Dedicating to Professor John Campbell's 80th Birthday

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (2 December 2019) | Viewed by 36299

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Engineering and Technology, Jacksonville University, Jacksonville, FL 32211, USA
Interests: production of high quality castings; solidification of aluminium alloys; aluminium castings; quench sensitivity of aluminium alloys
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Prof. John Campbell has made invaluable contributions to the understanding of the solidification, production and performance of high quality, reliable castings by incorporating scientific principles and feasible, sound engineering solutions. To celebrate Prof. Campbell's 80th birthday, a Special Issue is being organized to commemorate his contributions and also provide an update on the research being conducted based on the principles he pioneered.

The topics for this Special Issue are:

- Bifilms: their identification, characterization, quantification

- Liquid metal processing and quality

- Casting process design for high quality castings

- Structure–property–performance relationships in high integrity castings

- Process innovation for the production of high integrity castings

All papers are expected to clearly state and build on the concepts introduced by Prof. Campbell. 

Prof. Murat Tiryakioglu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bifilms
  • Pores
  • Casting defects
  • Casting process design
  • Performance of high integrity casting

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 12292 KiB  
Article
Grain Refinement Effect on the Hot-Tearing Resistance of Higher-Temperature Al–Cu–Mn–Zr Alloys
by Adrian S. Sabau, Brian K. Milligan, Seyed Mirmiran, Christopher Glaspie, Amit Shyam, J. Allen Haynes, Andres F. Rodriguez, J.A. Gonzalez Villarreal and Jose Talamantes
Metals 2020, 10(4), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040430 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2524
Abstract
The hot-tearing resistance of Al-Cu-Mn-Zr (ACMZ) alloys was investigated as a step toward introducing these new cast alloys for severe duty, higher-temperature applications, such as cylinder heads for down-sized, turbocharged automotive engines. Alloy Cu compositions were varied from 5 to 8 wt.%. Targeted [...] Read more.
The hot-tearing resistance of Al-Cu-Mn-Zr (ACMZ) alloys was investigated as a step toward introducing these new cast alloys for severe duty, higher-temperature applications, such as cylinder heads for down-sized, turbocharged automotive engines. Alloy Cu compositions were varied from 5 to 8 wt.%. Targeted Ti levels were 0.02, 0.1, and 0.2 wt.% via additions of the Al–5Ti–1B master alloy. Hot-tearing resistance was assessed by visual examination and ranking of the cracking severity in a multi-arm permanent mold casting. It was found that at high impurity contents (Fe and Si of 0.2 wt.% each), the Al–Cu–Mn–Zr alloy with 4.95 wt.% Cu exhibited the poorest hot-tearing resistance, irrespective of the grain refining amount. Microstructural analysis indicated an effective reduction in the grain size, as the Ti additions were increased to 0.02 and 0.1 wt.% Ti via the Al–Ti–B grain refiner. The finest grain size was attained with a 0.1 wt.% Ti. Based on the hot-tearing evaluation, it was found that the additional grain refining via the Al–5Ti–1B master alloy at 0.1 wt.% Ti significantly reduces the hot-tearing susceptibility at Cu contents greater than 7.3 wt.% for ACMZ alloys with low Fe and Si. These findings indicate that the best hot-tearing resistance was observed at a grain refiner level of 0.1 wt.% Ti and high Cu content (greater than 7.3 wt.%). This study to indicates that these Al–Cu–Mn–Zr alloys, which possess excellent microstructural stability and mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, can also possess excellent hot-tearing resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dedicating to Professor John Campbell's 80th Birthday)
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17 pages, 4683 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Hydrogen on Pore Formation in Aluminum Alloy Castings: Myth Versus Reality
by Murat Tiryakioğlu
Metals 2020, 10(3), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10030368 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 7480
Abstract
The solubility of hydrogen in liquid and solid aluminum is reviewed. Based on classical nucleation theory, it is shown that pores cannot nucleate either homogeneously or heterogeneously in liquid aluminum. Results of in situ studies on pore formation show that pores appear at [...] Read more.
The solubility of hydrogen in liquid and solid aluminum is reviewed. Based on classical nucleation theory, it is shown that pores cannot nucleate either homogeneously or heterogeneously in liquid aluminum. Results of in situ studies on pore formation show that pores appear at low hydrogen supersaturation levels, bypassing nucleation completely. The results are explained based on the bifilm theory introduced by Prof. John Campbell, as this theory is currently the most appropriate, and most likely, the only mechanism for pores to form. Examples for the effect of hydrogen on pore formation are given by using extreme data from the literature. It is concluded that a fundamental change in how hydrogen is viewed is needed in aluminum casting industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dedicating to Professor John Campbell's 80th Birthday)
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12 pages, 4189 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation and Evaluation of Campbell Running and Gating Systems
by Michail Papanikolaou, Emanuele Pagone, Mark Jolly and Konstantinos Salonitis
Metals 2020, 10(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10010068 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3164
Abstract
The most common problems encountered in sand casting foundries are related to sand inclusions, air, and oxide films entrainment. These issues can be addressed to a good extent or eliminated by designing proper running systems. The design of a good running system should [...] Read more.
The most common problems encountered in sand casting foundries are related to sand inclusions, air, and oxide films entrainment. These issues can be addressed to a good extent or eliminated by designing proper running systems. The design of a good running system should be based on John Campbell’s “10 casting rules”; it should hinder laminar and turbulent entrainment of the surface film on the liquid, as well as bubble entrainment. These rules have led to the establishment of a group of components such as high and low placed filters (HPF/LPF) and standard gate designs such as the trident gate (TG) and vortex gate (VG) which are incorporated in well-performing running system designs. In this study, the potential of the aforementioned running system designs to eliminate air entrainment and surface defects has been investigated via means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The obtained results suggest that the use of filters significantly enhances the quality of the final cast product; moreover, all of the gating system designs appear to perform better than the basic running system (BRS). Finally, the five in total running and gating system designs have been evaluated with respect to their ability to produce good quality cast products (reduced air entrainment and surface defects) and their sustainability component (runner scrap mass). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dedicating to Professor John Campbell's 80th Birthday)
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16 pages, 6073 KiB  
Article
Design of Wear-Resistant Diecast AlSi9Cu3(Fe) Alloys for High-Temperature Components
by Giulio Timelli, Alberto Fabrizi, Simone Vezzù and Alessandro De Mori
Metals 2020, 10(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10010055 - 28 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4705
Abstract
Type AlSi9Cu3(Fe) alloy has been modified by alloying with iron, manganese, and chromium elements to develop wear-resistant diecast hypoeutectic Al–Si–Cu alloys that can be applied for high-temperature applications. Several alloys have been produced by varying iron, manganese, and chromium levels (0.80, 1.00, 1.20 [...] Read more.
Type AlSi9Cu3(Fe) alloy has been modified by alloying with iron, manganese, and chromium elements to develop wear-resistant diecast hypoeutectic Al–Si–Cu alloys that can be applied for high-temperature applications. Several alloys have been produced by varying iron, manganese, and chromium levels (0.80, 1.00, 1.20 wt.% for Fe; 0.25, 0.40, 0.55 wt.% for Mn, and 0.06, 0.10 wt.% for Cr). Brinell hardness measurements and pin-on-disk wear tests have been conducted from room temperature up to 200 °C. The microstructural changes that occurred with the different alloying levels have been quantitatively examined by metallographic and image analysis techniques. The results showed how the increasing content of the Fe, Mn, and Cr promoted the precipitation of both primary and secondary Fe-enriched particles, mainly with polyhedral, blocky, and star-like morphologies. These compounds showed high hardness that is not affected by chemical composition and morphology variation. At high temperatures, the diecast alloys always showed lower average hardness and wear resistance, especially at 200 °C; however, a greater amount of Fe-rich particles can compensate the alloy softening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dedicating to Professor John Campbell's 80th Birthday)
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12 pages, 3921 KiB  
Article
The Peculiarities of Convective Heat Transfer in Melt of a Multiple-Electrode Arc Furnace
by Alexsey Kukharev, Vyacheslav Bilousov, Ecaterina Bilousov and Vitaly Bondarenko
Metals 2019, 9(11), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9111174 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2732
Abstract
The modern direction of improving the technology of steel production in high-power arc furnaces is the intensification of magnetohydrodynamic effects for mixing the melt. In this article, a furnace design is proposed that contains three roof arc and three bottom electrodes, which provides [...] Read more.
The modern direction of improving the technology of steel production in high-power arc furnaces is the intensification of magnetohydrodynamic effects for mixing the melt. In this article, a furnace design is proposed that contains three roof arc and three bottom electrodes, which provides the formation of additional eddy currents in the melt when the furnace is supplied with direct current or a low-frequency current. For a numerical study of the features of heat transfer in the melt of this furnace, a three-dimensional mathematical model of magnetohydrodynamic and thermal processes was used. The results were processed using the methods of visualization of vortex structures and the Richardson criterion. In an oven with a capacity of 180 tons at currents in the electrodes of 80 kA, the conditions for the interaction of electric vortex and thermogravitational convection were studied. Results showed that thermogravitational convection due to nonuniform heating of the melt led to a decrease in the size of the main electric vortex flow and the formation of an additional flow near the side walls of the furnace. The features of azimuthal flows formed in the areas of electric arcs and hearth electrodes were analyzed. Results showed that the multivortex structure of the flows that formed in the furnace allowed the volume of stagnant zones to be reduced and provided acceptable melt mixing conditions. The results can be used to improve the energy and structural parameters of three-electrode arc furnaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dedicating to Professor John Campbell's 80th Birthday)
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14 pages, 8245 KiB  
Article
Determination of Acceptable Quality Limit for Casting of A356 Aluminium Alloy: Supplier’s Quality Index (SQI)
by Eray Erzi, Özen Gürsoy, Çağlar Yüksel, Murat Colak and Derya Dispinar
Metals 2019, 9(9), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9090957 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4857
Abstract
Aluminium and its alloys have been widely used in the automotive industry for some time and A356 is one of the most popular aluminium alloys today in the sector. It contains approximately 7 wt.% Si and 0.3 wt.% Mg. Due to the defects [...] Read more.
Aluminium and its alloys have been widely used in the automotive industry for some time and A356 is one of the most popular aluminium alloys today in the sector. It contains approximately 7 wt.% Si and 0.3 wt.% Mg. Due to the defects that may be present in the cast parts, expected mechanical properties may not be reached and this alloy may perform in service under its potential. In a low pressure die casting, several precautions have to be taken in order to produce high quality and defect-free castings. Temperature of casting and the schemical composition of the melt is recorded continuously. Die temperature, pressure levels and their durations are optimized; degassing and fluxing operations are performed. Yet, regardless of the precautions, there could still be rejected parts. It is becoming clear that a good quality raw material is one of the most underrated points of the industry and that the starting material has a great effect on the final product and it should be taken in to account more seriously. Therefore, regarding the first rule of Campbell’s 10 Rules of Casting, in this study, the quality of the starting material of supply chains for a wheel manufacturer was investigated. Chemical compositions were compared, fluidity tests, mechanical tests and bifilm indexes of these various sources and ingots were measured and a final quality index was proposed to create a reference for the quantification of quality of supplier’s ingots. This new index was compared with the rejection rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dedicating to Professor John Campbell's 80th Birthday)
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Review

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39 pages, 35130 KiB  
Review
Recent Developments in Understanding Nucleation and Crystallization of Spheroidal Graphite in Iron-Carbon-Silicon Alloys
by Doru M. Stefanescu, Gorka Alonso and Ramon Suarez
Metals 2020, 10(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020221 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 7878
Abstract
The last decade has witnessed significant research efforts directed to the understanding of nucleation and crystallization of graphite and associated solidification phenomena, driven in part by the ever-growing interest in the use of spheroidal graphite cast iron in the manufacture of large castings, [...] Read more.
The last decade has witnessed significant research efforts directed to the understanding of nucleation and crystallization of graphite and associated solidification phenomena, driven in part by the ever-growing interest in the use of spheroidal graphite cast iron in the manufacture of large castings, such as wind turbine parts. These applications raised new challenges to the production of sound castings, mostly because of the exceedingly long solidification times imposed by the size of the castings. These solidification conditions resulted in many instances in graphite degeneration with subsequent decrease in mechanical properties. Obviously, the subject of graphite nucleation and crystallization in cast iron is still in need of additional answers. Over the years, many reviews of the subject have been published. The goal of this paper is to provide an update on the advances achieved in comprehending the mechanisms that govern the nucleation and crystallization of spheroidal graphite and related imperfect morphologies from iron-carbon-silicon melts. In this analysis, we examine not only the crystallization of graphite in cast iron, but also that of metamorphic graphite (natural graphite formed through transformation by heat, pressure, or other natural actions), and of other materials with similar lattice structure and crystallization morphologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dedicating to Professor John Campbell's 80th Birthday)
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Other

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5 pages, 807 KiB  
Reply
Reply to Comment on Stefanescu, D.M.; Alonso, G.; Suarez, R. Recent Developments in Understanding Nucleation and Crystallization of Spheroidal Graphite in Iron-Carbon-Silicon Alloys. Metals 2020, 10, 221
by Doru M. Stefanescu, Gorka Alonso and Ramon Suarez
Metals 2020, 10(4), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040481 - 05 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
In their comments, Lacaze and Castro-Roman [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dedicating to Professor John Campbell's 80th Birthday)
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