Prevention and Control of Zoonotic Pathogen Infection

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Public Health Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 2793

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Stituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise G. Caporale, Teramo, Italy
Interests: epidemiology; surveillance; field epidemiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Zoonotic pathogens have always been a major threat to global public health and food production. Many factors, including geographic demographics, the environment, and social characteristics such as the indiscriminate and higher use of antibiotics in animal husbandry, combine to promote the spread of zoonotic diseases. In terms of bacterial zoonotic pathogens, the emergence and extensive spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria of animal origin has alerted us to the dangers of the use of antibiotics in animals worldwide. At present, research in the medical and veterinary fields is committed to effectively controlling the spread of zoonotic pathogens, interfering with the pathogenic process, and curbing the development of antibiotic resistance. In this Special Issue, relevant original research articles and reviews focusing on the zoonotic bacterial infection, pathogenesis, prevention and control, the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, and other strategies to contain the development of antibiotic resistance are welcome, especially those closely linking the findings and practical applications.

Dr. Maria L. Danzetta
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • zoonotic bacteria
  • zoonotic pathogen
  • global public health
  • food production

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 3295 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) Producing Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Lamellidens marginalis (Lamark, 1819) of Sewage-Fed Wetland: A Phenotypic and Genotypic Approach
by Debasmita Mohanty, Basanta Kumar Das, Punam Kumari, Saikat Dey, Asit Kumar Bera, Amiya Kumar Sahoo, Shubhankhi Dasgupta and Shreya Roy
Microorganisms 2024, 12(4), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12040723 - 03 Apr 2024
Viewed by 660
Abstract
The global rise of zoonotic bacteria resistant to multiple antimicrobial classes and the growing occurrence of infections caused by Aeromonas spp. resistant to β-lactam antibiotics pose a severe threat to animal and human health. However, the contribution of natural environments, particularly aquatic ecosystems, [...] Read more.
The global rise of zoonotic bacteria resistant to multiple antimicrobial classes and the growing occurrence of infections caused by Aeromonas spp. resistant to β-lactam antibiotics pose a severe threat to animal and human health. However, the contribution of natural environments, particularly aquatic ecosystems, as ideal settings for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a key concern. Investigating the phenotypic antibiotic resistance and detection of β-lactamase producing Aeromonas spp. in Lamellidens marginalis, which inhabit all freshwater ecosystems of the Indian subcontinent, is essential for implications in monitoring food safety and drug resistance. In the present investigation, 92 isolates of Aeromonas spp. were recovered from 105 bivalves and screened for their antimicrobial resistance patterns. In vitro antibiotic resistance profiling showed a higher Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index of 0.8 with the highest resistance against ampicillin/sulbactam (82%), while 58, 44, 39 and 38% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin, erythromycin, cefoxitin and imipenem, respectively. PCR results revealed that these isolates carried the blaTEM gene (94%), which was followed by the blaCTX-M gene (51%) and the blaSHV gene (45%). A combination of blaSHV, blaCTX-M, and blaTEM genes was found in 17% of the isolates, indicating the presence of all three resistance genes. This is the first investigation which highlights the importance of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas spp. in L. marginalis. The identification of extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBLs) genes demand the necessity of continuous surveillance and systematic monitoring, considering its potential health risks for both animals and human beings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Control of Zoonotic Pathogen Infection)
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13 pages, 1611 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation of the Antibacterial, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxic Potential of the Secondary Metabolites of Streptomyces sp. ARH (A3)
by Virlanna Larissa Santos de Azevedo, Fernanda Costa Rosa, Leo Ruben Lopes Dias, Lucas Abrantes Batista, Mariana Costa Melo, Luis Alfredo Torres Sales, Abia de Jesus Martins Branco, Thalison Rômulo Rocha Araújo, Rita de Cássia Mendonça de Miranda and Amanda Silva dos Santos Aliança
Microorganisms 2024, 12(3), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12030476 - 27 Feb 2024
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Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial, leishmanicidal, and cytotoxic potential of metabolites produced by bacteria isolated from rhizosphere soil samples. The bacterium was identified by genome sequencing as Streptomyces kronopolitis. A preliminary screening was carried out for the antimicrobial activity of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial, leishmanicidal, and cytotoxic potential of metabolites produced by bacteria isolated from rhizosphere soil samples. The bacterium was identified by genome sequencing as Streptomyces kronopolitis. A preliminary screening was carried out for the antimicrobial activity of S. kronopolitis, demonstrating activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Corynebacterium diphtheriae ATCC 27010, C. diphtheriae ATCC 27012, and Mycobacterium abscessus, with inhibition halos of sizes 25, 36, 29, and 33 mm, respectively. To obtain secondary metabolites, the bacteria were subjected to submerged fermentation, and the metabolites were extracted using the liquid–liquid method with ethyl acetate. There was a similar MIC for M. abscessus and the two strains of C. diphtherium, reaching a concentration of 12.5 µg/mL, while that of S. aureus was 0.048 µg/mL. Assays for leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity against HEp-2 cells and red blood cells were performed. The metabolite showed an IC50 of 9.0 ± 0.9 µg/mL and CC50 of 221.2 ± 7.0 µg/mL. This metabolite does not have hemolytic activity and is more selective for parasites than for mammalian cells, with a selectivity index of 24.6. Thus, the studied metabolite may be a strong candidate for the development of less toxic drugs to treat diseases caused by pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Control of Zoonotic Pathogen Infection)
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13 pages, 2798 KiB  
Article
Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Prevalence and Microbial Diversity at First Treatment for Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) and Its Associations with Health and Mortality Outcomes in Feedyard Cattle
by Kyndall Neal, Raghavendra G. Amachawadi, Brad J. White, Teresa D. Shippy, Miles E. Theurer, Robert L. Larson, Brian V. Lubbers and Michael Kleinhenz
Microorganisms 2024, 12(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12010033 - 24 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease in feedyards influencing both animal welfare and antimicrobial utilization. Major pathogens associated with BRD have been identified in previous research, but little information is available on the relationship between nasopharyngeal microbiota and health outcomes. [...] Read more.
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease in feedyards influencing both animal welfare and antimicrobial utilization. Major pathogens associated with BRD have been identified in previous research, but little information is available on the relationship between nasopharyngeal microbiota and health outcomes. The objective of this study was to identify potential associations between nasopharyngeal microbiota and antimicrobial resistance patterns of clinical cases that lived or died compared to non-diseased controls. Enrolled animals were subdivided based on clinical disease status and case outcome (subsequent mortality). Deep nasopharyngeal swabs were collected on enrolled animals and submitted for bacterial isolation, antimicrobial susceptibility determination, and metagenomics analysis. Enrolled cattle were represented in three groups: animals at first treatment for BRD that subsequently died (BRDM, n = 9), animals at first treatment for BRD that subsequently lived (BRDL, n = 15), and animals that were never treated for BRD during the feeding phase (CONT, n = 11). Antimicrobial resistance patterns for Pasteurella multocida illustrated cattle in each outcome category had isolates that were pan-susceptible or only showed resistance to oxytetracycline. The relative abundance of species and genera illustrated few differences among the three outcomes. Higher alpha diversity was identified in BRDL compared to CONT at the species level, and both BRDL and BRDM showed increased alpha diversity compared to CONT at the general level. Overall, this work illustrated nasopharyngeal microbiota showed relatively few differences among BRD cases that lived or died compared to animals without BRD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Control of Zoonotic Pathogen Infection)
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