Microorganisms and Fermented Foods 2.0

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 9308

Special Issue Editors

Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council (ISA-CNR), 83100 Avellino, Italy
Interests: lactic acid bacteria; yeasts; probiotic; fermented food; sourdough; dairy products
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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences (D3A), Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
Interests: microbiology; food; safety
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is a continuation of our 2021 Special Issue "Microorganisms and Fermented Foods".

Fermented foods are a significant component of the human diet and represent a precious cultural heritage in many parts of the world. Scientific evidence indicates that microorganisms play a pivotal role in the fermentation of numerous plant and/or animal matrices, leading to desirable biochemical changes responsible for sensory, nutritional, and textural modifications; contributing to their preservation; improving digestibility; inhibiting pathogens and undesirable microorganisms; and promoting health benefits.

New insights have been achieved in recent years into the microbial biodiversity of many fermented foods, and great advances in the development of microbial applications in industry for the production of new fermented foods and food ingredients.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for researchers studying fermented foods to exchange and share research results and updates on the microbial biodiversity of not only the most common fermented products, but also of minor or lesser-known ethnic fermented products; on the functional and pro-technological properties of starter cultures; and on the utilization of fermentation potential.

To this end, we cordially invite you to submit original research articles, review articles, and short communications on various aspects of fermented products covering microbiology, biochemistry, nutrition, and healthy aspects.

Dr. Anna Reale
Dr. Andrea Osimani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1101 KiB  
Article
Enterotoxigenic and Antimicrobic Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Fresh Cheese in Croatia
by Ivana Ljevaković-Musladin, Lidija Kozačinski, Marija Krilanović, Marina Vodnica Martucci, Mato Lakić, Luca Grispoldi and Beniamino T. Cenci-Goga
Microorganisms 2023, 11(12), 2993; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11122993 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 925
Abstract
Certain Staphylococcus aureus strains harbour staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and hence can produce enterotoxin during their growth in food. Therefore, food can be a source of staphylococcal food poisoning, one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide. Epidemiological data show that S. aureus is [...] Read more.
Certain Staphylococcus aureus strains harbour staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and hence can produce enterotoxin during their growth in food. Therefore, food can be a source of staphylococcal food poisoning, one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide. Epidemiological data show that S. aureus is often present in raw milk cheeses, and consequently, cheeses are often the source of staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic characteristics of S. aureus isolates from fresh cheese, including antibiotic susceptibility; the presence of classical sea-see enterotoxin genes through molecular methods; and the isolate’s ability to produce SEA-SEE enterotoxins in vitro through reversed passive latex agglutination. A total of 180 coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 18 out of 30 cheese samples, and 175 were confirmed as S. aureus through latex agglutination and API STAPH tests. All isolates possessed phenotypic characteristics typical for S. aureus, with certain variations in the egg yolk reaction (18.3% of the isolates showed a weak reaction and 28% no reaction at all) and haemolysis pattern (36.6% of the isolates produced double-haemolysis and 4.6% were non-haemolytic). Antibiotic resistance was observed in 1.1% of the isolates and to mupirocin only. Real-time PCR detected the sec gene in 34 (19.4%) isolates, but most isolates (80.6%) were not enterotoxigenic. For all 34 (19.4%) strains that carried the sec gene, the RPLA method detected the production of the SEC enterotoxin in vitro. For those enterotoxigenic strains, the possibility of enterotoxin production in fresh cheese could not be ruled out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms and Fermented Foods 2.0)
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15 pages, 3201 KiB  
Article
Probiotic Properties and Safety Evaluation of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7718 with Superior Storage Stability Isolated from Fermented Squid
by Hyeonji Kim, Myeong-Seok Yoo, Hyejin Jeon, Jae-Jung Shim, Woo-Jung Park, Joo-Yun Kim and Jung-Lyoul Lee
Microorganisms 2023, 11(9), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11092254 - 8 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify new potential probiotics with improved storage stability and to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Sixty lactic acid bacteria strains were isolated from Korean traditional fermented foods, and their survival was tested under extreme conditions. Lactobacillus [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify new potential probiotics with improved storage stability and to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Sixty lactic acid bacteria strains were isolated from Korean traditional fermented foods, and their survival was tested under extreme conditions. Lactobacillus plantarum HY7718 (HY7718) showed the greatest stability during storage. HY7718 also showed a stable growth curve under industrial conditions. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the HY7718 genome comprises 3.26 Mbp, with 44.5% G + C content, and 3056 annotated Protein-coding DNA sequences (CDSs). HY7718 adhered to intestinal epithelial cells and was tolerant to gastric fluids. Additionally, HY7718 exhibited no hemolytic activity and was not resistant to antibiotics, confirming that it has probiotic properties and is safe for consumption. Additionally, we evaluated its effects on intestinal health using TNF-induced Caco-2 cells. HY7718 restored the expression of tight junction proteins such as zonular occludens (ZO-1, ZO-2), occludin (OCLN), and claudins (CLDN1, CLDN4), and regulated the expression of myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), Elk-1, and nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (NFKB1). Moreover, HY7718 reduced the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8, as well as reducing the levels of peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, HY7718 has probiotic properties, is safe, is stable under extreme storage conditions, and exerts positive effects on intestinal cells. These results suggest that L. plantarum HY7718 is a potential probiotic for use as a functional supplement in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms and Fermented Foods 2.0)
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13 pages, 1914 KiB  
Article
Online Monitoring of the Growth of Probiotic Bacteria and Metabolites in the Fermentation of a Teff Substrate Using Model-Based Calibration of 2D Fluorescence Spectra
by Sendeku Takele Alemneh, Majharulislam Babor, Viktoria Zettel, Almut von Wrochem and Bernd Hitzmann
Microorganisms 2023, 11(4), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11041032 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
The demand for probiotic bacteria-fermented food products is increasing; however, the monitoring of the fermentation process is still challenging when using conventional approaches. A classical approach requires a large amount of offline data to calibrate a chemometric model using fluorescence spectra. Fluorescence spectra [...] Read more.
The demand for probiotic bacteria-fermented food products is increasing; however, the monitoring of the fermentation process is still challenging when using conventional approaches. A classical approach requires a large amount of offline data to calibrate a chemometric model using fluorescence spectra. Fluorescence spectra provide a wide range of online information during the process of cultivation, but they require a large amount of offline data (which involves laborious work) for the calibration procedure when using a classical approach. In this study, an alternative model-based calibration approach was used to predict biomass (the growth of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum A6 (LPA6) and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LCGG)), glucose, and lactic acid during the fermentation process of a teff-based substrate inoculated with mixed strains of LPA6 and LCGG. A classical approach was also applied and compared to the model-based calibration approach. In the model-based calibration approach, two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence spectra and offline substituted simulated data were used to generate a chemometric model. The optimum microbial specific growth rate and chemometric model parameters were obtained simultaneously using a particle swarm optimization algorithm. The prediction errors for biomass, glucose, and lactic acid concentrations were measured between 6.1 and 10.5%; the minimum error value was related to the prediction of biomass and the maximum one was related to the prediction of glucose using the model-based calibration approach. The model-based calibration approach and the classical approach showed similar results. In conclusion, the findings showed that a model-based calibration approach could be used to monitor the process state variables (i.e., biomass, glucose, and lactic acid) online in the fermentation process of a teff-based substrate inoculated with mixed strains of LPA6 and LCGG. However, glucose prediction showed a high error value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms and Fermented Foods 2.0)
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12 pages, 1113 KiB  
Article
Bioaccessibility of Maillard Reaction Products from Biscuits Formulated from Buckwheat Flours Fermented by Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria
by Małgorzata Wronkowska, Dorota Szawara-Nowak, Mariusz Konrad Piskuła and Henryk Zieliński
Microorganisms 2023, 11(4), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11040883 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
The in vitro bioaccessibility of the soluble protein and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) such as furosine (an early indicator of the MR), free FIC (fluorescent intermediate compounds), and FAST index (fluorescence of advanced MRPs and tryptophan), and the level of melanoidins defined by [...] Read more.
The in vitro bioaccessibility of the soluble protein and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) such as furosine (an early indicator of the MR), free FIC (fluorescent intermediate compounds), and FAST index (fluorescence of advanced MRPs and tryptophan), and the level of melanoidins defined by the browning index were analyzed in biscuits formulated from raw and roasted common buckwheat flours fermented by select lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The content of soluble proteins in fermented buckwheat flour and biscuits before and after digestion in vitro was significantly dependent on the LAB applied and the type of flour used and was the highest in the digested biscuits, indicating increased bioaccessibility. Generally, in all analyzed biscuits a lower furosine content was observed as compared to control samples, and its high bioaccessibility was noted after digestion. The free FIC in biscuits was strain-dependent, resulting in low bioaccessibility with the exception of biscuits obtained from both types of flours fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus MK-10. Compared to control biscuits obtained from raw buckwheat flour, the almost twice-increased FAST index was found for samples fermented by L. plantarum IB or Streptococcus thermophilus MK-10. After digestion, at least a fivefold higher value of the browning index was noted in control and tested biscuits, indicating the high bioaccessibility of melanoidins. This study indicates that fermentation of buckwheat flours by selected lactic acid bacteria seems to be a good way to obtain a product with high bioaccessibility of MRPs. However, further research on their functional properties is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms and Fermented Foods 2.0)
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16 pages, 1402 KiB  
Article
Use of Different Nutrients to Improve the Fermentation Performances of Lactiplantibacillus pentosus OM13 during the Production of Sevillian Style Green Table Olives
by Antonio Alfonzo, Vincenzo Naselli, Raimondo Gaglio, Luca Settanni, Onofrio Corona, Francesco La Croce, Paola Vagnoli, Sibylle Krieger-Weber, Nicola Francesca and Giancarlo Moschetti
Microorganisms 2023, 11(4), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11040825 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation performance of the commercial starter Lactiplantibacillus pentosus OM13 with four nutrients (A, B, C, and D) that differed in the following ingredients: starch, sugars, maltodextrin, inactivated yeast, inactivated yeast rich in amino acids, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation performance of the commercial starter Lactiplantibacillus pentosus OM13 with four nutrients (A, B, C, and D) that differed in the following ingredients: starch, sugars, maltodextrin, inactivated yeast, inactivated yeast rich in amino acids, inactivated yeast rich in mannoproteins, and salt (NaCl). For this purpose, six different experimental productions of Nocellara del Belice table olives were carried out. During transformation, the fermentation process was monitored by measuring pH and plate counts for lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcaceae, and Pseudodomondaceae populations. At the end of the production process, each trial was subjected to volatile organic compound analysis and sensory evaluation. The addition of the different nutrients resulted in a significant reduction in pH (around 2.5 points) after 3 days of fermentation. At the same time, a significant increase in the number of LAB populations (> 6.6 log CFU/mL) was observed for all trials. Volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis revealed the presence of 39 compounds. In this study, nutrient C was optimal for improving the fermentation activity of L. pentosus OM13. These results provide elements for the implementation of experimental protocols to reduce product losses and improve sensory characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms and Fermented Foods 2.0)
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16 pages, 2720 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Impact of Different Technological Strategies on the Fate of Salmonella in Chicken Dry-Fermented Sausages by Means of Challenge Testing and Predictive Models
by Anna Austrich-Comas, Anna Jofré, Pere Gou and Sara Bover-Cid
Microorganisms 2023, 11(2), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11020432 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
Salmonella is the main relevant pathogen in chicken dry-fermented sausages (DFS). The safety of shelf-stable DFS must rely on the production process, which should not only prevent growth but promote inactivation of Salmonella. The aim of the study was to assess the [...] Read more.
Salmonella is the main relevant pathogen in chicken dry-fermented sausages (DFS). The safety of shelf-stable DFS must rely on the production process, which should not only prevent growth but promote inactivation of Salmonella. The aim of the study was to assess the behaviour of Salmonella during the production process of two types of low-acid chicken DFS. The impact of the use of starter culture, corrective storage and high-pressure processing (HPP) at different processing times was assessed through challenge testing, i.e., inoculating a cocktail of Salmonella into the meat batter (at 6 Log10 cfu/g) used for sausage manufacture. Sausages of medium (fuet-type, FT) and small (snack-type, ST) calibre were elaborated through ripening (10–15 °C/16 d) and fermentation plus ripening (22 °C/3 d + 14 °C/7 d). Physico-chemical parameters were analysed and Salmonella was enumerated throughout the study. The observed results were compared with the simulations provided by predictive models available in the literature. In FT, a slight decrease in Salmonella was observed during the production process while in ST, a 0.9–1.4 Log10 increase occurred during the fermentation at 22 °C. Accordingly, DFS safety has to be based on the process temperature and water activity decrease, these factors can be used as inputs of predictive models based on the gamma-concept, as useful decision support tool for producers. Salmonella lethality was enhanced by combining HPP and corrective storage strategies, achieving >1 and 4 Log10 reductions for FT and ST, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms and Fermented Foods 2.0)
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