Special Issue "Advances in Technology and Applications of Diffusion Bonding"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Welding and Joining".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2023 | Viewed by 3087

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Amir Shirzadi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Open University, Milton Keynes, UK
2. Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
3. Cambridge Joining Technology, Cambridge, UK
Interests: diffusion bonding; brazing; designing new welding alloys

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Welding techniques are generally classified into two categories: fusion welding processes (e.g., arc/laser welding) and solid-state welding processes (e.g., forge welding). Diffusion bonding, as a subdivision of both solid-state welding and liquid-phase welding, is a joining process wherein the principal mechanism is interdiffusion of atoms across the interface. Diffusion bonding enables joining materials and fabricating complex components for which conventional welding processes have proved unsuccessful.

Original submissions in the following five categories will be considered for publication in the Metals Special Issue on diffusion bonding:

1—Joining un-weldable dissimilar alloys, e.g., titanium to aluminium and tungsten to copper;

2—Joining materials sensitive to melting or high temperatures, e.g., metal matrix composites (MMC) and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys;

3—Joining metals to ceramics, e.g., aluminium to sapphire and steel to structural glass;

4—Joining similar or dissimilar non-metallic materials, e.g., cemented carbides and polymers;

5—Joining high-precision components which require maintaining the original shape and dimensions of the parts, e.g., electronic devices and microwave guides.

The submitted manuscripts will be checked against the following conditions prior to peer-reviewing stage.

I: Articles investigating the bond microstructures should include the results of appropriate mechanical tests, conducted to assess the join integrity;

II: Articles on modelling of diffusion bonding should include experimental validation of the modelling outcome;

III: Review articles must contain critical assessment, rather than simply outlining, of previous work in the field.

Prof. Dr. Amir Shirzadi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • diffusion bonding
  • transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding
  • joining dissimilar materials
  • joining metals to ceramics
  • high-precision welding

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Challenges and Latest Developments in Diffusion Bonding of High-Magnesium Aluminium Alloy (Al-5056/Al-5A06) to Stainless Steels
Metals 2022, 12(7), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12071193 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
The aim of this work was to investigate the challenges associated with bonding Al-Mg alloys and develop a new method for bonding these alloys to steels. During an extensive R&D project, over 80 attempts, using 11 methods, were made to bond Al-6 wt.% [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to investigate the challenges associated with bonding Al-Mg alloys and develop a new method for bonding these alloys to steels. During an extensive R&D project, over 80 attempts, using 11 methods, were made to bond Al-6 wt.% Mg alloy (Al-5056/Al-5A06) to two types of stainless steels (heat-resistant 1Cr18Ni9Ti and conventional 316). Wide ranges of temperature (500 °C to 580 °C), pressure (0.5 MPa to 10 MPa) and time (1 min to 2 h) were used when direct diffusion bonding of these alloys. Then, effects of using various interlayers and brazing foils were investigated. The interlayers used in this work were gallium, pure titanium, copper and aluminium foils, aluminium 6061 alloy sheets, aluminium-silicon brazing foils, zinc and zinc alloy foils as well as an active brazing foil (known as Incusil-ABA containing silver, copper, indium and titanium). Several complex and multi-stage processes, using up to 3 different interlayers in the same joint, were also developed and assessed. Examination and assessment of the bonded samples, including failed attempts, paved the way of developing new methods for bonding these dissimilar materials. A number of samples with tensile strengths from 200 MPa to 226 MPa were made by using complex combinations of 2 or 3 interlayers and triple-stage bonding cycles. The highest recorded bond strength was 226 MPa in the as-bonded condition. This value is above the measured yield strength (134 MPa) and about 93% of the measured ultimate strength (243 MPa) of the parent Al-Mg alloy after it was subjected to the same bonding cycle. Since the use of complex processes was not feasible for bonding large components, a simpler and more practical bonding cycle was also developed in the project. Using the simpler process, joints with tensile strengths around 90 MPa could be made. This article also sheds light on the difficulties associated with brazing and soldering aluminium alloys with a high magnesium content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Technology and Applications of Diffusion Bonding)
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Article
Joining Ti6Al4V to Alumina by Diffusion Bonding Using Titanium Interlayers
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1728; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111728 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 696
Abstract
This work aims to investigate the joining of Ti6Al4V alloy to alumina by diffusion bonding using titanium interlayers: thin films (1 µm) and commercial titanium foils (5 µm). The Ti thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering onto alumina. The joints were processed [...] Read more.
This work aims to investigate the joining of Ti6Al4V alloy to alumina by diffusion bonding using titanium interlayers: thin films (1 µm) and commercial titanium foils (5 µm). The Ti thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering onto alumina. The joints were processed at 900, 950, and 1000 °C, dwell time of 10 and 60 min, under contact pressure. Experiments without interlayer were performed for comparison purposes. Microstructural characterization of the interfaces was conducted by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The mechanical characterization of the joints was performed by nanoindentation to obtain hardness and reduced Young’s modulus distribution maps and shear strength tests. Joints processed without interlayer have only been achieved at 1000 °C. Conversely, joints processed using Ti thin films as interlayer showed promising results at temperatures of 950 °C for 60 min and 1000 °C for 10 and 60 min, under low pressure. The Ti adhesion to the alumina is a critical aspect of the diffusion bonding process and the joints produced with Ti freestanding foils were unsuccessful. The nanoindentation results revealed that the interfaces show hardness and reduced Young modulus, which reflect the observed microstructure. The average shear strength values are similar for all joints tested (52 ± 14 MPa for the joint processed without interlayer and 49 ± 25 MPa for the joint processed with interlayer), which confirms that the use of the Ti thin film improves the diffusion bonding of the Ti6Al4V alloy to alumina, enabling a decrease in the joining temperature and time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Technology and Applications of Diffusion Bonding)
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Article
Fail-Safe Joints between Copper Alloy (C18150) and Nickel-Based Superalloy (GH4169) Made by Transient Liquid Phase (TLP) Bonding and Using Boron-Nickel (BNi-2) Interlayer
Metals 2021, 11(10), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101504 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 777
Abstract
Joining heat conducting alloys, such as copper and its alloys, to heat resistant nickel-based superalloys has vast applications in nuclear power plants (including future fusion reactors) and liquid propellant launch vehicles. On the other hand, fusion welding of most dissimilar alloys tends to [...] Read more.
Joining heat conducting alloys, such as copper and its alloys, to heat resistant nickel-based superalloys has vast applications in nuclear power plants (including future fusion reactors) and liquid propellant launch vehicles. On the other hand, fusion welding of most dissimilar alloys tends to be unsuccessful due to incompatibilities in their physical properties and melting points. Therefore, solid-state processes, such as diffusion bonding, explosive welding, and friction welding, are considered and commercially used to join various families of dissimilar materials. However, the solid-state diffusion bonding of copper alloys normally results in a substantial deformation of the alloy under the applied bonding load. Therefore, transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding, which requires minimal bonding pressure, was considered to join copper alloy (C18150) to a nickel-based superalloy (GH4169) in this work. BNi-2 foil was used as an interlayer, and the optimum bonding time (keeping the bonding temperature constant as 1030 °C) was determined based on microstructural examinations by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), tensile testing, and nano-hardness measurements. TLP bonding at 1030 °C for 90 min resulted in isothermal solidification, hence obtained joints free from eutectic phases. All of the tensile-tested samples failed within the copper alloy and away from their joints. The hardness distribution across the bond zone was also studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Technology and Applications of Diffusion Bonding)
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