Special Issue "Gut Microbiota Diversity Relates to Lifestyle"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Gut Microbiota".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Mar Larrosa

Food, Microbiota and Health Group, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biosciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, c/Tajo s/n Villaviciosa de Odón, 28670, Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: effect of single foods, food ingredients, and diets on gut microbiota and its relationship with health (sport performance) and illness (obesity, dementia, and cancer survivors); markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in cell culture (bacterial and human), animal models, and human trials
Guest Editor
Dr. Rocío González-Soltero

Universidad Europea de Madrid, Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas Básicas, Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: health; nutrition; gut microbiota; genomics; metagenomics; antibiotics; genome integrity; medical education

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Higher microbiota diversity is associated with a healthier state. Microbial communities with greater diversity are more stable, resistant to pathogenic invasions and shows greater functionality, resulting in host health benefits. Lifestyle significantly determines the gut microbiota community conformation and functionality: nutrition (macronutrient intake, fiber, processed food consumption), physical activity, environment and the use of antibiotics and drugs are some of the factors that determine gut microbiota diversity. For this Special Issue, “Gut Microbiota Diversity Relates to Lifestyle” we invite you to send contributions about factors related to lifestyle that shape microbiota diversity, impact in microbiota functionality and underlying mechanisms that could be involved in its stability.

Dr. Mar Larrosa
Dr. Rocío González-Soltero
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • lifestyle
  • microbiota diversity
  • microbiota functionality
  • insoluble fiber
  • soluble fiber
  • exercise
  • sedentarism
  • protein based diet
  • carbohydrates based diet
  • antibiotics
  • drugs

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Changes in Mouse Gut Microbial Community in Response to the Different Types of Commonly Consumed Meat
Microorganisms 2019, 7(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7030076
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
The consumption of various meats prevalent throughout the world affects host health probably by associating with compositional shifts of gut microbiota. However, the responses of gut microbiota to different types of meat are not well understood. In this study, we explored the effects [...] Read more.
The consumption of various meats prevalent throughout the world affects host health probably by associating with compositional shifts of gut microbiota. However, the responses of gut microbiota to different types of meat are not well understood. In this study, we explored the effects of cooked fish (white meat), and pork and beef (red meat) on gut microbiota and blood lipid metabolism in male C57BL/6 mice by comparing to those fed laboratory chow. Significant differences in microbial communities were observed among meat- and chow-fed mice. Compared with the chow group, the red and white meat groups obviously increased in abundance of Clostridium, and decreased in Prevotella abundance. The richness and diversity of gut microbiota were markedly decreased in the two red meat groups, with lower abundance of Oscillospira and higher abundance of Escherichia. Meanwhile, there were significant meat-related differences in blood lipid metabolites, with lower levels of high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, and in mice fed white, compared with red, meat. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein was significantly lower in fish-fed mice. Our results indicate that different types of meat potentially influence gut microbial compositions and blood metabolic profiles, suggesting a need to focus on clinically relevant bacteria in gut microbiota associated with increasing meat consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota Diversity Relates to Lifestyle)
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Open AccessArticle Socioeconomic Status and the Gut Microbiome: A TwinsUK Cohort Study
Microorganisms 2019, 7(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7010017
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Socioeconomic inequalities in health and mortality are well established, but the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are less understood. In parallel, the gut microbiome is emerging as a potentially important determinant of human health, but little is known about its broader environmental and [...] Read more.
Socioeconomic inequalities in health and mortality are well established, but the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are less understood. In parallel, the gut microbiome is emerging as a potentially important determinant of human health, but little is known about its broader environmental and social determinants. We test the association between gut microbiota composition and individual- and area-level socioeconomic factors in a well-characterized twin cohort. In this study, 1672 healthy volunteers from twin registry TwinsUK had data available for at least one socioeconomic measure, existing fecal 16S rRNA microbiota data, and all considered co-variables. Associations with socioeconomic status (SES) were robust to adjustment for known health correlates of the microbiome; conversely, these health-microbiome associations partially attenuated with adjustment for SES. Twins discordant for IMD (Index of Multiple Deprivation) were shown to significantly differ by measures of compositional dissimilarity, with suggestion the greater the difference in twin pair IMD, the greater the dissimilarity of their microbiota. Future research should explore how SES might influence the composition of the gut microbiota and its potential role as a mediator of differences associated with SES. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota Diversity Relates to Lifestyle)
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Open AccessArticle Gut Microbiota in Patients with Different Metabolic Statuses: Moscow Study
Microorganisms 2018, 6(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6040098
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this paper was to study gut microbiota composition in patients with different metabolic statuses. Methods: 92 participants aged 25–76 years (26 of whom were men), with confirmed absence of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases (but with the possible presence of [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to study gut microbiota composition in patients with different metabolic statuses. Methods: 92 participants aged 25–76 years (26 of whom were men), with confirmed absence of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases (but with the possible presence of cardiovascular risk factors) were included. Carotid ultrasound examinations, 16S rRNA sequencing of stool samples and diet assessments were performed. Statistical analysis was performed using R programming language, 3.1.0. Results: Enterotyping yielded two clusters differentiated by alpha-diversity. Intima-media thickness was higher in the cluster with lower diversity (adj. p < 0.001). Obesity was associated with higher Serratia (adj. p = 0.003) and Prevotella (adj. p < 0.0003) in relative abundance. Abdominal obesity was associated with higher abundance of Serratia (adj. p = 0.004) and Prevotella (adj. p = 0.0008) and lower levels of Oscillospira (adj. p = 0.0005). Glucose metabolism disturbances were associated with higher Blautia (adj. p = 0.0007) and Serratia (adj. p = 0.003) prevalence. Arterial hypertension was associated with high Blautia levels (adj. p = 0.002). The Blautia genus strongly correlated with low resistant starch consumption (adj. p = 0.007). A combination of high-fat diet and elevated Blautia levels was very common for diabetes mellitus type 2 patients (adj. p = 0.0001). Conclusion: The results show that there is a relationship between metabolic changes and higher representation of opportunistic pathogens and low diversity of gut microbiota even in apparently healthy participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota Diversity Relates to Lifestyle)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Can Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Help Us in the Handling of Anorexia Nervosa Patients?
Microorganisms 2019, 7(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7020058
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Gut microbiota is composed of different microorganisms that play an important role in the host. New research shows that bidirectional communications happen between intestinal microbiota and the brain, which is known as the gut–brain axis. This communication is significant and could have a [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota is composed of different microorganisms that play an important role in the host. New research shows that bidirectional communications happen between intestinal microbiota and the brain, which is known as the gut–brain axis. This communication is significant and could have a negative or positive effect depending on the state of the gut microbiota. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a mental illness associated with metabolic, immunologic, biochemical, sensory abnormalities, and extremely low body weight. Different studies have shown a dysbiosis in patients with AN. Due to the gut–brain axis, it was observed that some of the symptoms could be improved in these patients by boosting their gut microbiota. This paper highlights some evidence connecting the role of microbiota in the AN onset and disease progress. Finally, a proposal is done to include the microbiota analysis as part of the recovery protocol used to treat AN patients. When conducting clinical studies of gut microbiota in AN patients, dysbiosis is expected to be found. Then the prescription of a personalized treatment rich in prebiotics and probiotics could be proposed to reverse the dysbiosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota Diversity Relates to Lifestyle)
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Open AccessReview Leaky Gut, Leaky Brain?
Microorganisms 2018, 6(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6040107
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
‘Leaky gut’ syndrome, long-associated with celiac disease, has attracted much attention in recent years and for decades, was widely known in complementary/alternative medicine circles. It is often described as an increase in the permeability of the intestinal mucosa, which could allow bacteria, toxic [...] Read more.
‘Leaky gut’ syndrome, long-associated with celiac disease, has attracted much attention in recent years and for decades, was widely known in complementary/alternative medicine circles. It is often described as an increase in the permeability of the intestinal mucosa, which could allow bacteria, toxic digestive metabolites, bacterial toxins, and small molecules to ‘leak’ into the bloodstream. Nervous system involvement with celiac disease is know to occur even at subclinical levels. Gluten and gluten sensitivity are considered to trigger this syndrome in individuals genetically predisposed to celiac disease. However, the incidence of celiac disease in the general population is quite low. Nevertheless, increased public interest in gluten sensitivity has contributed to expanded food labels stating ‘gluten-free’ and the proliferation of gluten-free products, which further drives gluten-free lifestyle changes by individuals without frank celiac disease. Moreover, systemic inflammation is associated with celiac disease, depression, and psychiatric comorbidities. This mini-review focuses on the possible neurophysiological basis of leaky gut; leaky brain disease; and the microbiota’s contribution to inflammation, gastrointestinal, and blood-brain barrier integrity, in order to build a case for possible mechanisms that could foster further ‘leaky’ syndromes. We ask whether a gluten-free diet is important for anyone or only those with celiac disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota Diversity Relates to Lifestyle)
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