Interaction of Plants and Endophytic Microorganisms: Community, Functions and Applications

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Microbe Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2024) | Viewed by 22100

Special Issue Editors


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Microbiología y Genética, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
Interests: endophytic bacteria; bacterial diversity; plant–microbe interactions; bacterial plant probiotics; rhizobia
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Didactics of Experimental Sciences, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
Interests: endophytic bacteria; rhizobia; bacterial diversity; plant–microbe interactions; bacterial plant probiotics; STEM education
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Microbiology and Genetics Department, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
Interests: host-microbe interactions; bioinformatics; microbiology; multi-OMICs; microbialecology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decade, knowledge about the bacterial population that inhabits plants has taken a rather simple view with limited interactions, and the actual situation is now known to involve a complex network of interactions between plants, microbes and metazoans. In this community, endophytic bacteria are highly relevant when it comes to plant–microbe interactions, which comprise a wide range of bacteria inhabiting the inner tissues of plants. The behaviour of some of these bacteria, acting as plant biostimulants through diverse growth promotion mechanisms, has led to an increased interest in the knowledge of endophytic bacterial biodiversity in different plants. Culturomics and metagenomics have been applied for this purpose, allowing the identification of a high number of new genera and species living in the inner tissues of different plants. Genome analysis of these bacteria has allowed a more comprehensive understanding of the metabolism of the bacteria that inhabit these environments as well as of their phylogenetic relationships. On the other hand, endophytic bacteria may have advantages as plant growth promoters over rhizospheric bacteria due to the closer and more efficient molecular interactions. Thus, endophytes will play key roles in the formulation of biostimulants that increase plant yield and health, including the resistance to different stresses.

This Special Issue will focus on the analysis of plant bacterial endophyte diversity based on culturomics and metagenomics approaches, the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria inhabiting different plant tissues and different plant hosts and their relevance in the plant growth, health and resistance to environmental stresses.

We encourage the submission of research original articles and reviews addressing these topics.

Prof. Dr. Encarna Velazquez
Dr. José David Flores-Félix
Dr. Martha Helena Ramírez-Bahena
Dr. Zaki Saati-Santamaría
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • endophytic microorganisms
  • microbial ecology
  • plant biostimulants

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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24 pages, 5772 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Leaf and Soil Nutrients, Microorganisms and Metabolome in the Growth Period of Idesia polycarpa Maxim
by Tao Zhang, Shasha Wang, Sohel Rana, Yanmei Wang, Zhen Liu, Qifei Cai, Xiaodong Geng, Qiupeng Yuan, Yi Yang, Chao Miao, Xiaoyan Xue, Li Dai and Zhi Li
Microorganisms 2024, 12(4), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12040746 - 07 Apr 2024
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Idesia polycarpa Maxim is an emerging oil plant species. Understanding its microecological characteristics and internal mechanisms can serve as a basis for field management and the screening and application of growth-promoting bacteria during the growth phase of young trees. This study used three-year-old [...] Read more.
Idesia polycarpa Maxim is an emerging oil plant species. Understanding its microecological characteristics and internal mechanisms can serve as a basis for field management and the screening and application of growth-promoting bacteria during the growth phase of young trees. This study used three-year-old young I. polycarpa to analyze the tree’s root morphology, soil, and leaf nutrient status variations from May to October. In addition, differences in the rhizosphere soil, leaf metabolites, and microorganisms were observed. The results showed that, from May to October, the total nitrogen (TN) in the soil significantly decreased, whereas the TN, total potassium (TK), and total phosphorus (TP) in the leaves differed (p < 0.05). The leaf-dominant bacteria changed from Pseudomonadota to Firmicutes phylum. In addition, the relative abundance of soil and leaf-dominant bacteria decreased. The study found that the soil and leaf differential metabolites were mainly sugars and phenolic acids. The soil bacterial community showed a significant correlation with soil pH, available potassium (AK), available phosphorus (AP), and TN (p < 0.05). Further, the soil fungal community was significantly correlated with pH and AK (p < 0.001). TP, pH, and TK were the main factors influencing the leaf bacterial community, while the leaf fungal community was significantly correlated with five factors, including pH, TC, and TN. The root morphology was also mainly affected by pH, Pedomicrobium sp., Talaromyces sp., Penicillium sp., and D-Mannitol 2. Full article
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15 pages, 6031 KiB  
Article
Rhizobacteria Increase the Adaptation Potential of Potato Microclones under Aeroponic Conditions
by Oksana V. Tkachenko, Nina V. Evseeva, Kristina Y. Kargapolova, Alena Y. Denisova, Natalia N. Pozdnyakova, Artem A. Kulikov and Gennady L. Burygin
Microorganisms 2023, 11(7), 1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11071866 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Adaptation ex vitro is strongly stressful for microplants. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) help to increase the adaptation potential of microplants transplanted from test tubes into the natural environment. We investigated the mechanisms of antioxidant protection of PGPR-inoculated potato microclones adapting to ex vitro growth [...] Read more.
Adaptation ex vitro is strongly stressful for microplants. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) help to increase the adaptation potential of microplants transplanted from test tubes into the natural environment. We investigated the mechanisms of antioxidant protection of PGPR-inoculated potato microclones adapting to ex vitro growth in an aeroponic system. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Nevsky) microplants were inoculated in vitro with the bacteria Azospirillum baldaniorum Sp245 and Ochrobactrum cytisi IPA7.2. On days 1 and 7 of plant growth ex vitro, catalase and peroxidase activities in the leaves of inoculated plants were 1.5-fold higher than they were in non-inoculated plants. The activity of ascorbate peroxidase was reduced in both in vitro and ex vitro treatments, and this reduction was accompanied by a decrease in the leaf content of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde. As a result, inoculation contributed to the regulation of the plant pro/antioxidant system, lowering the oxidative stress and leading to better plant survival ex vitro. This was evidenced by the higher values of measured morphological and physiological variables of the inoculated plants, as compared with the values in the control treatment. Thus, we have shown some PGPR-mediated mechanisms of potato plant protection from adverse environmental factors under aeroponic conditions. Full article
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23 pages, 4231 KiB  
Article
Yield and Rhizosphere Soil Environment of Greenhouse Zucchini in Response to Different Planting and Breeding Waste Composts
by Jianzhong Tie, Yali Qiao, Ning Jin, Xueqin Gao, Yayu Liu, Jian Lyu, Guobin Zhang, Linli Hu and Jihua Yu
Microorganisms 2023, 11(4), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11041026 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Composting, planting, and breeding waste for return to the field is the most crucial soil improvement method under the resource utilization of agricultural waste. However, how the vegetable yield and rhizosphere soil environment respond to different composts is still unknown. Therefore, eight formulations [...] Read more.
Composting, planting, and breeding waste for return to the field is the most crucial soil improvement method under the resource utilization of agricultural waste. However, how the vegetable yield and rhizosphere soil environment respond to different composts is still unknown. Therefore, eight formulations were designed for compost fermentation using agricultural waste [sheep manure (SM), tail vegetable (TV), cow manure (CM), mushroom residue (MR), and corn straw (CS)] without fertilizer (CK1) and local commercial organic fertilizer (CK2) as controls to study the yield and rhizosphere soil environment of greenhouse zucchini in response to different planting and breeding waste compost. Applying planting and breeding waste compost significantly increased the soil’s organic matter and nutrient content. It inhibited soil acidification, which T4 (SM:TV:CS = 6:3:1) and T7 (SM:TV:MR:CS = 6:2:1:1) treatments affected significantly. Compared to CK2 treatment, T4 and T7 treatments showed a greater increase, with a significant increase of 14.69% and 11.01%, respectively. Therefore, T4, T7, and two control treatments were selected for high-throughput sequencing based on yield performance. Compared with the CK1 treatment, although multiple applications of chemical fertilizers led to a decrease in bacterial and fungal richness, planting and breeding waste compost maintained bacterial diversity and enhanced fungal diversity. Compared to CK2, the relative abundance increased in T7-treated Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Lysobacter) and T4-treated Bacteroidetes (Flavobacterium) among bacteria. An increase in T4-treated Ascomycota (Zopfiella and Fusarium) and Basidiomycota among fungi and a decrease in T7-treated Mortierellomycota have been observed. Functional predictions of the bacterial Tax4Fun and fungal FUNGuild revealed that applying planting and breeding waste compost from the T4 treatment significantly increased the abundance of soil bacterial Metabolism of Cities, Genetic Information Processing, and Cellular Processes decreased the abundance of Pathotroph and Saprotroph-Symbiotroph fungi and increased the abundance of Saprotroph fungi. Overall, planting and breeding waste compost increased zucchini yield by improving soil fertility and microbial community structure. Among them, T4 treatment has the most significant effect, so T4 treatment can be selected as the optimized formulation of local commercial organic fertilizer. These findings have valuable implications for sustainable agricultural development. Full article
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24 pages, 5046 KiB  
Article
Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) Plant–Endophyte Dynamics: Plant Growth, Nutrient Uptake, and Zinc Biofortification
by Renu Chaudhary, Vijay Kumar, Sanjay Gupta, Bindu Naik, Ram Prasad, Sadhna Mishra, Per Erik Joakim Saris and Vivek Kumar
Microorganisms 2023, 11(4), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11040973 - 08 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2926
Abstract
Endophytic fungi and bacteria were isolated from finger millet and their effects on finger millet growth parameters and zinc and NPK contents in grains were studied. Out of 70 fungal and 112 bacterial endophytes, the two best fungal and bacterial isolates were selected [...] Read more.
Endophytic fungi and bacteria were isolated from finger millet and their effects on finger millet growth parameters and zinc and NPK contents in grains were studied. Out of 70 fungal and 112 bacterial endophytes, the two best fungal and bacterial isolates were selected on the basis of zinc solubilization and plant-growth-promoting attributes. The fungal isolates identified were Aspergillus terreus and Lecanicillium sp., and the bacterial isolates were Pseudomonas bijieensis and Priestia megaterium. The endophytic zinc, NPK mobilization, and plant-growth-promoting efficacy were determined in a pot experiment with zinc carbonate as the zinc source. Endophytic-primed plants showed enhanced shoot and root lengths compared to the unprimed control. Endophytes increased the zinc content in grains by between 12.12% and 18.80% compared to control plants. Endophytes also augmented the NPK concentrations in seeds compared to control plants and exhibited stability in a diverse range of pHs, temperatures, and NaCl concentrations, and exhibited growth on various carbohydrate and nitrogen sources. This is the first study reporting the interaction of Aspergillus terreus, Lecanicillium sp., Pseudomonas bijieensis, and Priestia megaterium with finger millet for grain Zn biofortification and NPK concentration enhancement. This study indicated that zinc-dissolving endophytes possess the potential for enhancing the zinc and NPK content in grains in addition to the plant-growth-promoting attributes. Full article
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11 pages, 2732 KiB  
Article
A Potential Application of Pseudomonas psychrotolerans IALR632 for Lettuce Growth Promotion in Hydroponics
by Chuansheng Mei, Dongfang Zhou, Robert L. Chretien, Amy Turner, Guichuan Hou, Michael R. Evans and Scott Lowman
Microorganisms 2023, 11(2), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11020376 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2125
Abstract
Controlled environment agriculture hydroponic systems grow plants year-round without restriction from outside environmental conditions. In order to further improve crop yield, plant growth-promoting bacteria were tested on hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants. From our bacterial endophyte library, we found one [...] Read more.
Controlled environment agriculture hydroponic systems grow plants year-round without restriction from outside environmental conditions. In order to further improve crop yield, plant growth-promoting bacteria were tested on hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants. From our bacterial endophyte library, we found one bacterium, Pseudomonas psychrotolerans IALR632, that is promising in promoting lettuce growth in multiple hydroponic systems. When Green Oakleaf lettuce seeds were inoculated with IALR632 during germination, IALR632 significantly increased lateral root development by 164%. When germinated seedlings were inoculated with IALR632 and then transplanted to different hydroponic systems, shoot and root fresh weights of Green Oakleaf increased by 55.3% and 17.2% in a nutrient film technique (NFT) system in the greenhouse, 13.5% and 13.8% in an indoor vertical NFT system, and 15.3% and 13.6% in a deep water cultivation (DWC) system, respectively. IALR632 also significantly increased shoot fresh weights of Rex by 33.9%, Red Oakleaf by 21.0%, Red Sweet Crisp by 15.2%, and Nancy by 29.9%, as well as Red Rosie by 8.6% (no significant difference). Inoculation of IALR632-GFP and subsequent analysis by confocal microscopy demonstrated the endophytic nature and translocation from roots to shoots. The results indicate that P. psychrotolerans IALR632 has a potential application in hydroponically grown lettuce plants. Full article
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16 pages, 1654 KiB  
Article
Monilinia fructigena Suppressing and Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Pseudomonas spp. Bacteria Isolated from Plum
by Augustina Kolytaitė, Dorotėja Vaitiekūnaitė, Raminta Antanynienė, Danas Baniulis and Birutė Frercks
Microorganisms 2022, 10(12), 2402; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10122402 - 03 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2549
Abstract
Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. fungi causes substantial losses in stone and pome fruit production. Reports suggest that up to 90% of the harvest could be lost. This constitutes an important worldwide issue in the food chain that cannot be solved by [...] Read more.
Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. fungi causes substantial losses in stone and pome fruit production. Reports suggest that up to 90% of the harvest could be lost. This constitutes an important worldwide issue in the food chain that cannot be solved by the use of chemical fungicides alone. Biocontrol agents (BCAs) based on microorganisms are considered a potential alternative to chemical fungicides. We hypothesized that endophytic bacteria from Prunus domestica could exhibit antagonistic properties towards Monilinia fructigena, one of the main causative agents of brown rot. Among the bacteria isolated from vegetative buds, eight isolates showed antagonistic activity against M. fructigena, including three Pseudomonas spp. isolates that demonstrated 34% to 90% inhibition of the pathogen’s growth when cultivated on two different media in vitro. As the stimulation of plant growth could contribute to the disease-suppressing activity of the potential BCAs, plant growth promoting traits (PGPTs) were assessed for bacterial isolates with M. fructigena-suppressing activity. While all isolates were capable of producing siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), fixating nitrogen, mineralizing organic phosphate, and solubilizing inorganic phosphate and potassium, only the Pseudomonas spp. isolates showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity. Overall, our study paves the way for the development of an eco-friendly strategy for managing M. fructigena pathogens by using BCAs including Pseudomonas spp. bacteria, which could also serve as growth stimulators. Full article
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20 pages, 5228 KiB  
Article
Screening of Endophytic Bacteria of Leucojum aestivum ‘Gravety Giant’ as a Potential Source of Alkaloids and as Antagonist to Some Plant Fungal Pathogens
by Yuka Munakata, Rosella Spina, Sophie Slezack-Deschaumes, Julie Genestier, Alain Hehn and Dominique Laurain-Mattar
Microorganisms 2022, 10(10), 2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10102089 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2430
Abstract
Leucojum aestivum is a medicinal plant belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family well known as a producer of alkaloids such as galanthamine and lycorine. However, the endophytic microbes that colonize different plant tissues without causing any damage have not been reported in this plant. [...] Read more.
Leucojum aestivum is a medicinal plant belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family well known as a producer of alkaloids such as galanthamine and lycorine. However, the endophytic microbes that colonize different plant tissues without causing any damage have not been reported in this plant. Here, we explored the different endophytic bacterial communities isolated from different surface disinfected tissues of L. aestivum ‘Gravety giant’ and screened bacterial isolates producing alkaloids and their potential use as biocontrol agent against wheat pathogens. For that purpose, endophytic bacteria were isolated from bulbs, roots and shoots of L. aestivum. After taxonomical characterization, these microorganisms were screened for their ability to produce alkaloids using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and untargeted liquid chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) strategies. We isolated 138 bacteria belonging to four phyla and 42 genera, mainly from roots and shoots. The most abundant genera were Rahnella in shoot, Patulibacter in bulb and Bacillus in roots. Among the different bacterial isolates, the methanolic extracts of Luteibacter rhizovicinus (LaBFB3301) and Commamonas denitrificans (LaBFS2103) slightly delayed the growth of F. graminearum colonies in in vitro dual tests against F. graminearum and M. nivale strains with 15.5% and 19.9% inhibition rates, respectively. These isolates are able to produce an indolic alkaloid tryptophol (C10H11NO, [M + H]+ 162.0913). These endophytic bacteria might be investigated to characterize the plant protection effect and the plant growth promotion effect. Full article
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22 pages, 5622 KiB  
Article
A Plant Endophytic Bacterium Priestia megaterium StrainBP-R2 Isolated from the Halophyte Bolboschoenus planiculmis Enhances Plant Growth under Salt and Drought Stresses
by Hau-Hsuan Hwang, Pei-Ru Chien, Fan-Chen Huang, Pin-Hsien Yeh, Shih-Hsun Walter Hung, Wen-Ling Deng and Chieh-Chen Huang
Microorganisms 2022, 10(10), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10102047 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3067
Abstract
Global warming and climate change have contributed to the rise of weather extremes. Severe drought and soil salinization increase because of rising temperatures. Economically important crop production and plant growth and development are hindered when facing various abiotic stresses. Plant endophytic bacteria live [...] Read more.
Global warming and climate change have contributed to the rise of weather extremes. Severe drought and soil salinization increase because of rising temperatures. Economically important crop production and plant growth and development are hindered when facing various abiotic stresses. Plant endophytic bacteria live inside host plants without causing visible harm and can be isolated from surface-sterilized plant tissues. Using plant endophytic bacteria to stimulate plant growth and increase environmental stress tolerance has become an alternative approach besides using the traditional breeding and genetically modifying approaches to select or create new crop types resistant to different environmental stresses. The plant endophytic bacterium, Priestia megaterium (previously known as Bacillus megaterium) strain BP-R2, was isolated from the surface-sterilized root tissues of the salt marsh halophyte Bolboschoenus planiculmis. The bacteria strain BP-R2 showed high tolerance to different sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations and produced the auxin plant hormone, indole acetic acid (IAA), under various tested growth conditions. Inoculation of Arabidopsis and pak choi (Brassica rapa L. R. Chinensis Group) plants with the strain BP-R2 greatly enhanced different growth parameters of the host plants under normal and salt and drought stress conditions compared to that of the mock-inoculated plants. Furthermore, the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration accumulated less in the BP-R2-inoculated plants than in the mock-inoculated control plants under salt and drought stresses. In summary, the plant endophytic bacterium strain BP-R2 increased host plant growth and stress tolerance to salt and drought conditions. Full article
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14 pages, 1784 KiB  
Article
Plant-Growth-Promoting Potential of PGPE Isolated from Dactylis glomerata L.
by Chaowen Zhang, Kai Cai, Mengyuan Li, Jiaqi Zheng and Yuzhu Han
Microorganisms 2022, 10(4), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10040731 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2283
Abstract
Plant-growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) are a kind of beneficial microorganisms which could inhabit plant tissues to antagonize certain plant pathogens and promote the host plant’s growth and development. At present, many studies have confirmed the mutualistic effect of endophytes with plants, but there are [...] Read more.
Plant-growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) are a kind of beneficial microorganisms which could inhabit plant tissues to antagonize certain plant pathogens and promote the host plant’s growth and development. At present, many studies have confirmed the mutualistic effect of endophytes with plants, but there are few systematic studies on beneficial roles between endophytes and Dactylis glomerata, especially on the PGPE characteristics of the forage and environmental restoration plant. This study aimed to isolate PGPE from D. glomerata, evaluate their effects on plant growth, and ultimately acquire desirable microbial inoculants for agricultural use. First, endophytes were isolated from D. glomerata by plant re-inoculation experiment, and identified by morphological and molecular analyses. Fixation medium and methods were carried out to assess the nitrogen fixation ability of the strains. Then, the ability to dissolve phosphorus was determined by the Olsen and silicate medium methods; secretory IAA was measured by Salkowski colorimetric method; and the inhibitive effects on phytopathogen were observed by confrontation culture. Twenty-one strains were isolated from four varieties of D. glomerata, among which 14 strains with plant-growth-promoting characteristics were obtained by re-inoculation experiments, including seven endophytic bacteria and seven endophytic fungi. Further evaluation of three selected strains with the most significant PGP attributes were performed by using the pot re-inoculation experiment which revealed that TG2-B derived from Myroides odoratimimus was the most effective plant-growth-promoting agent due to its ability to produce high levels of IAA; the strain Bacillus cereus exhibited the most robust ability in dissolving inorganic phosphorus; and Trichoderma harzianum manifested a conspicuously antagonistic effect against a variety of plant pathogens. For the first time, this study reports the identification of D. glomerata endophytes that were able to promote plant growth and have a considerable antagonistic effects on plant pathogens, which could be considered as microbial inoculants for using in improving crop production and plant disease control. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

23 pages, 1122 KiB  
Review
Current Advances in the Functional Diversity and Mechanisms Underlying Endophyte–Plant Interactions
by Caihong Zhao, Johnmark Onyino and Xiquan Gao
Microorganisms 2024, 12(4), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12040779 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Plant phenotype is a complex entity largely controlled by the genotype and various environmental factors. Importantly, co-evolution has allowed plants to coexist with the biotic factors in their surroundings. Recently, plant endophytes as an external plant phenotype, forming part of the complex plethora [...] Read more.
Plant phenotype is a complex entity largely controlled by the genotype and various environmental factors. Importantly, co-evolution has allowed plants to coexist with the biotic factors in their surroundings. Recently, plant endophytes as an external plant phenotype, forming part of the complex plethora of the plant microbial assemblage, have gained immense attention from plant scientists. Functionally, endophytes impact the plant in many ways, including increasing nutrient availability, enhancing the ability of plants to cope with both abiotic and biotic stress, and enhancing the accumulation of important plant secondary metabolites. The current state of research has been devoted to evaluating the phenotypic impacts of endophytes on host plants, including their direct influence on plant metabolite accumulation and stress response. However, there is a knowledge gap in how genetic factors influence the interaction of endophytes with host plants, pathogens, and other plant microbial communities, eventually controlling the extended microbial plant phenotype. This review will summarize how host genetic factors can impact the abundance and functional diversity of the endophytic microbial community, how endophytes influence host gene expression, and the host–endophyte–pathogen disease triangle. This information will provide novel insights into how breeders could specifically target the plant–endophyte extended phenotype for crop improvement. Full article
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17 pages, 2107 KiB  
Review
MarR Family Transcriptional Regulators and Their Roles in Plant-Interacting Bacteria
by Fanny Nazaret, Geneviève Alloing, Karine Mandon and Pierre Frendo
Microorganisms 2023, 11(8), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11081936 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2012
Abstract
The relationship between plants and associated soil microorganisms plays a major role in ecosystem functioning. Plant–bacteria interactions involve complex signaling pathways regulating various processes required by bacteria to adapt to their fluctuating environment. The establishment and maintenance of these interactions rely on the [...] Read more.
The relationship between plants and associated soil microorganisms plays a major role in ecosystem functioning. Plant–bacteria interactions involve complex signaling pathways regulating various processes required by bacteria to adapt to their fluctuating environment. The establishment and maintenance of these interactions rely on the ability of the bacteria to sense and respond to biotic and abiotic environmental signals. In this context, MarR family transcriptional regulators can use these signals for transcriptional regulation, which is required to establish adapted responses. MarR-like transcriptional regulators are essential for the regulation of the specialized functions involved in plant–bacteria interactions in response to a wide range of molecules associated with the plant host. The conversion of environmental signals into changes in bacterial physiology and behavior allows the bacteria to colonize the plant and ensure a successful interaction. This review focuses on the mechanisms of plant-signal perception by MarR-like regulators, namely how they (i) allow bacteria to cope with the rhizosphere and plant endosphere, (ii) regulate the beneficial functions of Plant-Growth-Promoting Bacteria and (iii) regulate the virulence of phytopathogenic bacteria. Full article
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