Special Issue "Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Public Health Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 15658

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Labrini V. Athanasiou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, 224 Trikalon, 43100 Karditsa, Greece
Interests: zoonotic microorganisms; vector-borne pathogens; microorganism diagnostics; quality laboratory policy; diagnostic method validation; clinical pathology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Emerging and re-emerging zoonotic microorganisms constitute a considerable challenge to global health security. The advent of novel diagnostics tools for use either in fully equipped and technologically advanced laboratories or in in-clinic settings contributes to the early detection of and rapid response to these health threats. Farm animals and wildlife can be a source of zoonotic microorganisms, but are sometimes neglected due to the lack of proximity to sufficiently equipped laboratories. Moreover, economic restraints do not allow for extensive farm animal and wildlife testing.

The aim of this Special Issue is: a) to assess the current situation on the presence of zoonotic farm animal and wildlife microorganisms and the factors associated with their abundance and distribution; and b) to propose new or optimized and fully validated methods for their detection.

Prof. Dr. Labrini V. Athanasiou
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • zoonotic microorganisms
  • vector-borne pathogens
  • microorganism diagnostics
  • quality laboratory policy
  • diagnostic method validation
  • clinical pathology

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Article
The Presence of Mycobacterium leprae in Wild Rodents
Microorganisms 2022, 10(6), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061114 - 28 May 2022
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Abstract
Leprosy is a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae. There is a lack of data regarding environmental reservoirs, which may represent a serious public health problem in Brazil, especially in the state of Pará, which occupies the fourth position in incidence of [...] Read more.
Leprosy is a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae. There is a lack of data regarding environmental reservoirs, which may represent a serious public health problem in Brazil, especially in the state of Pará, which occupies the fourth position in incidence of cases in the country. Previous studies report evidence of infection occurring among armadillos, mangabei monkeys, and chimpanzees. In the present study, wild animals were captured and tested for the presence of anti-PGL-1 antibodies and M. leprae DNA. Fieldwork was carried out from October to November of 2016 in the cities of Curionópolis and Canaã dos Carajás, southeast of Pará state. Small and medium-sized wild animals were captured using appropriate traps. A total of 15 animals were captured. Sera and viscera fragments were collected and tested by ELISA and PCR methods. The presence of M. leprae DNA was confirmed by sequencing of specific gyrase gene in three animals of two different species, including one Necromys lasiurus (liver sample) and two Proechimys roberti (kidney and liver samples). This unprecedented finding suggests that species other than those previously reported are responsible for maintaining M. leprae in nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Article
High Genetic Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Highlight Arapaima gigas (Pisces: Arapaimidae) as a Reservoir of Quinolone-Resistant Strains in Brazilian Amazon Rivers
Microorganisms 2022, 10(4), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10040808 - 13 Apr 2022
Viewed by 681
Abstract
The increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli in distinct ecological niches, comprising water sources and food-producing animals, such as fish species, has been widely reported. In the present study, quinolone-resistant E. coli isolates from Arapirama gigas, a major fish species [...] Read more.
The increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli in distinct ecological niches, comprising water sources and food-producing animals, such as fish species, has been widely reported. In the present study, quinolone-resistant E. coli isolates from Arapirama gigas, a major fish species in the Brazilian Amazon rivers and fish farms, were characterized regarding their antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence, and genetic diversity. A total of forty (40) specimens of A. gigas, including 20 farmed and 20 wild fish, were included. Thirty-four quinolone-resistant E. coli isolates were phenotypically tested by broth microdilution, while resistance and virulence genes were detected by PCR. Molecular epidemiology and genetic relatedness were analyzed by MLST and PFGE typing. The majority of isolates were classified as MDR and detected harboring blaCTX-M, qnrA and qnrB genes. Enterotoxigenic E. coli pathotype (ETEC) isolates were presented in low prevalence among farmed animals. MLST and PFGE genotyping revealed a wide genetic background, including the detection of internationally spread clones. The obtained data point out A. gigas as a reservoir in Brazilian Amazon aquatic ecosystems and warns of the interference of AMR strains in wildlife and environmental matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Article
Viral and Bacterial Zoonotic Agents in Dromedary Camels from Southern Tunisia: A Seroprevalence Study
Microorganisms 2022, 10(4), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10040727 - 29 Mar 2022
Viewed by 678
Abstract
The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 clearly demonstrated the potential of zoonotic diseases to cause severe harm to public health. Having limited access to medical care combined with severe underreporting and a lack of active surveillance, Africa carries a high burden of neglected zoonotic [...] Read more.
The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 clearly demonstrated the potential of zoonotic diseases to cause severe harm to public health. Having limited access to medical care combined with severe underreporting and a lack of active surveillance, Africa carries a high burden of neglected zoonotic diseases. Therefore, the epidemiological monitoring of pathogen circulation is essential. Recently, we found extensive Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) prevalence in free-roaming dromedary camels from southern Tunisia. In this study, we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence, and thus the risk posed to public health, of two additional viral and two bacterial pathogens in Tunisian dromedaries: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), Coxiella burnetii and Brucella spp. via ELISA. With 73.6% seropositivity, most animals had previously been exposed to the causative agent of Q fever, C. burnetii. Additionally, 7.4% and 1.0% of the dromedaries had antibodies against Brucella and RVFV, respectively, while no evidence was found for the occurrence of FMDV. Our studies revealed considerable immunological evidence of various pathogens within Tunisian dromedary camels. Since these animals have intense contact with humans, they pose a high risk of transmitting serious zoonotic diseases during active infection. The identification of appropriate countermeasures is therefore highly desirable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Article
Evaluation of an Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay for the Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Antigen in Ovine Buffy Coat Smears
Microorganisms 2022, 10(2), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020276 - 25 Jan 2022
Viewed by 797
Abstract
Diagnosis of anaplasmosis is challenging considering the great variation in clinical signs and the limitations of the available diagnostic assays, while the detection of carrier animals that play a significant role in disease epidemiology as reservoirs is of great significance. In this study, [...] Read more.
Diagnosis of anaplasmosis is challenging considering the great variation in clinical signs and the limitations of the available diagnostic assays, while the detection of carrier animals that play a significant role in disease epidemiology as reservoirs is of great significance. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a newly developed indirect immunofluorescent assay (Ag-IFAT) for the detection of A. phagocytophilum antigens in buffy coat specimens, alone and in combination with cytology, using PCR as a reference. Blood samples were collected from 138 sheep of the Chios breed from six farms in Greece. A buffy coat was extruded from the centrifuged blood. Buffy coat smears were used for cytological examination and the Ag-IFAT assay. The Ag-IFAT assay presented excellent specificity (100%) and high sensitivity (85.4%) for the detection of A. phagocytophilum antigens in buffy coats, and it has an almost perfect agreement with PCR and cytology (κ value = 0.88 and 0.85, respectively). A. phagocytophilum antigens are likely to be detected using Ag-IFAT in a PCR-positive animal, as indicated by the good performance of the assay. Overall, this assay presents high diagnostic accuracy, and it could be used for the detection of animals during the early stage of infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Article
Wild Rabbit Exposure to Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia caballi Evidenced by Serum and Aqueous Humor Antibody Detection
Microorganisms 2021, 9(12), 2616; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9122616 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) can be important sentinel species for the presence of zoonotic pathogens. Therefore, we collected blood samples from wild rabbits harvested by hunters during the hunting season 2019–2020 on the island of Lemnos, to determine exposure of wild [...] Read more.
Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) can be important sentinel species for the presence of zoonotic pathogens. Therefore, we collected blood samples from wild rabbits harvested by hunters during the hunting season 2019–2020 on the island of Lemnos, to determine exposure of wild rabbits to the zoonotic pathogens Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia caballi, as well as aqueous humor to assess its diagnostic performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios. Antibodies against these pathogens were detected by Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody (IFA) assay. Out of the 72 wild rabbits included in the study, 4.2%, 5.5%, 18% and 9.7% were seropositive to L. infantum, T. gondii, A. phagocytophilum and B. caballi, respectively. Although less frequently, antibodies were also detected in aqueous humor of wild rabbits. The antibody detection in aqueous humor presented 100% specificity but decreased sensitivity compared to serum suggesting that aqueous humor could be successfully used in epidemiological studies to confirm exposure at the population level but has little diagnostic value at the individual level. This is the first report on the seropositivity of wild rabbits to A. phagocytophilum and B. caballi and the detection of antibodies against A. phagocytopylum, L. infantum, T. gondii and B. caballi in the aqueous humor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Article
Isolation Procedure for CP E. coli from Caeca Samples under Review towards an Increased Sensitivity
Microorganisms 2021, 9(5), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051105 - 20 May 2021
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Abstract
Due to the increasing reports of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) from livestock in recent years, the European Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistances (EURL-AR) provided a protocol for their recovery from caecum and meat samples. This procedure exhibited limitations for the detection of CPE with [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing reports of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) from livestock in recent years, the European Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistances (EURL-AR) provided a protocol for their recovery from caecum and meat samples. This procedure exhibited limitations for the detection of CPE with low carbapenem MIC values. Therefore, it was modified by a second, selective enrichment in lysogeny broth with cefotaxime (CTX 1 mg/L) and with meropenem (MEM 0.125 mg/L) at 37 °C under microaerophilic conditions. By Real-time PCR, these enrichments are pre-screened for the most common carbapenemase genes. Another adaptation was the use of in-house prepared MacConkey agar with MEM and MEM+CTX instead of commercial selective agar. According to the EURL-method, we achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity using the in-house media instead of commercial agar, which decreased the sensitivity to ~75%. Comparing the method with and without the second enrichment, no substantial influence on sensitivity and specificity was detected. Nevertheless, this enrichment has simplified the CPE-isolation regarding the accompanying microbiota and the separation of putative colonies. In conclusion, the sensitivity of the method can be increased with slight modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Article
Neospora caninum and/or Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence: Vaccination against PCV2 and Muscle Enzyme Activity in Seropositive and Seronegative Pigs
Microorganisms 2021, 9(5), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051097 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 954
Abstract
Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii affect both humans and animals worldwide. To investigate their seroprevalence and differences in seropositivity between pigs vaccinated and unvaccinated against porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), as well as differences in muscle enzyme activity between seropositive and seronegative pigs, blood [...] Read more.
Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii affect both humans and animals worldwide. To investigate their seroprevalence and differences in seropositivity between pigs vaccinated and unvaccinated against porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), as well as differences in muscle enzyme activity between seropositive and seronegative pigs, blood samples were collected from 380 sows. Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) assay, while the activities of creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were biochemically assessed. Out of the 364 sows finally included in the study, 4.4%, 3.5%, and 0.5% were seropositive to T. gondii, N. caninum, or both. A significantly higher percentage of seropositivity against T. gondii and/or N. caninum in PCV2 unvaccinated pigs compared with vaccinated pigs was observed. Increased serum activities of CK and AST were detected in 71.43% and 100% of only against T. gondii (T+) and 63.64% and 90.91% of only against N. caninum (N+) seropositive sows, respectively, and were significantly higher compared to seronegative animals. T. gondii and N. caninum seropositivity, especially in presumed immunocompromised pigs, and the evidence of muscle damage highlight their importance as a zoonotic pathogen and animal model of human infection, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Article
Development of a Multiplex Bead Assay for Simultaneous Serodiagnosis of Antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella suis, and Trichinella spiralis in Wild Boar
Microorganisms 2021, 9(5), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9050904 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a multiplex bead assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella suis, and Trichinella spiralis. Sera from Eurasian wild boar of known serological status for [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a multiplex bead assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella suis, and Trichinella spiralis. Sera from Eurasian wild boar of known serological status for TB (64 seropositive, 106 seronegative), Brucella (30 seropositive, 39 seronegative), and Trichinella (21 seropositive, 97 seronegative) were used for the development and evaluation of the assay. Magnetic beads coated with recombinant MPB83 antigen (TB), a whole-cell B. suis 1330 antigen, and an E/S T. spiralis antigen were used for the detection of specific antibodies using Bio-Rad Bio-Plex technology. The sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) of the multiplex assay were, for M. bovis, 0.98 and 0.86; for B. suis, 1.00 and 0.97; and for T. spiralis, 0.90 and 0.99 (Se and Sp, respectively). The results show the diagnostic potential of this assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against M. bovis, B. suis, and T. spiralis in wild boar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Article
Antimicrobial Use in Brazilian Swine Herds: Assessment of Use and Reduction Examples
Microorganisms 2021, 9(4), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040881 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Brazil, as a major pig producer, is currently experiencing the widespread use of antimicrobials as a serious issue to be addressed. For measures to be taken in this direction, the extent of the problem must be known. The goal of this study was [...] Read more.
Brazil, as a major pig producer, is currently experiencing the widespread use of antimicrobials as a serious issue to be addressed. For measures to be taken in this direction, the extent of the problem must be known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of antimicrobials in 25 Brazilian swine herds. Antimicrobial use from birth to slaughter was correlated with biosecurity and productivity. After the first assessment (2016; M0), 13 herds implemented good practices to reduce antimicrobial use. Four years after the implementation of these measures (2020; M1), data about antimicrobial usage from these herds were collected. The results of the first assessment (M0) demonstrated a troublesome scenario: the mean value of antimicrobials used was 358.4 mg/kg of pig produced; the median of the pig’s lifetime exposure to antimicrobials was 73.7%, and the median number of drugs used was seven. A positive correlation between the antimicrobials consumed and the pig’s antimicrobial exposure time was detected. Nevertheless, these data did not correlate with biosecurity score or productivity. A significant difference was detected in M1, where a median 30% reduction in antimicrobials consumed was detected. There was also a 44.3% reduction of the pig’s lifetime exposure to antimicrobials. The median number of drugs used was reduced from seven to five. Antimicrobial use did not always reflect the sanitary condition or the real therapeutic needs, easily leading to overuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Article
Genital Brucella suis Biovar 2 Infection of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Hunted in Tuscany (Italy)
Microorganisms 2021, 9(3), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030582 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by different Brucella species. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) could be infected by some species and represents an important reservoir, especially for B. suis biovar 2. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Brucella spp. by [...] Read more.
Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by different Brucella species. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) could be infected by some species and represents an important reservoir, especially for B. suis biovar 2. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Brucella spp. by serological and molecular assays in wild boar hunted in Tuscany (Italy) during two hunting seasons. From 287 animals, sera, lymph nodes, livers, spleens, and reproductive system organs were collected. Within sera, 16 (5.74%) were positive to both rose bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT), with titres ranging from 1:4 to 1:16 (corresponding to 20 and 80 ICFTU/mL, respectively). Brucella spp. DNA was detected in four lymph nodes (1.40%), five epididymides (1.74%), and one fetus pool (2.22%). All positive PCR samples belonged to Brucella suis biovar 2. The results of this investigation confirmed that wild boar represents a host for B.suis biovar. 2 and plays an important role in the epidemiology of brucellosis in central Italy. Additionally, epididymis localization confirms the possible venereal transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Article
Wild Boars Carry Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli
Microorganisms 2021, 9(2), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020367 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represent major healthcare concerns. The role of wildlife in the epidemiology of these bacteria is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine their prevalence in wild boars in Germany and to [...] Read more.
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represent major healthcare concerns. The role of wildlife in the epidemiology of these bacteria is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine their prevalence in wild boars in Germany and to characterize individual isolates. A total of 375 fecal samples and 439 nasal swabs were screened for the presence of ESBL-/AmpC-E. coli and MRSA, respectively. The associations of seven demographic and anthropogenic variables with the occurrence of ESBL-/AmpC-E. coli were statistically evaluated. Collected isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular typing methods, and gene detection by PCR and genome sequencing. ESBL-/AmpC-E. coli were detected in 22 fecal samples (5.9%) whereas no MRSA were detected. The occurrence of ESBL-/AmpC-E. coli in wild boars was significantly and positively associated with human population density. Of the 22 E. coli, 19 were confirmed as ESBL-producers and carried genes belonging to blaCTX-M group 1 or blaSHV-12. The remaining three isolates carried the AmpC-β-lactamase gene blaCMY-2. Several isolates showed additional antimicrobial resistances. All four major phylogenetic groups were represented with group B1 being the most common. This study demonstrates that wild boars can serve as a reservoir for ESBL-/AmpC-producing and multidrug-resistant E. coli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Article
Salmonella enterica in Invasive Lizard from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago: Serotyping, Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122017 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
Salmonella infection can pose serious health issues, especially to children, elders or immunosuppressed humans. Wild populations of reptiles can reach Salmonella prevalence of up to 100% and the direct or indirect transmission from reptiles to humans have been extensively reported. Fernando de Noronha [...] Read more.
Salmonella infection can pose serious health issues, especially to children, elders or immunosuppressed humans. Wild populations of reptiles can reach Salmonella prevalence of up to 100% and the direct or indirect transmission from reptiles to humans have been extensively reported. Fernando de Noronha (FN) is an inhabited oceanic archipelago in the northeast coast of Brazil, with an economy based on tourism. The tegu (Salvator merianae) is the largest lizard native to South America and was introduced to the archipelago in the early 20th century. This study determines the prevalence, serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular epidemiology of Salmonella enterica in the tegu population from FN archipelago. Results show that S. enterica is widely distributed in the FN tegu population, with 43.8% prevalence. The bacteria were isolated from 70.5% of the sampled sites and a total of 15 serotypes were detected in 98 S. enterica isolates. Strains were further classified into 31 genotypes. Recaptured animals presented distinct genotypes in each season, demonstrating a seasonal strain turnover. Most S. enterica isolates from FN tegus presented low antimicrobial resistance. This is possibly due to geographical isolation of the island population, hampering contact with strains from livestock from the continent, where antimicrobial resistance is common. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Article
American Crows as Carriers of Extra Intestinal Pathogenic E. coli and Avian Pathogenic-Like E. coli and Their Potential Impact on a Constructed Wetland
Microorganisms 2020, 8(10), 1595; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101595 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
The study examines whether crows are carriers of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC)-like strains, and if wetland roost areas contribute to their spread. A total of 10 crow feces (n = 71) and 15 water E. [...] Read more.
The study examines whether crows are carriers of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC)-like strains, and if wetland roost areas contribute to their spread. A total of 10 crow feces (n = 71) and 15 water E. coli isolates (n = 134) from a wetland area could be characterized as potentially ExPEC based on the presence of ≥2 of the five cardinal genes iutA, kpsMT2, papEF, pap A/C, papG, sfa/foc, and afa/dra, while six fecal and 14 water isolates could be characterized as potentially APEC-like based on the presence of plasmid associated genes: iutA, episomal iss, ompT, hlyF and iroN. A total of 32 fecal and 27 water isolates tested carried plasmids based on incompatibility typing. Plasmids from 34 of 38 isolates tested could be transferred to another E. coli strain by conjugation with the antibiotic resistance (AR) profile being transferred, indicating their potential to be transferred to indigenous and non-pathogenic strains in the wetland. APEC-like plasmids could be transferred in six of eight isolates tested. Pathogenic E. coli of importance to the medical community and poultry industry may be detected in high levels in surface water due to corvid activity. Regardless of their role in health or disease, water in wetlands and streams can serve as a media for the dissemination of AR and virulence traits of bacteria, with corvids acting as potential vectors for farther dissemination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Article
Molecular Identification and Characterization of Vibrio Species and Mycobacterium Species in Wild and Cultured Marine Fish from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea
Microorganisms 2020, 8(6), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060863 - 07 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2081 | Correction
Abstract
In contrast to numerous documented pathogens and infectious diseases of aquaculture, there is a lack of baseline data and information regarding pathogenic agents’ prevalence in wild marine fish populations. This study focused on two common fish pathogenic microorganisms, namely Mycobacterium species and Vibrio [...] Read more.
In contrast to numerous documented pathogens and infectious diseases of aquaculture, there is a lack of baseline data and information regarding pathogenic agents’ prevalence in wild marine fish populations. This study focused on two common fish pathogenic microorganisms, namely Mycobacterium species and Vibrio species, both of which are known to be major causes of fish loss, occasionally to the extent of being a limiting factor in fish production. Both microorganisms are known as zoonotic agents. In total, 210 wild marine indigenous and Lessepsian fish from four different species from the eastern Mediterranean Sea were sampled and tested for Vibrio species and Mycobacterium species during a two-year period (2016–2017). Using PCR with 16S rRNA primers, we detected different strain variations of Mycobacterium species and Vibrio species and, based on the sequencing results, the overall prevalence for Vibrio species in wild fish in 2016 was significantly higher compared to 2017. No significant difference was detected for Mycobacterium species prevalence in wild fish between 2016 and 2017. In addition, 72 gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) from an Israeli offshore marine farm were also examined during the two-year period (2017–2018). The results suggest that Mycobacterium species prevalence was significantly higher in 2018, while in 2017 there was no positive results for Mycobacterium species. In addition, there was no significant difference between both years in regard to the prevalence of Vibrio species for maricultured fish. These results highlight the necessity of continuous molecular monitoring in order to evaluate the prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in both wild and cultured fish populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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Correction
Correction: Regev, Y., et al. Molecular Identification and Characterization of Vibrio Species and Mycobacterium Species in Wild and Cultured Marine Fish from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 863
Microorganisms 2020, 8(8), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081153 - 30 Jul 2020
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We would like to change the authors’ affiliation of paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
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