Special Issue "Biocontrol of Food Borne Pathogens"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Gianluigi Mauriello
Website
Guest Editor
Division of Microbiology, Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università, 100, 80055 Portici (Napoli), Italy
Interests: antimicrobials; lactic acid bacteria; meat quality and safety; food microbiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Prof. Lothar Leistner firstly used the term Hurdle Technology in 1995, and he said that it is used to identify a gentle but effective strategy for the preservation of foods. This means that the application of more hurdles at a low level, to control microbial growth during food processing, could better preserve sensorial and nutritional features of foods, compared to the application of few hurdles at a high level. The biopreservation of foods is a fascinating approach to food safety, and the biocontrol systems of food-borne pathogens, have to be considered new hurdles. Indeed, they affect food characteristics little and, remarkably, are harmless to human health. Therefore, research on the use of bacteria and/or their metabolites, bacteriophages, herb metabolites, and all bio-based food-borne pathogen control systems, are welcome in this Special Issue. Due to the high number of manuscripts in the current literature describing “in vitro” experiments, particular attention will be given to manuscripts describing use of potential biocontrol agents in real food systems, both at the laboratory or industrial scales.

Prof. Gianluigi Mauriello
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biocontrol
  • biopreservation
  • food borne pathogens
  • food safty
  • food quality

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial and Fermentation Potential of Himanthalia elongata in Food Applications
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020248 - 13 Feb 2020
Abstract
Himanthalia elongata is a brown oceanic seaweed rich in bioactive compounds. It could play an important role in food production because of its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Three strains belonging to the Lactobacillus casei group (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, and [...] Read more.
Himanthalia elongata is a brown oceanic seaweed rich in bioactive compounds. It could play an important role in food production because of its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Three strains belonging to the Lactobacillus casei group (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus) and a Bacillus subtilis strain were used for the solid-state fermentation of commercial seaweeds, and bacterial growth was monitored using the plate count method. High-pressure processing (HPP) was also employed (6000 bar, 5 min, 5 °C) before extraction. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested in terms of the main food pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus), and the phenolic content was estimated using the Folin–Ciocalteau method. In addition, targeted UHPLC-MS2 methods were used to unravel the profile of phlorotannins. H. elongata allowed the growth of the L. casei group strains and B. subtilis, showing the fermentability of this substrate. Significant antimicrobial activity toward L. monocytogenes was observed in the extracts obtained from unfermented samples, but neither fermentation nor HPP enhanced the natural antimicrobial activity of this seaweed species. The content in the phenolic compounds decreased because of the fermentation process, and the amount of phenolics in both the unfermented and fermented H. elongata extracts was very low. Despite phlorotannins being related to the natural antimicrobial activity of this brown seaweed, these results did not support this association. Even if fermentation and HPP were not proven to be effective tools for enhancing the useful compounds of H. elongata, the seaweed was shown to be a suitable substrate for L. casei group strains as well as for B. subtilis growth, and its extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity toward foodborne pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocontrol of Food Borne Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle
Vegetable By-Product Lacto-Fermentation as a New Source of Antimicrobial Compounds
Microorganisms 2019, 7(12), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7120607 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: One of the main objectives of the food industry is the shelf life extension of food products, taking into account the safety requirements and the preference of consumers attracted by a simple and clear label. Following this direction, many researchers look to [...] Read more.
Background: One of the main objectives of the food industry is the shelf life extension of food products, taking into account the safety requirements and the preference of consumers attracted by a simple and clear label. Following this direction, many researchers look to find out antimicrobials from natural sources. Methods: Tomato, carrot, and melon by-products were used as substrates for lactic acid fermentation using seven strains belonging to the Lactobacillus genus, L. plantarum, L. casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus. The obtained fermented by-products were then extracted and the antimicrobial activity toward fourteen pathogenic strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus Aureus, and Bacillus cereus was tested through agar well diffusion assay. Results: All the extracts obtained after fermentation had highlighted antimicrobial activity against each pathogen tested. In particular, a more effective activity was observed against Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and B. cereus, while a lower activity was observed against E. coli. Conclusion: Lactic acid fermentation of vegetable by-products can be a good strategy to obtain antimicrobials useful in food biopreservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocontrol of Food Borne Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Aerotolerance, Antibiotic Resistance, and Virulence Gene Prevalence in Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Retail Raw Chicken and Duck Meat in South Korea
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100433 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Human infections with Campylobacter are primarily associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry meat. In this study, we isolated Campylobacter jejuni from retail raw chicken and duck meat in Korea and compared their aerotolerance, antibiotic resistance, and virulence gene prevalence. Whereas C. jejuni [...] Read more.
Human infections with Campylobacter are primarily associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry meat. In this study, we isolated Campylobacter jejuni from retail raw chicken and duck meat in Korea and compared their aerotolerance, antibiotic resistance, and virulence gene prevalence. Whereas C. jejuni isolates from chicken dominantly belonged to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) clonal complex (CC)-21, CC-45 is the common MLST sequence type in duck meat isolates. C. jejuni strains from both chicken and duck meat were highly tolerant to aerobic stress. The prevalence of virulence genes was higher in C. jejuni strains from chicken than those from duck meat. However, antibiotic resistance was higher in duck meat isolates than chicken isolates. Based on the prevalence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance, fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni strains harboring all tested virulence genes except virB11 were predominant on retail poultry. Fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni strains carrying most virulence genes were more frequently isolated in summer than in winter. The comparative profiling analysis in this study successfully demonstrated that antibiotic-resistant and pathogenic strains of C. jejuni are highly prevalent on retail poultry and that retail duck meat is an important vehicle potentially transmitting C. jejuni to humans in Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocontrol of Food Borne Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle
Lysis Profiles of Salmonella Phages on Salmonella Isolates from Various Sources and Efficiency of a Phage Cocktail against S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium
Microorganisms 2019, 7(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7040100 - 05 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium are major foodborne pathogens of concern worldwide. Bacteriophage applications have gained more interest for biocontrol in foods. This study isolated 36 Salmonella phages from several animal farms in Thailand and tested them on 47 [...] Read more.
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium are major foodborne pathogens of concern worldwide. Bacteriophage applications have gained more interest for biocontrol in foods. This study isolated 36 Salmonella phages from several animal farms in Thailand and tested them on 47 Salmonella strains from several sources, including farms, seafood processing plant and humans in Thailand and USA. Phages were classified into three major groups. The estimated phage genome size showed the range from 50 ± 2 to 200 ± 2 kb. An effective phage cocktail consisting of three phages was developed. Approximately 4 log CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium could be reduced. These phages revealed a burst size of up to 97.7 on S. Enteritidis and 173.7 PFU/cell on S. Typhimurium. Our phage cocktail could decrease S. Enteritidis on chicken meat and sunflower sprouts by 0.66 log CFU/cm2 and 1.27 log CFU/g, respectively. S. Typhimurium on chicken meat and sunflower sprouts were decreased by 1.73 log CFU/cm2 and 1.17 log CFU/g, respectively. Overall, animal farms in Thailand provided high abundance and diversity of Salmonella phages with the lysis ability on Salmonella hosts from various environments and continents. A developed phage cocktail suggests a potential biocontrol against Salmonella in fresh foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocontrol of Food Borne Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle
Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Pigs with Diarrhea in China
Microorganisms 2018, 6(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6040117 - 26 Nov 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Salmonella can cause enteric diseases in humans and a wide range of animals, and even outbreaks of foodborne illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of serovars, and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolates from pigs with diarrhea [...] Read more.
Salmonella can cause enteric diseases in humans and a wide range of animals, and even outbreaks of foodborne illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of serovars, and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolates from pigs with diarrhea in 26 provinces in China from 2014 to 2016. A total of 104 Salmonella isolates were identified and the dominant serovar was S. 4,[5],12:i:- (53.9%). All Salmonella isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and many were resistant to ampicillin (80.8%) and tetracycline (76.9%). Among 104 Salmonella isolates, aac(6′)-Ib-cr was the dominant plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene (80.8%), followed by qnrS (47.1%). The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results suggest that the Salmonella isolates from different regions were genetically diverse, and ST34 was the most prevalent. S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates is the widespread presence of heavy metal tolerance genes. The fact that the same sequence types were found in different regions and the high similarity coefficient of S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates from different regions indicate the clonal expansion of the isolates, and the isolates carried various antimicrobial resistance genes. The multidrug resistant Salmonella can be widely detected in pigs, which will present a challenge for farm husbandry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocontrol of Food Borne Pathogens)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Phage Endolysins as Potential Antimicrobials against Multidrug Resistant Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus: Current Status of Research and Challenges Ahead
Microorganisms 2019, 7(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7030084 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus, the causative agents of Vibriosis in marine vertebrates and invertebrates, are also responsible for fatal illnesses such as gastroenteritis, septicemia, and necrotizing fasciitis in humans via the ingestion of contaminated seafood. Aquaculture farmers often rely on extensive prophylactic [...] Read more.
Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus, the causative agents of Vibriosis in marine vertebrates and invertebrates, are also responsible for fatal illnesses such as gastroenteritis, septicemia, and necrotizing fasciitis in humans via the ingestion of contaminated seafood. Aquaculture farmers often rely on extensive prophylactic use of antibiotics in farmed fish to mitigate Vibrios and their biofilms. This has been postulated as being of serious concern in the escalation of antibiotic resistant Vibrios. For this reason, alternative strategies to combat aquaculture pathogens are in high demand. Bacteriophage-derived lytic enzymes and proteins are of interest to the scientific community as promising tools with which to diminish our dependency on antibiotics. Lysqdvp001 is the best-characterized endolysin with lytic activity against multiple species of Vibrios. Various homologues of Vibrio phage endolysins have also been studied for their antibacterial potential. These novel endolysins are the major focus of this mini review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocontrol of Food Borne Pathogens)
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