Fusion Welding

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Welding and Joining".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2024) | Viewed by 26532

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Welding Department, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 18A, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: arc welding; laser beam welding; plasma cutting; braze welding; cladding; weldability of high-strength steels; abrasion-resistant materials; nanostructured materials; diagnostics of welding processes

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Guest Editor
Department of Automotive Vehicle Service, Silesian University of Technology, 40-019 Katowice, Poland
Interests: welding; joining; brazing; soldering; cutting; overlay welding; surfacing; cladding; thermal spraying; resistance welding; solid state welding; welding with micro-jet cooling
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Guest Editor
Department of Logistics and Transport Technology, Faculty of Transport and Aviation Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Krasińskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice, Poland
Interests: welding technology; materials structure; coatings; new materials, micro-jet cooling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The welding process is still the basic technology for joining conventional and modern construction materials, ensuring high-quality joints. This process is characterized by many specific features associated with the variable temperature field and with variations in a wide range of physical and mechanical properties of the welded material. I invite you to send scientifically valuable articles for a Special Issue entitled “Fusion Welding”. Its scope is very wide and covers virtually all welding technologies, as well as monitoring, diagnostics, and process simulation. I suggest that articles relate to advanced welding methods, unconventional welding solutions or be focused on combining high-strength materials, both steel and nonferrous, as well as nanostructured. Studies on the monitoring of fusion welding processes as well as work on computer analysis of phenomena occurring in the welded area are also welcome. Knowing the Metals journal perfectly, I am sure that this is a place where it is worth publishing your research results for dissemination on a wide scale.

Prof. Dr. Jacek Górka
Prof. Dr. Tomasz Węgrzyn
Prof. Dr. Bożena Szczucka-Lasota
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • arc welding
  • laser and electron beam welding
  • plasma welding
  • unconventional welding methods
  • welding of high-strength steels
  • welding of non-ferrous metals
  • monitoring of fusion welding
  • numerical analysis of fusion welding processes

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 3452 KiB  
Article
Improving the Formation and Quality of Weld Joints on Aluminium Alloys during TIG Welding Using Flux Backing Tape
by Saidov Rustam Mannapovich and Kamel Touileb
Metals 2024, 14(3), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14030321 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 792
Abstract
This work aimed to compare the quality and properties of the welded joints of AMg6 aluminium alloy produced via conventional TIG welding with the properties of those produced with flux backing tape. This study focussed on the relative length of oxide inclusions (Δ [...] Read more.
This work aimed to compare the quality and properties of the welded joints of AMg6 aluminium alloy produced via conventional TIG welding with the properties of those produced with flux backing tape. This study focussed on the relative length of oxide inclusions (Δoi) and the amount of the excess root penetration (hroot) of the AMg6 alloy weld beads. The results show the influence of the thickness of the flux layer of the backing tape on the formation and quality on the AMg6 alloy welds, along with the effect of flux backing tape and edge preparation on the mechanical properties of the 6 and 8 mm thick welded plates. In accordance with the results obtained, the joints produced by means of TIG welding with flux back backing tape and without edge preparation have higher mechanical properties. Moreover, the TIG welding of AMg6 alloy using flux backing tape reduces the total welding time by 55%, reduces filler wire consumption by 35%, reduces shielding gas consumption by 43% and electricity consumption by 60% per 1 linear meter of the weld line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fusion Welding)
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14 pages, 15750 KiB  
Article
Mitigating Stress Corrosion Cracking of 304L and 316L Laser Welds in a Salt Spray through Micro-Shot Peening
by Chia-Ying Kang, Tai-Cheng Chen, Ren-Kae Shiue and Leu-Wen Tsay
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1898; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111898 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
Two austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plates, 304L and 316L, were cold-rolled (304R and 316R) with a 10% reduction in thickness and then subjected to laser welding. Cold rolling caused slight surface hardening and introduced residual tensile stress into the ASS plates. The susceptibility [...] Read more.
Two austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plates, 304L and 316L, were cold-rolled (304R and 316R) with a 10% reduction in thickness and then subjected to laser welding. Cold rolling caused slight surface hardening and introduced residual tensile stress into the ASS plates. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the welds (304RW and 316RW) was determined using the U-bend test pieces in a salt spray. To highlight the stress concentration at the weld’s fusion boundary (FB), the top weld reinforcement was not ground off before bending. Moreover, micro-shot peening (MSP) was performed to mitigate the SCC of the welds by imposing high residual compressive stress and forming a fine-grained structure. Cold rolling increased the susceptibility of the 304R specimen to pitting corrosion and intergranular (IG) microcracking. Moreover, pitting corrosion and SCC were found more often at the FBs of the 304RW. The corrosion pits of the peened 304RW (304RWSP) were finer but greater in amount than the those of the un-peened one. The results also indicated that the 316L ASS welds with MSP were resistant to the incidence of pitting corrosion and SCC in a salt spray. The better reliability and longer service life of dry storage canisters could be achieved by using 316L ASS for the construction and application of MSP on it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fusion Welding)
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17 pages, 8115 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Weld Pool Boundary Calculated by the LSTM-Based Measurement Method in GTAW
by Jinping Liu, Shaojie Wu, Yingchao Feng, Guowei Pan, Peng Chen, Xiaodong Yang and Cancan Yan
Metals 2022, 12(8), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12081321 - 6 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
The shape of the weld pool surface contains a lot of important features to reflect the quality of the weld. However, it is difficult to obtain the weld pool boundary precisely. In this paper, a boundary extension method is designed first to optimize [...] Read more.
The shape of the weld pool surface contains a lot of important features to reflect the quality of the weld. However, it is difficult to obtain the weld pool boundary precisely. In this paper, a boundary extension method is designed first to optimize the boundary profile of the interpolated weld pool surface calculated by the long-short-term memory (LSTM)-based measurement method. Experimental results show that after boundary extension, the errors of the left and right part of the boundary of the weld pool are slightly improved. The weld width error in the X direction is reduced to 2.43%, and the weld width error in the Y direction is slightly increased to 8.68%. Then the robustness of the LSTM-based model is analyzed by studying the phenomena of missing points and more points. To solve the problem caused by the missing/adding the first few imaging points, a forward-reverse united reconstruction optimization method is then designed. After optimization by forward-reverse united reconstruction optimization method, the boundary error of the reconstructed weld pool surface is obviously reduced. The weld width error is reduced to 1.62% in the X direction and 3.94% in the Y direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fusion Welding)
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17 pages, 13293 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Heat Input Effect on the Distribution of Temperature Cycles in the HAZ of S460MC Welds in MAG Welding
by Jaromír Moravec, Martin Švec, Šárka Bukovská and Jiří Sobotka
Metals 2021, 11(12), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11121954 - 5 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
Temperature cycles generated during welding have a significant effect on the changes in the HAZ of welds, regardless of whether these are changes in structure or mechanical properties; however, it is problematic to obtain temperature cycles with sufficient accuracy across the entire HAZ [...] Read more.
Temperature cycles generated during welding have a significant effect on the changes in the HAZ of welds, regardless of whether these are changes in structure or mechanical properties; however, it is problematic to obtain temperature cycles with sufficient accuracy across the entire HAZ so that they can be generally taken and used in welding simulations and for real experiments of processes occurring in HAZ. In particular, for a study in a specific location, it is important to know the maximum temperature of the cycle and the cooling rate defined mainly by the parameter t8/5. No studies in which anybody tries to find a mathematical description defining the basic parameters of temperature cycles in the HAZ could be found in the performed research. Therefore, the study presented in this paper results in a mathematical description defining the dependence of achieved maximum temperature on the distance from the fusion line in the HAZ of S460MC welds and with heat input values in the interval from 8 to 14 kJ·cm−1. Moreover, this paper presents the influence of heat input value on the weld pool geometry, including the effect of heat input value on grain coarsening in the highly heated HAZ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fusion Welding)
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21 pages, 82394 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Imperfection Detection Capabilities in TIG Welding of the Infrared Monitoring System
by Jacek Górka and Wojciech Jamrozik
Metals 2021, 11(10), 1624; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101624 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
For a low cost, there are industrial infrared monitoring systems used for imperfection detection and identification in welded joints. The key drawback that impedes real life industrial applications is the low spatial resolution, as well as the temporal resolution of low-cost infrared (IR) [...] Read more.
For a low cost, there are industrial infrared monitoring systems used for imperfection detection and identification in welded joints. The key drawback that impedes real life industrial applications is the low spatial resolution, as well as the temporal resolution of low-cost infrared (IR) cameras. This is also the case in tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding. Taking into consideration the influence of voltage on the arc energy and heat input, high frequency sampled voltage was used to evaluate the interpolated temporal resolution of IR sequences. Additionally, a reflected temperature correction method was proposed to reduce the uncertainty of absolute temperature measurement with a thermographic camera. The proposed method was applied to detect several imperfection types, such as lack of or incomplete penetration as well as incorrect weld shape and size (including burnouts). Results obtained for different interpolation factors were compared. The obtained results emphasize the validity of reflected temperature correction method. For the weld defects detection task, the smallest detectable defect was found for various interpolation factors. Moreover, the correspondence of arc voltage and the joint temperature was checked. Additionally, a set of decision rules was elaborated on and applied to distinguish between various joint conditions. It was found that defects that do not have symmetrical temperature distribution with respect to the joint axis are harder to identify. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fusion Welding)
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12 pages, 3920 KiB  
Article
Synchrotron X-ray Analysis of the Influence of the Magnesium Content on the Absorptance during Full-Penetration Laser Welding of Aluminum
by Jonas Wagner, Christian Hagenlocher, Marc Hummel, Alexander Olowinsky, Rudolf Weber and Thomas Graf
Metals 2021, 11(5), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11050797 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
Full-penetration laser beam welding is characterized by a weld seam whose depth equals the material thickness. It is associated with a stable capillary and is therefore widely used for welding of sheet metal components. The realization of lightweight concepts in car body production [...] Read more.
Full-penetration laser beam welding is characterized by a weld seam whose depth equals the material thickness. It is associated with a stable capillary and is therefore widely used for welding of sheet metal components. The realization of lightweight concepts in car body production requires the application of high-strength aluminum alloys that contain magnesium as an alloying element, which significantly influences the evaporation temperature and pressure. This change of the evaporation processes influences the geometry of the capillary and therefore its absorptance. In order to quantify the influence of magnesium on the capillary, their geometries were captured by means of high-speed synchrotron X-ray imaging during the welding process of the aluminum alloys AA1050A (Al99.5), AA5754 (AlMg3) and AA6016 (AlSi1.2Mg0.4). The 3D-geometries of the capillaries were reconstructed from the intensity distribution in the recorded X-ray images and their absorptance of the incident laser beam was determined by the analysis of the reconstructed 3D-geometry with a raytracing algorithm. The results presented in this paper capture for the first time the influence of the magnesium content in high-strength aluminum alloys on the aspect ratio of the capillary, which explains the reduced absorptance in case of full-penetration laser beam welding of aluminum alloys with a high content of volatile elements. In order to improve the absorptance in full-penetration welding, these findings provide the information required for the deduction of new optimization approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fusion Welding)
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19 pages, 4824 KiB  
Article
Influence of Welding Parameters and Filler Material on the Mechanical Properties of HSLA Steel S960MC Welded Joints
by Miloš Mičian, Martin Frátrik and Daniel Kajánek
Metals 2021, 11(2), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11020305 - 9 Feb 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3114
Abstract
This article provides an overview of the influence of welding parameters and filler material on changes in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of thermo-mechanically controlled processed (TMCP) steel welded joints. The research focused on evaluating the effect of heat input and cooling rate on [...] Read more.
This article provides an overview of the influence of welding parameters and filler material on changes in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of thermo-mechanically controlled processed (TMCP) steel welded joints. The research focused on evaluating the effect of heat input and cooling rate on the width of the soft zone, which significantly affects the mechanical properties of welded joints. The negative effect of the soft zone is more pronounced as the thickness of the material decreases. Therefore, the object of this research was a 3-mm-thick sheet of S960MC steel welded by gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and metal-cored arc welding (MCAW) technology. Variable welding parameters were reflected in different heat input and cooling rate values, which led to a change in the properties of the HAZ and thus the mechanical properties of the welded joints. The changes in the HAZ were analyzed by microscopic analysis and mechanical testing. The measured results showed a significant effect of heat input on the cooling rate, which considerably affected the width of the soft zone in the HAZ and thus the overall mechanical properties of the welded joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fusion Welding)
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23 pages, 24515 KiB  
Article
Numerical Verification of Tests on the Influence of the Imposed Thermal Cycles on the Structure and Properties of the S700MC Heat-Affected Zone
by Tomasz Kik, Jacek Górka, Aleksandra Kotarska and Tomasz Poloczek
Metals 2020, 10(7), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10070974 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2890
Abstract
The article presents the results of studies on the influence of simulated thermal cycles parameters on the structure and properties of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of thermo-mechanically rolled S700MC steel. For this purpose, resistance heating tests of the tested samples were carried out [...] Read more.
The article presents the results of studies on the influence of simulated thermal cycles parameters on the structure and properties of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of thermo-mechanically rolled S700MC steel. For this purpose, resistance heating tests of the tested samples were carried out to determine the effect of maximum temperatures of the imposed thermal cycles with different maximum temperatures at a constant cooling time in the temperature range between 800 and 500 °C (t8/5) and to study the influence of changes of this time on the structure and hardness as well as the tensile strength, elongation and toughness of the simulated HAZ in S700MC steel. The results of the tests, were supported by the results of finite element method (FEM) analyses in the VisualWeld (SYSWELD Code) software of the ESI Group. Selected heat distributions during heating, distributions of individual metallurgical phases and hardness were compared with results from real tests. On the basis of the results presented, an attempt was made to explain the decrease in mechanical and plastic properties in the HAZ area caused by the influence of the welding heat cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fusion Welding)
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19 pages, 15040 KiB  
Article
Mechanical and Microstructural Characterization of TIG Welded Dissimilar Joints between 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel and Incoloy 800HT Nickel Alloy
by Grzegorz Rogalski, Aleksandra Świerczyńska, Michał Landowski and Dariusz Fydrych
Metals 2020, 10(5), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10050559 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 6319
Abstract
In this article, the mechanical properties and microstructure of 304L austenitic stainless steel/Incoloy 800HT nickel alloy dissimilar welded joints are investigated. The joints were made of 21.3 mm × 7.47 mm tubes using the TIG process with the use of S Ni 6082 [...] Read more.
In this article, the mechanical properties and microstructure of 304L austenitic stainless steel/Incoloy 800HT nickel alloy dissimilar welded joints are investigated. The joints were made of 21.3 mm × 7.47 mm tubes using the TIG process with the use of S Ni 6082 nickel filler metal. No welding imperfections were found and high strength properties of joints were obtained, meeting the assumed acceptance criteria of the product’s standards. The tensile strength of the welded joints was higher than for the joined materials (Incoloy 800HT). Macro- and microscopic metallographic tests revealed the correct morphology of the joints and the appropriate structures in their critical zones. However, differences were found in the morphologies of the zones between the weld and the base materials. In fusion boundary from the side of the Incoloy 800HT alloy, no clear outline of the fusion line was observed (type A fusion boundary), while increased grain size and an epitaxial structure were observed. In turn, in the zone: weld–304L steel, a distinct fusion line was observed with areas with an increased amount of high-temperature δ ferrite (type B fusion boundary). No precipitates were found that could reduce the resistance of the joints to intergranular corrosion. A hardness decrease (approximately 30 HV0.1) in the transition zone: austenitic steel–weld and an increase of hardness (approximately 10 HV0.1) on the opposite side of the welded joint were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fusion Welding)
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10 pages, 4121 KiB  
Article
Liquation Cracking Tendency of Novel Al-Mg-Zn Alloys with a Zn/Mg Ratio below 1.0 during Fusion Welding
by Di Zhang, Xin Zhao, Yanlin Pan, Hongxiang Li, Li Zhou, Jishan Zhang and Linzhong Zhuang
Metals 2020, 10(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020222 - 6 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2616
Abstract
The main obstacle for the application of high strength 7××× series aluminum alloys is that these alloys are susceptible to hot cracking during fusion welding. This study presents the liquation cracking susceptibility of the novel T-Mg32(AlZn)49 phase strengthened Al-Mg-Zn alloy [...] Read more.
The main obstacle for the application of high strength 7××× series aluminum alloys is that these alloys are susceptible to hot cracking during fusion welding. This study presents the liquation cracking susceptibility of the novel T-Mg32(AlZn)49 phase strengthened Al-Mg-Zn alloy with a Zn/Mg ratio below 1.0 by a circular-patch welding test, and compared the liquation cracking tendency with η-MgZn2 phase strengthened 7××× series alloys whose Zn/Mg ratios are above 1.0. It was found that all these novel Al-Mg-Zn alloys still have as low a liquation cracking susceptibility as traditional 5××× series alloys, surpassing that of traditional 7××× series alloys substantially. It was noticed that the increase of the Zn/Mg ratio will result in a larger difference between the fraction solids of the fusion zone and the partially melted zone during the terminal solidification stage, which can lead to a wider crack healing disparity between these two areas and thus result in different liquation cracking susceptibilities in different alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fusion Welding)
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