The modern direction of improving the technology of steel production in high-power arc furnaces is the intensification of magnetohydrodynamic effects for mixing the melt. In this article, a furnace design is proposed that contains three roof arc and three bottom electrodes, which provides the formation of additional eddy currents in the melt when the furnace is supplied with direct current or a low-frequency current. For a numerical study of the features of heat transfer in the melt of this furnace, a three-dimensional mathematical model of magnetohydrodynamic and thermal processes was used. The results were processed using the methods of visualization of vortex structures and the Richardson criterion. In an oven with a capacity of 180 tons at currents in the electrodes of 80 kA, the conditions for the interaction of electric vortex and thermogravitational convection were studied. Results showed that thermogravitational convection due to nonuniform heating of the melt led to a decrease in the size of the main electric vortex flow and the formation of an additional flow near the side walls of the furnace. The features of azimuthal flows formed in the areas of electric arcs and hearth electrodes were analyzed. Results showed that the multivortex structure of the flows that formed in the furnace allowed the volume of stagnant zones to be reduced and provided acceptable melt mixing conditions. The results can be used to improve the energy and structural parameters of three-electrode arc furnaces.
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