Special Issue "Bearing Steels"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 October 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Pedro E. J. Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo

Lancaster University, Engineering Building, Lancaster, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bearing steels; plasticity theory; rolling contact fatigue; alloy design; microstructural modelling; thermomechanical processing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I would hereby like to invite you to a submit manuscript on the field of bearing steels. The domain is broad and includes topics such as rolling contact fatigue, inclusion control, casting, heat treatment, fatigue modelling, and life testing. Novel characterisation techniques are also of interest, including novel methods for inclusion and porosity quantification and control, or high-resolution techniques such as atom probe tomography. Of special interest throughout the years has been the formation and prevention of damage, often manifested as white etching cracks, white etching areas, dark etching regions and white etching bands. Submissions relating hydrogen embrittlement of bearing steels are also encouraged, as fundamental understanding of its mechanisms and methods for its prevention are in demand. Powder metallurgical processing routes or additive layer manufacturing methods for the production of bearing steels are also of interest.

Prof. Pedro E. J. Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bearing steels
  • Rolling contact fatigue
  • Bearing life
  • Modelling
  • Inclusions
  • Characterisation

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Flow Field, Temperature Field, and Inclusion Removal in a New Induction Heating Tundish with Bent Channels
Metals 2019, 9(5), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9050561
Received: 13 April 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
In order to study the flow field, temperature field, and inclusion removal in a new induction heating tundish with bent channels, a three-dimensional (3D) transient mathematical model is established. The effects of both the channel radius and heating power on the multi-physical field [...] Read more.
In order to study the flow field, temperature field, and inclusion removal in a new induction heating tundish with bent channels, a three-dimensional (3D) transient mathematical model is established. The effects of both the channel radius and heating power on the multi-physical field and inclusion removal in the bent channels’ induction heating tundish are investigated. The results show that the tundish with the channel radius of 3 m shows better flow characteristics than those with the channel radii of 4 m and 2 m. With the increase of channel length, the heating efficiency increases at first, and then decreases, while the radius of 3 m is the best one for heating efficiency. After all the inclusions are placed into the tundish, the radii of 3 m and 2 m show good efficiency regarding inclusion removal, while it is poor when the radius is 4 m. Therefore, 3 m is the optimal radius of the channel in this work. Under the optimal channel radius, the heating power of 800 kW seems better than those of 600 kW and 1000 kW on flow characteristics control in the tundish. The temperature in the receiving chamber rises gradually and distributes quite uniformly with the increasing heating power, and the removal rate of inclusions increases with the increasing heating power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bearing Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution of White Etching Bands in 100Cr6 Bearing Steel under Rolling Contact-Fatigue
Metals 2019, 9(5), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9050491
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
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Abstract
The formation of white etching bands (WEBs) occurs at the subsurface of rolling contact-fatigued bearing inner rings, exhibiting microstructural decay detrimental to bearing life. Despite the fact that WEBs have been observed in bearing steels for nearly 70 years, the understanding of WEB [...] Read more.
The formation of white etching bands (WEBs) occurs at the subsurface of rolling contact-fatigued bearing inner rings, exhibiting microstructural decay detrimental to bearing life. Despite the fact that WEBs have been observed in bearing steels for nearly 70 years, the understanding of WEB formation is still limited and mostly qualitative. Therefore, a systematic investigation is carried out in this research to reveal the evolution of WEBs with respect to the number of contact cycles. WEBs formed at different stages are reproduced by full-scale bearing RCF tests with predetermined numbers of cycles. Multi-scale characterisation techniques such as optical microscopy, micro-indentation, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are conducted on the microstructural alterations to study the development and microstructure of WEBs. WEBs are found in the absence of dark etching regions which is attributed to the heat treatment. With an increasing number of cycles, WEBs grow in number density and in all three dimensions, and their formation is found to be controlled by the maximum shear stress component. Ferrite bands within WEBs that contain dislocation cells manifest accumulated plastic strain in the material. Based on the characterisation results, the evolution of plastic strain under RCF is quantified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bearing Steels)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Investigating the Difference in Mechanical Stability of Retained Austenite in Bainitic and Martensitic High-Carbon Bearing Steels using in situ Neutron Diffraction and Crystal Plasticity Modeling
Metals 2019, 9(5), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9050482
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
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Abstract
In situ neutron diffraction of the uniaxial tension test was used to study the effect of the surrounding matrix microstructure on the mechanical stability of retained austenite in high-carbon bearing steels. Comparing the samples with bainitic microstructures to those with martensitic ones, it [...] Read more.
In situ neutron diffraction of the uniaxial tension test was used to study the effect of the surrounding matrix microstructure on the mechanical stability of retained austenite in high-carbon bearing steels. Comparing the samples with bainitic microstructures to those with martensitic ones, it was found that the retained austenite in a bainitic matrix starts transforming into martensite at a lower strain compared to that within a martensitic matrix. On the other hand, the rate of transformation of the austenite was found to be higher within a martensitic microstructure. Crystal plasticity modeling was used to analyze the transformation phenomenon in these two microstructures and determine the effect of the surrounding microstructure on elastic, plastic, and transformation components of the strain. The results showed that the predominant difference in the deformation accumulated was from the transformation strain and the critical transformation driving force within the two microstructures. The retained austenite was more stable for identical loading conditions in case of martensitic matrix compared to the bainitic one. It was also observed that the initial volume fraction of retained austenite within the bainitic matrix would alter the onset of transformation to martensite, but not the rate of transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bearing Steels)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Analysis of Inclusion Engineering on the Fatigue Property Improvement of Bearing Steel
Metals 2019, 9(4), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9040476
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
The fatigue property is significantly affected by the inner inclusions in steel. Due to the inhomogeneity of inclusion distribution in the micro-scale, it is not straightforward to quantify the effect of inclusions on fatigue behavior. Various investigations have been performed to correlate the [...] Read more.
The fatigue property is significantly affected by the inner inclusions in steel. Due to the inhomogeneity of inclusion distribution in the micro-scale, it is not straightforward to quantify the effect of inclusions on fatigue behavior. Various investigations have been performed to correlate the inclusion characteristics, such as inclusion fraction, size, and composition, with fatigue life. However, these studies are generally based on vast types of steels and even for a similar steel grade, the alloy concept and microstructure information can still be of non-negligible difference. For a quantitative analysis of the fatigue life improvement with respect to the inclusion engineering, a systematic and carefully designed study is still needed to explore the engineering dimensions of inclusions. Therefore, in this study, three types of bearing steels with inclusions of the same types, but different sizes and amounts, were produced with 50 kg hot state experiments. The following forging and heat treatment procedures were kept consistent to ensure that the only controlled variable is inclusion. The fatigue properties were compared and the inclusions that triggered the fatigue cracks were analyzed to deduce the critical sizes of inclusions in terms of fatigue failure. The results show that the critical sizes of different inclusion types vary in bearing steels. The critical size of the spinel is 8.5 μm and the critical size of the calcium aluminate is 13.5 μm under the fatigue stress of 1200 MPa. In addition, with the increase of the cleanliness of bearing steels, the improvement of fatigue properties will reach saturation. Under this condition, further increasing of the cleanliness of the bearing steel will not contribute to the improvement of fatigue property for the investigated alloy and process design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bearing Steels)
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