Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 25456

Special Issue Editors

UMR Transfrontalière BioEcoAgro 1158, Université de Lille, Lille, France
Interests: bacteria and yeasts probiotics; antimicrobial peptides; cheese ecosystem; food biopreservation; animal health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
UMR Transfrontalière BioEcoAgro, INRAe 1158, ICV—Institut Charles Viollette, University Lille, INRAE, University Liège, UPJV, YNCREA, University Artois, University Littoral Côte d’Opale, F-59000 Lille, France
Interests: antimicrobial peptides synthesized by the ribosomal; probiotics; microbial ecology; alternatives to antibiotics; antibiotic resistance; animal health; food bioconservation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antibiotic resistance is a global health problem in the world. The increase in the number of microbial strains that have become resistant to antibiotics worldwide and the lack, in some cases, of new therapeutics is worrisome. To this day, the World Health Organization continually warns of this threat and encourages the development of new strategies and alternatives to antibiotics to combat drug resistance.

In general, probiotics are represented as a potential alternative for antibiotics to control and prevent the spread of pathogenic bacteria. Strains belonging to lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are commonly used as probiotics. These bacteria can produce various antimicrobial agents, such as Bacteriocins, that exert strong antagonistic activity against different pathogenic microbes including Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, etc. Saccharomyces boulardii is the only commercially available probiotic yeast and is often used as a probiotic for countering intestinal inflammatory processes.

This Special Issue aims to collect research or review articles related to bacteria and fungi probiotics of different origin with a focus on the antimicrobial peptides (AMP) of probiotics.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Related International Congress:

The international related congress entitled “One Health International Days 2022” (https://ohid-2022.univ-lille.fr/), from 27 to 29 June 2022, at the campus of Villeneuve d’Ascq (University of Lille), France, will welcome 100 to 200 experienced and young international researchers working on the transdisciplinary topics of the holistic “One Health” approach, with applications in several areas (environmental health, plant health, animal health, human health).

Dr. Françoise Coucheney
Prof. Dr. Djamel Drider
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bacteria
  • fungi
  • probiotics
  • antimicrobials
  • antioxidant
  • gut microbiota
  • gut immunomodulation
  • animal health
  • human health

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 4005 KiB  
Article
Bacillus subtilis PM5 from Camel Milk Boosts Chicken Immunity and Abrogates Salmonella entertitidis Infections
Microorganisms 2023, 11(7), 1719; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11071719 - 30 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
With the practice of a successful livestock industry using antibiotics, which has continued for more than five decades, researchers have long been interested in finding alternatives to antibiotics for poultry production. Probiotics can potentially reduce enteric diseases in livestock and enhance their productivity. [...] Read more.
With the practice of a successful livestock industry using antibiotics, which has continued for more than five decades, researchers have long been interested in finding alternatives to antibiotics for poultry production. Probiotics can potentially reduce enteric diseases in livestock and enhance their productivity. The aim of this study was to isolate putative probiotics from camel milk and test them against Salmonella infection as well as host immune development. Thirteen different isolates were obtained from six different camel milk samples from dairy farms in Saudi Arabia. Three of the six isolates (PM1, PM2, PM3, PM4, PM5, and PM6) that showed Gram-positive characters reacted negatively to catalase and hemolytic assays. PM1, PM5, and PM6 showed significant nonpolar surface properties (>51% hydrophobic) and potent antimicrobial activities against avian pathogens, namely S. enterica, S. typhi, S. aureus, and E. coli. PM5 exhibited substantial probiotic traits; therefore, further focus was given to it. PM5 was identified as Bacillus subtilis OQ913924 by the 16S rRNA sequencing method and showed similarity matrix > 99%. An in vivo chicken model was used to access the health benefits of probiotics. After salmonella infection, the mucosal immune response was significantly increased (p < 0.01), and none of the challenge protocols caused mortality or clinical symptoms after infection in intestinal contents. S. enterica organ infiltration in the spleen, thymus, and small intestine was significantly reduced in the B. subtilis PM5-fed chickens. The S. enterica load in chicken feces was reduced from CFU 7.2 to 5.2 in oral-fed B. subtilis PM5-fed chickens. Probiotic-fed chickens showed buffered intestinal content and positively regulated the level of butyric acid (p < 0.05), and intestinal interleukin 1 beta (IL1-β), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels were reduced (p < 0.05). In addition, B. subtilis PM5 showed significant binding to peritoneal macrophages cells and inhibited S. enterica surface adhesion, indicating co-aggregation of B. subtilis PM5 in macrophage cells. It could be concluded that supplementation with probiotics can improve the growth performance of broilers and the quality of broiler chickens against enteric pathogens. The introduction of this probiotic into the commercial poultry feed market in the near future may assist in narrowing the gap that now exists between chicken breeding and consumer demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
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19 pages, 2022 KiB  
Article
Immunostimulatory Activity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CAB701 Isolated from Jeju Cabbage
Microorganisms 2023, 11(7), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11071718 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2216
Abstract
This study explored the potential of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CAB701 as a probiotic strain, focusing on its immunostimulatory properties. Despite adverse conditions in the gastrointestinal environment, this strain exhibited remarkable survivability, as evidenced by its tolerance to acid, bile, and pancreatin, coupled [...] Read more.
This study explored the potential of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CAB701 as a probiotic strain, focusing on its immunostimulatory properties. Despite adverse conditions in the gastrointestinal environment, this strain exhibited remarkable survivability, as evidenced by its tolerance to acid, bile, and pancreatin, coupled with its impressive ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells. It also exhibited significant antioxidant activity, similar to the established probiotic Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). Our research elucidates the potent immunostimulatory effects of L. lactis subsp. lactis CAB701. This strain significantly enhanced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7, far exceeding that obtained with LGG. An in-depth examination revealed elevated expression of key inflammatory mediators, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, and IL-6. L. lactis subsp. lactis CAB701 increases the expression of critical signaling proteins in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. This prompted a substantial increase in the expression of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinases and extracellular signal-regulated kinases, suggesting their role in modulating these immune-related pathways. Overall, these findings demonstrate the significant immunostimulatory capacity of L. lactis subsp. lactis CAB701, positioning it as a potential candidate for probiotic use, especially in applications that enhance immune responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
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15 pages, 5562 KiB  
Article
Microencapsulation and Application of Probiotic Bacteria Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 299v Strain
Microorganisms 2023, 11(4), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11040947 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
Microencapsulation is an up-and-coming technology for maintaining the viability of probiotics. However, the effect of core-to-wall ratios and ratios of polysaccharides on the protection of the Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 299v strain has not been deeply discussed. Lyophilization of the Lp. plantarum 299v strain was [...] Read more.
Microencapsulation is an up-and-coming technology for maintaining the viability of probiotics. However, the effect of core-to-wall ratios and ratios of polysaccharides on the protection of the Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 299v strain has not been deeply discussed. Lyophilization of the Lp. plantarum 299v strain was conducted, and different core-to-wall ratios and ratios of maltodextrin (MD) and resistant starch (RS) were applied. Results demonstrated that the content of MD and RS had an influence on the yield and bulk density in both core-to-wall ratios (1:1 and 1:1.5). In addition, samples coated with a core-to-wall ratio of 1:1.5 had significantly higher viability than those coated with a core-to-wall ratio of 1:1. Moreover, samples coated with core-to-wall ratios of 1:1 and MD:RS 1:1, as well as core-to-wall ratios of 1:1.5 and MD:RS 3:1, had the highest cell number after simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid testing, respectively. Furthermore, the optimal formulation for the application of microencapsulated Lp. plantarum 299v in apple juice (serving as a functional beverage) is listed as follows: core-to-wall ratios of 1:1 and MD:RS 1:1, with the fortification method, and stored at 4 °C. After 11 weeks of storage, the cell count was 8.28 log (CFU/mL). This study provided a strategy for Lp. plantarum 299v to achieve high viability in long-term storage and provides an application in functional apple beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
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15 pages, 1187 KiB  
Article
Promising Probiotic Properties of the Yeasts Isolated from Rabilé, a Traditionally Fermented Beer Produced in Burkina Faso
Microorganisms 2023, 11(3), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11030802 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1399
Abstract
In recent years, research on yeasts as probiotics has gained more and more interest, which will allow the development of “new” products in the probiotics market. In this context, seventeen yeast strains isolated from Rabilé, a traditional beer produced in Burkina Faso, [...] Read more.
In recent years, research on yeasts as probiotics has gained more and more interest, which will allow the development of “new” products in the probiotics market. In this context, seventeen yeast strains isolated from Rabilé, a traditional beer produced in Burkina Faso, were assessed for their probiotic attributes. The yeast identification was performed by molecular methods, including PCR-RFLP and 5.8S-ITS region sequencing. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (14 strains) was the predominantly identified species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii (2 strains) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (1 strain). Except for R. mucilaginosa, all yeast strains grew well at human temperature. The yeast strains showed high resistance when they were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Auto-aggregation ability was between 70.20 ± 10.53% and 91.82 ± 1.96%, while co-aggregation with E. coli ranged from 24.92 ± 3.96% to 80.68 ± 9.53% and with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium from 40.89 ± 8.18% to 74.06 ± 7.94%. Furthermore, the hydrophobicity of isolated strains toward n-hexane was in the range from 43.17 ± 5.07% to 70.73 ± 2.42%. All yeast strains displayed high antioxidant capabilities, and the strains did not show hemolysis halos, such that they can be considered safe. Additionally, S. cerevisiae strains strongly inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens. This is the first preliminary study to identify and characterize the yeast strains isolated from Rabilé with interesting probiotic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
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18 pages, 2434 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Safety and Probiotic Characteristics of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus X253 via Complete Genome and Phenotype Analysis
Microorganisms 2023, 11(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11010140 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2870
Abstract
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus is a generalist that can adapt to different ecological niches, serving as a valuable source of probiotics. The genome of L. rhamnosus X253 contains one chromosome and no plasmids, with a size of 2.99 Mb. Both single-copy orthologous gene-based phylogenetic analysis [...] Read more.
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus is a generalist that can adapt to different ecological niches, serving as a valuable source of probiotics. The genome of L. rhamnosus X253 contains one chromosome and no plasmids, with a size of 2.99 Mb. Both single-copy orthologous gene-based phylogenetic analysis and average nucleotide identity indicated that dairy-derived L. rhamnosus X253 was most closely related to the human-intestine-derived strain L. rhamnosus LOCK908, rather than other dairy strains. The adaptation of L. rhamnosus X253 and the human-intestine-derived strain L. rhamnosus GG to different ecological niches was explained by structural variation analysis and COG annotation. Hemolytic assays, API ZYM assays, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed to validate risk-related sequences such as virulence factors, toxin-encoding genes, and antibiotic-resistance genes in the genomes of L. rhamnosus X253 and GG. The results showed that L. rhamnosus GG was able to use L-fucose, had a higher tolerance to bile salt, and adhered better to CaCo-2 cells. In contrast, L. rhamnosus X253 was capable of utilizing D-lactose, withstood larger quantities of hydrogen peroxide, and possessed excellent antioxidant properties. This study confirmed the safety and probiotic properties of L. rhamnosus X253 via complete genome and phenotype analysis, suggesting its potential as a probiotic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
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13 pages, 2632 KiB  
Article
Probiotic Properties of Chicken-Derived Highly Adherent Lactic Acid Bacteria and Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Bacteria in Caco-2 Cells
Microorganisms 2022, 10(12), 2515; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10122515 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as probiotic candidates have various beneficial functions, such as regulating gut microbiota, inhibiting intestinal pathogens, and improving gut immunity. The colonization of the intestine is a prerequisite for probiotic function. Therefore, it is necessary to screen the highly adherent [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as probiotic candidates have various beneficial functions, such as regulating gut microbiota, inhibiting intestinal pathogens, and improving gut immunity. The colonization of the intestine is a prerequisite for probiotic function. Therefore, it is necessary to screen the highly adherent LAB. In this study, the cell surface properties, such as hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, co-aggregation, and adhesion abilities of the six chicken-derived LAB to Caco-2 cells were investigated. All six strains showed different hydrophobicity (21.18–95.27%), auto-aggregation (13.61–30.17%), co-aggregation with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (10.23–36.23%), and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 13311 (11.71–39.35%), and adhesion to Caco-2 cells (8.57–26.37%). Pediococcus pentosaceus 2–5 and Lactobacillus reuteri L-3 were identified as the strains with strong adhesion abilities (26.37% and 21.57%, respectively). Moreover, these strains could survive in a gastric acid environment at pH 2, 3, and 4 for 3 h and in a bile salt environment at 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% (w/v) concentration for 6 h. Furthermore, the cell-free supernatant of P. pentosaceus 2–5 and L. reuteri L-3 inhibited the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria and the strains inhibited the adhesion of these pathogens to Caco-2 cells. In this study, these results suggested that P. pentosaceus 2–5 and L. reuteri L-3, isolated from chicken intestines might be good probiotic candidates to be used as feed additives or delivery vehicles of biologically active substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
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Review

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22 pages, 1338 KiB  
Review
Role of the Microbiota in Skin Neoplasms: New Therapeutic Horizons
Microorganisms 2023, 11(10), 2386; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11102386 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1233
Abstract
The skin and the gut are regularly colonized by a variety of microorganisms capable of interacting with the immune system through their metabolites and influencing the balance between immune tolerance and inflammation. Alterations in the composition and diversity of the skin microbiota have [...] Read more.
The skin and the gut are regularly colonized by a variety of microorganisms capable of interacting with the immune system through their metabolites and influencing the balance between immune tolerance and inflammation. Alterations in the composition and diversity of the skin microbiota have been described in various cutaneous diseases, including skin cancer, and the actual function of the human microbiota in skin carcinogenesis, such as in progression and metastasis, is currently an active area of research. The role of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma is well consolidated, especially in chronically immunosuppressed patients. Furthermore, an imbalance between Staphylococcus spp., such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and aureus, has been found to be strongly related to the progression from actinic keratosis to squamous cell carcinoma and differently associated with various stages of the diseases in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients. Also, in melanoma patients, differences in microbiota have been related to dissimilar disease course and prognosis and may affect the effectiveness and tolerability of immune checkpoint inhibitors, which currently represent one of the best chances of a cure. From this point of view, acting on microbiota can be considered a possible therapeutic option for patients with advanced skin cancers, even if several issues are still open. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
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16 pages, 342 KiB  
Review
Probiotics in Orthopedics: From Preclinical Studies to Current Applications and Future Perspective
Microorganisms 2023, 11(8), 2021; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11082021 - 06 Aug 2023
Viewed by 905
Abstract
In recent years, probiotics have been emerging as an attractive therapeutic strategy for several diseases. In orthopedics, probiotics seem to be a promising supplementation for treatment of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, muscle loss-related disease, wound and ulcer issues, and prevention of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis side [...] Read more.
In recent years, probiotics have been emerging as an attractive therapeutic strategy for several diseases. In orthopedics, probiotics seem to be a promising supplementation for treatment of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, muscle loss-related disease, wound and ulcer issues, and prevention of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis side effects. Although probiotics are still not included in guidelines for these conditions, several studies have reported theoretical benefits of their administration. Further high-level clinical trials are necessary to convert research into solid clinical practice. However, probiotics represent a cost-effective future perspective and may play a role in association with traditional orthopedic therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
17 pages, 873 KiB  
Review
An Overview of the Use and Applications of Limosilactobacillus fermentum in Broiler Chickens
Microorganisms 2023, 11(8), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11081944 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
The implementation of government regulations on antibiotic use, along with the public’s concern for drug resistance, has strengthened interest in developing alternatives not only aimed at preserving animal production but also at reducing the effects of pathogenic infections. Probiotics, in particular, are considered [...] Read more.
The implementation of government regulations on antibiotic use, along with the public’s concern for drug resistance, has strengthened interest in developing alternatives not only aimed at preserving animal production but also at reducing the effects of pathogenic infections. Probiotics, in particular, are considered microorganisms that induce health benefits in the host after consumption of adequate amounts; they have been established as a potential strategy for improving growth, especially by stimulating intestinal homeostasis. Probiotics are commonly associated with lactic acid bacteria, and Limosilactobacillus fermentum is a well-studied species recognized for its favorable characteristics, including adhesion to epithelial cells, production of antimicrobial compounds, and activation of receptors that prompt the transcription of immune-associated genes. Recently, this species has been used in animal production. Different studies have shown that the application of L. fermentum strains not only improves the intestinal ecosystem but also reduces the effects caused by potentially pathogenic microorganisms. These studies have also revealed key insights into the mechanisms behind the actions exerted by this probiotic. In this manuscript, we aim to provide a concise overview of the effects of L. fermentum administration on broiler chicken health and performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
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17 pages, 893 KiB  
Review
Biologically Active Compounds from Probiotic Microorganisms and Plant Extracts Used as Biopreservatives
Microorganisms 2023, 11(8), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11081896 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Ensuring the microbiological safety of food products is a pressing global concern. With the increasing resistance of microorganisms to chemical agents and the declining effectiveness of synthetic preservatives, there is a growing need for alternative sources of natural, bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity. [...] Read more.
Ensuring the microbiological safety of food products is a pressing global concern. With the increasing resistance of microorganisms to chemical agents and the declining effectiveness of synthetic preservatives, there is a growing need for alternative sources of natural, bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity. The incorporation of probiotics and plant extracts into food formulations not only enriches foodstuffs with microorganisms and phytochemicals with biologically active compounds, but also provides a means for product preservation. The current review considers the importance of the process of biological preservation for providing safe foods with high biological value, natural origin and composition, and prolonged shelf life, thereby improving consumers’ quality of life. To accomplish this goal, this review presents a series of examples showcasing natural preservatives, including beneficial bacteria, yeasts, and their metabolites, as well as phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and alkaloids from plant extracts. By summarizing numerous studies, identifying research challenges and regulatory barriers for their wider use, and outlining future directions for investigation, this article makes an original contribution to the field of biopreservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
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14 pages, 435 KiB  
Review
The Potential Role of Gut Bacteriome Dysbiosis as a Leading Cause of Periprosthetic Infection: A Comprehensive Literature Review
Microorganisms 2023, 11(7), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11071778 - 09 Jul 2023
Viewed by 853
Abstract
(1) Background: Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) represent a small yet important risk when undertaking a joint arthroplasty; they occur in approximately 1–2% of treatments. These infections create a medical and financial burden for patients and healthcare systems. Despite the introduction of recognized best [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) represent a small yet important risk when undertaking a joint arthroplasty; they occur in approximately 1–2% of treatments. These infections create a medical and financial burden for patients and healthcare systems. Despite the introduction of recognized best clinical practices during arthroplasty operations, it is not yet possible to further reduce the risk of infection after surgery. The purpose of this review is to raise awareness of the potential role of gut dysbiosis in the development of PJIs and to highlight the potential of the gut bacteriome as a possible target for preventing them. (2) Methods: We compiled all the available data from five databases, examining the effects of gut dysbiosis in human and murine studies, following PRISMA guidelines, for a total of five reviewed studies. (3) Results: One human and one murine study found the Trojan horse theory applicable. Additionally, inflammatory bowel diseases, gut permeability, and oral antibiotic ingestion all appeared to play a role in promoting gut dysbiosis to cause PJIs, according to the other three studies. (4) Conclusions: Gut dysbiosis is linked to an increased risk of PJI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
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13 pages, 551 KiB  
Review
Prevention and Health Benefits of Prebiotics, Probiotics and Postbiotics in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Microorganisms 2023, 11(7), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11071775 - 08 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of leukemia in children, comprising 75–85% of cases. Aggressive treatment of leukemias includes chemotherapy and antibiotics that often disrupt the host microbiota. Additionally, the gut microbiota may play a role in the development and [...] Read more.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of leukemia in children, comprising 75–85% of cases. Aggressive treatment of leukemias includes chemotherapy and antibiotics that often disrupt the host microbiota. Additionally, the gut microbiota may play a role in the development and progression of acute leukemia. Prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics are considered beneficial to health. The role of prebiotics in the treatment and development of leukemia is not well understood, but inulin can be potentially used in the treatment of leukemia. Some probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus shows anticancer activity in in vitro studies. Additionally, Bifidobacterium spp., as a consequence of the inhibition of growth factor signaling and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, decrease the proliferation of cancer cells. Many bacterial metabolites have promising anticancer potential. The available research results are promising. However, more research is needed in humans, especially in the child population, to fully understand the relationship between the gut microbiota and acute leukemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
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13 pages, 340 KiB  
Review
Perspectives on the Probiotic Potential of Indigenous Moulds and Yeasts in Dry-Fermented Sausages
Microorganisms 2023, 11(7), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11071746 - 04 Jul 2023
Viewed by 989
Abstract
The role of indigenous fungi in the appropriate development of sensory properties and the safety of dry-fermented sausages has been widely established. Nonetheless, their applications as probiotic agents have not been elucidated in such products yet, despite their promising functional features. Thus, it [...] Read more.
The role of indigenous fungi in the appropriate development of sensory properties and the safety of dry-fermented sausages has been widely established. Nonetheless, their applications as probiotic agents have not been elucidated in such products yet, despite their promising functional features. Thus, it should be interesting to evaluate the probiotic potential of native Debaryomyces hansenii isolates from dry-fermented sausages and their application in the meat industry, because it is the most frequently isolated yeast species from these foodstuffs and its probiotic effects for animals as well as its possible probiotic activity for human beings have been demonstrated. Within the functional ability of foodborne yeasts, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antigenotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties have been reported. Similarly, the use of dry-fermented sausages as vehicles for probiotic moulds remains a challenge because the survival and development of moulds in the gastrointestinal tract are still unknown. Nevertheless, some moulds have been isolated from faeces possibly from their spores as a form of resistance. Additionally, their beneficial effects on animals and humans, such as the decrease in lipid content and the anti-inflammatory activity, have been reported, although they seem to be more related to their postbiotic capacity due to the generated bioactive compounds with profunctional attributes than to their role as probiotics. Therefore, further studies providing knowledge useful for generating dry-fermented sausages with improved functionality are fully necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
21 pages, 663 KiB  
Review
Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Food in Relation to the Next Generation of Probiotics
Microorganisms 2023, 11(7), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11071714 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3427
Abstract
Recently, probiotics are increasingly being used for human health. So far, only lactic acid bacteria isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract were recommended for human use as probiotics. However, more authors suggest that probiotics can be also isolated from unconventional sources, such as [...] Read more.
Recently, probiotics are increasingly being used for human health. So far, only lactic acid bacteria isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract were recommended for human use as probiotics. However, more authors suggest that probiotics can be also isolated from unconventional sources, such as fermented food products of animal and plant origin. Traditional fermented products are a rich source of microorganisms, some of which may have probiotic properties. A novel category of recently isolated microorganisms with great potential of health benefits are next-generation probiotics (NGPs). In this review, general information of some “beneficial microbes”, including NGPs and acetic acid bacteria, were presented as well as essential mechanisms and microbe host interactions. Many reports showed that NGP selected strains and probiotics from unconventional sources exhibit positive properties when it comes to human health (i.e., they have a positive effect on metabolic, human gastrointestinal, neurological, cardiovascular, and immune system diseases). Here we also briefly present the current regulatory framework and requirements that should be followed to introduce new microorganisms for human use. The term “probiotic” as used herein is not limited to conventional probiotics. Innovation will undoubtedly result in the isolation of potential probiotics from new sources with fascinating new health advantages and hitherto unforeseen functionalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteria and Fungi Probiotics)
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