Laser-Assisted Processing of Metals and Alloys

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Additive Manufacturing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 10225

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Center for Advanced Laser Technologies (CETAL), National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Magurele, Romania
Interests: additive manufacturing; laser metal processing; biocompatible materials; surface microstructuring; deposition and modification of thin solid structures via high intensity laser irradiation
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Guest Editor
Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Magurele, Romania
Interests: pulsed laser deposition; modification and characterization of nanostructured thin coatings; matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE); laser surface studies and processing; biomaterials thin layers; tissue engineering; biomimetic metallic implants; optoelectronics and sensors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This is an open invitation to contribute to a Special Issue of Metals on Laser-Assisted Processing of Metals and Alloys.

We start from the premise that any material could be melted/vaporized under high intensity laser irradiation by either pulses or continuous beam. New top industrial applications can be envisaged and designed on this basis. Thus, one can tune the melting process to develop high-performance cutting, welding, marking or additive manufacturing technologies. As the laser beam can be focused in a very narrow spot, these operations can be conducted with a precision in the micrometric range. This is difficult to reach by other processing techniques.

On the other hand, laser beams can hardly process thick metal sheets because of the mandatory removal of large amounts of molten material from the irradiation site, and the inherent geometrical difficulties. Moreover, the most powerful laser sources in IR (e.g., CO2 at 10.6 μm) are incompatible with common metals used in industry (Al or Cu), due to the high reflectivity/low absorptivity (energy transfer) at these wavelengths.

New industrial challenges were proposed in recent years via various laser-assisted processes, such as welding of incompatible materials for cells of electrical batteries, relief marking by laser cladding, heterogeneous laser welding, thermal treatments by laser irradiation, laser microstructuring for improving surface properties or metal nanoparticles synthesis.

In additive manufacturing, laser beams are used for in situ building and alloying metal and metal matrix composite parts. Multilayer metal structures can be synthesized by laser melting deposition or configurations with enhanced topology and convoluted shapes, impossible to manufacture by conventional casting, become feasible via layer by layer build approaches.

This Special Issue is opened to specialists in materials science and metallurgy, where lasers stand for a processing tool of metallic materials. High quality, novel and original research papers or reviews that highlight the latest trends in laser-assisted processing of metallic materials will be welcomed to this Special Issue.

Waiting for your important contributions and wishing you prolific scientific achievements under these hard pandemic times!

Dr. Andrei C. Popescu
Dr. Liviu Duta
Dr. Ion N. Mihailescu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • laser-assisted processing
  • laser additive manufacturing
  • laser cutting
  • laser welding
  • laser marking
  • laser microstructuring
  • in situ alloying
  • laser evaporation of metals
  • metal nanoparticles synthesis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 10782 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Dross Formation of the Laser-Cut Edge on the Fatigue Strength of AISI 304
by Julia Bach, André T. Zeuner, Thomas Wanski, Sarah C. L. Fischer, Patrick Herwig and Martina Zimmermann
Metals 2023, 13(3), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030624 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1506
Abstract
Laser cutting is a thermal cutting process based on material melting that results in characteristic features of the cut edge. The dross in particular is a crucial quality-determining feature which occurs especially when processing higher sheet thicknesses. The influence of the dross geometry [...] Read more.
Laser cutting is a thermal cutting process based on material melting that results in characteristic features of the cut edge. The dross in particular is a crucial quality-determining feature which occurs especially when processing higher sheet thicknesses. The influence of the dross geometry on the fatigue behavior of AISI 304 was investigated in this work. Using iterative experimental design, samples with different dross geometries were produced by varying laser cutting parameters. Four characteristic dross geometries were identified and used to classify manufacturing parameters: dross-free, small droplets, large droplets and very coarse dross. Fatigue tests were performed up to 107 load cycles and revealed a dependence of the fatigue behavior on the dross geometries due to their different notch effects. It was found that the dross dominated the fatigue strength only above a certain dross height. At low dross heights, the surface relief of the cut edge dominated fatigue strength. The different cut edge properties (surface relief and dross) depend on the process parameters during laser cutting. Gas pressure and feed rate in particular showed a significant influence. The findings of this work provide information about the fatigue behavior’s dependence on dross geometry, which can be transferred to higher sheet thicknesses or complex sample geometries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Assisted Processing of Metals and Alloys)
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13 pages, 2825 KiB  
Article
Synthesizing Ti–Ni Alloy Composite Coating on Ti–6Al–4V Surface from Laser Surface Modification
by Yitao Chen, Joseph W. Newkirk and Frank Liou
Metals 2023, 13(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020243 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
In this work, a Ni-alloy Deloro-22 was laser-deposited on a Ti–6Al–4V bar substrate with multiple sets of laser processing parameters. The purpose was to apply laser surface modification to synthesize different combinations of ductile TiNi and hard Ti2Ni intermetallic phases on [...] Read more.
In this work, a Ni-alloy Deloro-22 was laser-deposited on a Ti–6Al–4V bar substrate with multiple sets of laser processing parameters. The purpose was to apply laser surface modification to synthesize different combinations of ductile TiNi and hard Ti2Ni intermetallic phases on the surface of Ti–6Al–4V in order to obtain adjustable surface properties. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were applied to reveal the deposited surface microstructure and phase. The effect of processing parameters on the resultant compositions of TiNi and Ti2Ni was discussed. The hardness of the deposition was evaluated, and comparisons with the Ti–6Al–4V bulk part were carried out. They showed a significant improvement in surface hardness on Ti–6Al–4V alloys after laser processing, and the hardness could be flexibly adjusted by using this laser-assisted surface modification technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Assisted Processing of Metals and Alloys)
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16 pages, 6355 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Defects Analyses Using High-Speed Imaging during Aluminum Magnesium Alloy Laser Welding
by Sabin Mihai, Diana Chioibasu, Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Liviu Duta, Marc Leparoux and Andrei C. Popescu
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111877 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2572
Abstract
In this study a continuous wave Ytterbium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Yb: YAG) disk laser has been used for welding of AlMg3 casted alloy. A high-speed imaging camera has been employed to record hot vapor plume features during the process. The purpose was to [...] Read more.
In this study a continuous wave Ytterbium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Yb: YAG) disk laser has been used for welding of AlMg3 casted alloy. A high-speed imaging camera has been employed to record hot vapor plume features during the process. The purpose was to identify a mechanism of pores detection in real-time based on correlations between metallographic analyses and area/intensity of the hot vapor in various locations of the samples. The pores formation and especially the position of these pores had to be kept under control in order to weld thick samples. Based on the characterization of the hot vapor, it has been found that the increase of the vapor area that exceeded a threshold value (18.5 ± 1 mm2) was a sign of pores formation within the weld seam. For identification of the pores’ locations during welding, the monitored element was the hot vapor intensity. The hot vapor core spots having a grayscale level reaching 255 was associated with the formation of a local pore. These findings have been devised based on correlation between pores placement in welds cross-section microscopy images and the hot vapor plume features in those respective positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Assisted Processing of Metals and Alloys)
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11 pages, 3599 KiB  
Article
Ameliorative Corrosion Resistance and Microstructure Characterization of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel by Regulating the Parameters of Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Beam Welding
by Hany S. Abdo, Asiful H. Seikh, Jabair Ali Mohammed and Tauriq Uzzaman
Metals 2021, 11(8), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11081206 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
Welding parameters can greatly affect the final product. In this study, there was a variation given on the pulse energy, i.e., heat input parameters. The microstructure was analyzed and presented in relation to the efficiency of corrosion. The microstructural study showed the changes [...] Read more.
Welding parameters can greatly affect the final product. In this study, there was a variation given on the pulse energy, i.e., heat input parameters. The microstructure was analyzed and presented in relation to the efficiency of corrosion. The microstructural study showed the changes of the fusion zone (FZ) and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) with an increase in pulse energy. The development of a prominent austenite process on the weld material had a prolonged effect on its corrosion resistance property. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic measurements were used to test the electrochemical activity of laser-weld 2205 duplex stainless steel in an aqueous 3.5% NaCl solution. Finally, the findings of the EIS analysis were supported by Raman spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, the 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) weld obtained at a higher pulse energy showed higher corrosion resistance than the welded sample obtained at a low pulse energy. The impedance spectroscopy confirmed a smooth surface property with an increase in the pulse energy and the presence of an oxide layer, a finding also confirmed by the Raman spectroscopy measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Assisted Processing of Metals and Alloys)
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Review

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29 pages, 5065 KiB  
Review
Tribological, Corrosion, and Microstructural Features of Laser-Shock-Peened Steels
by Merbin John, Alessandro M. Ralls, Udaya Bhat Kuruveri and Pradeep L. Menezes
Metals 2023, 13(2), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020397 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
The degradation due to high friction, wear, and corrosion of mechanical components for industrial applications has invoked substantial economic loss. In recent years, scientists and engineers have developed techniques to mitigate the issues associated with this deterioration potentially. Among these developed techniques, controlling [...] Read more.
The degradation due to high friction, wear, and corrosion of mechanical components for industrial applications has invoked substantial economic loss. In recent years, scientists and engineers have developed techniques to mitigate the issues associated with this deterioration potentially. Among these developed techniques, controlling the coefficient of friction (COF), wear rate, and corrosion using laser shock peening (LSP) is a preeminent and popular innovation. This paper aims to summarize the existing literature on the LSP of steels, discuss the current state-of-the-art LSP, and demonstrate the mechanisms that dictate the enhanced tribological and corrosion properties. More specifically, the influence of LSP on COF, wear rate, corrosion potential, surface hardening, and surface morphological changes on various materials used for aerospace, automotive, biomedical, nuclear, and chemical applications is explained. In addition, grain refinement and the gradient microstructure formation during LSP are discussed. Additionally, recent advances and applications of LSP are elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Assisted Processing of Metals and Alloys)
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