Phase Transformation and Microstructure Characterization in Steels

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Crystallography and Applications of Metallic Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 October 2024 | Viewed by 5354

Special Issue Editor

Laboratory for Microstructures, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
Interests: phase transformation; microstructure characterization; steels; mechanical properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a wide variety of microstructures and properties that can be generated by solid-state transformation and processing in steels, which are leading to numerous exciting discoveries in the context of iron and its alloys today. Phase transformation in steels cause a combination of diverse microstructures, leading to the kaleidoscope of performances.

However, the processing, microstructure, and property relationships in steels continue to present challenges to researchers because of the complexity of phase transformation and the wide scope of microstructures and properties achievable. This Special Issue is focused on the recent development trends of steels, such as high strength and toughness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, etc., and the state of metals and their alloys. The Special Issue also aims to outline fundamental trends in the field of modeling and engineering applications and the relationship of microstructure characterization and properties in steels.

Dr. Na Min
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • microstructure
  • crystallography
  • dislocation
  • grain boundary
  • transmission electron microscope
  • tensile strength
  • toughness
  • wear resistance
  • high strength steel
  • special steel

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 4452 KiB  
Article
Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Low-Alloy Fire- and Seismic-Resistant H-Section Steel
by Jinhyuk Kim, Gyeongsik Yu, Sangeun Kim, Jinwoo Park, Minkyu Ahn, Jun-Ho Chung, Chang-Hoon Lee and Chansun Shin
Metals 2024, 14(4), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14040374 - 23 Mar 2024
Viewed by 805
Abstract
This study investigates the microstructure and nano-hardness distribution across the thickness of an H-section steel beam, specifically designed for seismic and fire resistance and fabricated using a quenching and self-tempering process. The beam dimensions include a 24 mm thick flange, with flange and [...] Read more.
This study investigates the microstructure and nano-hardness distribution across the thickness of an H-section steel beam, specifically designed for seismic and fire resistance and fabricated using a quenching and self-tempering process. The beam dimensions include a 24 mm thick flange, with flange and web lengths of 300 mm and 700 mm, respectively. Our findings indicate that the mechanical properties across the flange thickness meet the designed criteria, with yield strengths exceeding 420 MPa, tensile strengths of over 520 MPa, and a yield-to-tensile strength ratio below 0.75. Microstructurally, the central part of the flange predominantly consists of granular bainite with a small fraction of martensite–austenite (MA) constituents, while locations closer to the surface show increased acicular ferrite and decreased MA constituents due to faster cooling rates. Furthermore, thermal exposure at 600 °C reveals that while the matrix microstructure remains thermally stable, the MA phase undergoes tempering, leading to a decrease in nano-hardness. These insights underline the significant impact of MA constituents on the elongation properties and stress concentrations, contributing to the overall understanding of the material’s behavior under seismic and fire conditions. The study’s findings are crucial for enhancing the reliability and safety of construction materials in demanding environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Transformation and Microstructure Characterization in Steels)
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12 pages, 12675 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Effect of Alloying on the Strength and Ductility of High Carbon Pearlitic Steel
by Na Min, Yingqi Zhu, Shitao Fan, Yang Xiao, Liqin Zhou, Wei Li and Sixin Zhao
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091535 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1077
Abstract
In this work, the effects of the micro-alloying of Mn, Ni, and Si on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high-carbon pearlite steels were investigated. The results indicated that the addition of solely Ni to high-carbon pearlitic steel can enhance the strength through [...] Read more.
In this work, the effects of the micro-alloying of Mn, Ni, and Si on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high-carbon pearlite steels were investigated. The results indicated that the addition of solely Ni to high-carbon pearlitic steel can enhance the strength through the refinement of interlamellar spacing, but work-hardening in the ferrite of the pearlite colony may be delayed, leading to a reduction in area. The multiple additions of Ni and the increase in Mn and Si contents in high-carbon pearlitic steel were beneficial to obtaining a balance between ultimate tensile strength and reduction in area. Three-dimensional atom probe tomography results showed Si partitioning into ferrite and Mn and Ni elements partitioning into cementite. The addition of Si inhibited the formation of a continuous network of grain-boundary cementite, leading to high strength and high ductility through optimization of the microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Transformation and Microstructure Characterization in Steels)
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17 pages, 13803 KiB  
Article
Friction Behavior and Self-Lubricating Mechanism of SLD-MAGIC Cold Worked Die Steel during Different Wear Conditions
by Hongqing Wu, Hong Mao, Hui Ning, Zhipeng Deng and Xiaochun Wu
Metals 2023, 13(4), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040809 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1823
Abstract
Wear tends to shorten tool life, reduce component quality. To prevent or postpone the wear of tool steel forming tools, methods to increase wear resistance, such as increasing the material hardness, optimizing the carbide distribution and application of surface coatings, are often used. [...] Read more.
Wear tends to shorten tool life, reduce component quality. To prevent or postpone the wear of tool steel forming tools, methods to increase wear resistance, such as increasing the material hardness, optimizing the carbide distribution and application of surface coatings, are often used. However, the formation of lubricating phases in steels leading to anti-attrition is less investigated. The friction behavior of three steels were investigated thoroughly by a tribo test with different normal loads. A Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the microstructure as well as the influence of the precipitated phases on the wear mechanisms. Results showed the friction coefficient decreased with increasing normal load, whereas the wear rate increased with increasing normal load. Compared with SKD11 and DC53 steels, the friction coefficient and wear volume of SLD-MAGIC steel were reduced by 0.1 to 0.3 and 10% to 30%, respectively. With the increase of normal load, the wear mechanism changed in order from abrasive wear, adhesive wear to oxidation wear. The more carbide contents, the rounder the carbide, the better the wear resistance of the tool steel. It can be shown that, under different normal loads, SLD-MAGIC exhibits better wear performance than SKD11 and DC53 tool steels, which is mainly due to the self-lubricating phenomenon of SLD-MAGIC steel. The self-lubricating mechanism was due to the fact that the exfoliated sulfide during wear formed a lubricating film to reduce wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Transformation and Microstructure Characterization in Steels)
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8 pages, 3308 KiB  
Communication
Three-Dimensional Observation of Upper Bainite in the Initial Stage of Transformation in 0.4 wt%C TRIP Steel
by Shotaro Jimbo and Shoichi Nambu
Metals 2023, 13(2), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020355 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Three-dimensional microstructures of bainitic ferrites and prior austenite grains (PAGs) were observed in the initial stage of upper bainite transformation by using a serial sectioning technique and orientation analysis by electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD). The formation site of the bainitic ferrites was [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional microstructures of bainitic ferrites and prior austenite grains (PAGs) were observed in the initial stage of upper bainite transformation by using a serial sectioning technique and orientation analysis by electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD). The formation site of the bainitic ferrites was quantitatively evaluated by three-dimensional observation. It was revealed that the bainitic ferrites mainly form at the planes rather than the edges of prior austenite grain boundaries (PAGBs) and form on both sides of the PAGB plane. The effect of the orientation of the PAGs on the formation of the bainitic ferrites was also investigated. The bainitic ferrite has a small misorientation with the bainitic ferrite in the adjacent PAG across the PAGB. It is suggested that the reason for the formation of bainitic ferrite at the planes rather than edges of PAGBs is because it is difficult for bainitic ferrite to have a small misorientation with the bainitic ferrites in adjacent PAGs at edges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Transformation and Microstructure Characterization in Steels)
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