1 ± 5.2 Ma and 248.1 ± 3.8 Ma. The magmatic zircons yield εHf(t) values ranging from −12.5 to −8.9, with corresponding two-stage model ages of 2.08 to 1.83 Ga. The magma therefore could be derived from partial melting of Paleoproterozoic crustal materials. The ore-hosting porphyritic dacites have low oxygen fugacity, with ΔFMQ ranging from −4.61 to −2.56, indicating that magmas could have been sulfide-saturated during evolution in deep chambers and precluding the possibility that metals were released from the melt. Zaozigou exhibits characteristics widespread volcanics, massive sulfide mineralization, rare reduced mineral assemblage and discrete alteration zones which are not typical of reduced intrusion-related or porphyry gold systems. We propose that the spatially-related Triassic porphyritic dacite and dike swarm is not genetically related to the ore formation of Zaozigou Au-Sb deposit. Full article
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Importance of Magmatic Water Content and Oxidation State for Porphyry-Style Au Mineralization: An Example from the Giant Beiya Au Deposit, SW China
Minerals 2018, 8(10), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8100441 - 10 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The Beiya Au deposit is the largest Cenozoic Au deposit in the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan porphyry metallogenic belt. Numerous studies document that high water content and fO2 are vital factors for the generation of Au mineralization. In this belt, only the Wandongshan and [...] Read more.
The Beiya Au deposit is the largest Cenozoic Au deposit in the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan porphyry metallogenic belt. Numerous studies document that high water content and fO2 are vital factors for the generation of Au mineralization. In this belt, only the Wandongshan and Hongnitang districts are considered to be of economic importance, while the other districts, such as Bailiancun, are barren. So in order to reveal the importance of water content and oxidation state for Beiya porphyry-style Au mineralization, the amphiboles and zircons compositions are used to evaluate the physicochemical conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, fO2, and water content) of the Wandongshan ore-fertile porphyries and Bailiancun ore-barren porphyries observed in the Beiya Au deposit. The results show that the water content of the Wandongshan parent magma (≤4.11 ± 0.4 wt %) are slightly higher than those of the parent magma at Bailiancun (≤3.91 ± 0.4 wt %), while the emplacement pressure of the Wandongshan parent magma (31.5–68.6 MPa) is much lower than that of the parent magma at Bailiancun (142.3–192.8 MPa), indicating that the Wandongshan magma reached water saturation earlier. In addition, the Wandongshan porphyries crystallized from more oxidized magma (average of ΔFMQ = +3.5) with an average temperature of 778 °C compared to the Bailiancun porphyries (average of ΔFMQ = +1.5) with a mean magmatic temperature of 770 °C. The Ce4+/Ce3+ ratio of zircon in the Wandongshan ore-related intrusions (average Ce4+/Ce3+ of 62.00) is much higher than that of the Bailiancun barren porphyries (average Ce4+/Ce3+of 23.15), which further confirmed Wandongshan ore-related magma is more oxidized than the Bailiancun barren magma. Therefore, melts that are more enriched in water and with a high oxidation state will be more fertile to form an economic porphyry-style Au system. Full article
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Rare Earth Elements Geochemistry and C–O Isotope Characteristics of Hydrothermal Calcites: Implications for Fluid-Rock Reaction and Ore-Forming Processes in the Phapon Gold Deposit, NW Laos
Minerals 2018, 8(10), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8100438 - 09 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The Phapon gold deposit is located in the northern Laos and the northern segments of the Luang Prabang–Loei metallogenic belt. The lode-gold orebodies consist of auriferous calcite veins in the middle, and the surrounding siderite alteration and hematite alteration zones in red color. [...] Read more.
The Phapon gold deposit is located in the northern Laos and the northern segments of the Luang Prabang–Loei metallogenic belt. The lode-gold orebodies consist of auriferous calcite veins in the middle, and the surrounding siderite alteration and hematite alteration zones in red color. This deposit is hosted in Lower Permian limestone and controlled by a NE-trending ductile–brittle fault system, and it is characterized by the wallrock alteration of carbonatization and lack of quartz and metal sulfides. The hydrothermal calcite from auriferous calcite veins and red alteration zone, as well as the wall rocks of limestone and sandstone were selected for rare earth elements (REE) and C–O isotope analyses. The two types of calcite and limestone have generally consistent REE patterns and δEu and δCe values, which are completely different from those of sandstone. Calcites from the auriferous vein show slight light rare earth elements (LREE)-depleted patterns and higher Tb/La and Sm/Nd ratios than the ones from the red alteration zone with slight LREE-enriched patterns. These values indicate that the calcites from the auriferous veins and the red alteration zones are products of homologous fluids, but the former ones are generally likely to form later than the latter ones. The hydrothermal calcites have C–O isotope compositions within the range of marine carbonate, and markedly different from the magmatic or mantle reservoir values. Taking the Y/Ho–La/Ho and Tb/Ca–Tb/La variations into consideration, we believe the hydrothermal calcites could be formed from remobilization and recrystallization of the ore-hosted limestone, and the fluid-wallrock interaction played a major role in the gold mineralization in Phapon. In combination with the regional and local geology, the ore-forming process is suspected to be primarily associated with dehydration and decarbonisation of the Lower Permian limestone and Middle–Upper Triassic sandstones. The Phapon gold deposit could have been formed during the Late Triassic–Jurassic regional dynamic metamorphism driven by Indochina–Sibumasu post-collisional magmatism. A number of features in Phapon are similar to epizonal orogenic deposit, but it is still a unique calcite vein type gold deposit in the Luang Prabang-Loei metallogenic belt. Full article
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Metal Sources of World-Class Polymetallic W–Sn Skarns in the Nanling Range, South China: Granites versus Sedimentary Rocks?
Minerals 2018, 8(7), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8070265 - 24 Jun 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Widespread, large-scale polymetallic W–Sn mineralization occurs throughout the Nanling Range (South China) dated 160–150 Ma, and related to widely developed coeval granitic magmatism. Although intense research has been carried out on these deposits, the relative contribution of ore-forming elements either from granites or [...] Read more.
Widespread, large-scale polymetallic W–Sn mineralization occurs throughout the Nanling Range (South China) dated 160–150 Ma, and related to widely developed coeval granitic magmatism. Although intense research has been carried out on these deposits, the relative contribution of ore-forming elements either from granites or from surrounding strata is still debated. In addition, the factors controlling the primary metallogenic element in any given skarn deposit (e.g., W-dominated or Sn-dominated) are still unclear. Here, we select three of the most significant skarn-deposits (i.e., Huangshaping W–Mo–Sn, Shizhuyuan W–Sn–Mo–Bi and Xianghualing Sn), and compare their whole-rock geochemistry with the composition of associated granites and strata. The contents of Si, Al and most trace elements in skarns are controlled by the parent granite, whereas their Fe, Ca, Mg, Mn, Ti, Sr and REE patterns are strongly influenced by the wall rock. Samples from the Huangshaping skarn vary substantially in elemental composition, probably indicating their varied protoliths. Strata at the Shizhuyuan deposit exerted a strong control during metasomatism, whereas this occurred to a lesser degree at Huangshaping and Xianghualing. This correlates with increasing magma differentiation and increasing reduction state of granitic magmas, which along with the degree of stratigraphic fluid circulation, exert the primary control on dominant metallogenic species. We propose that wall rock sediments played an important role in the formation of W–Sn polymetallic mineralization in South China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymetallic Metallogenic System) Printed Edition available
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