Advances in Copper, Copper Alloys and Their Processing

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2024 | Viewed by 3350

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Metal Forming, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Straße 4, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
Interests: ICME—numerical material and process modeling for metallic materials; production processes (forming and heat treatment) for modern steels; development of alloy concepts and process technologies for the nanostructuring of structures as well as for the adjustment of metastable micro-structural phases; combination of experimental laboratory techniques with numerical simulation to model, evaluate and optimize industrial forming and heat treatment processes; forming technology
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Technology, Cooperative State University Stuttgart, Lerchenstraße 1, 70174 Stuttgart, Germany
Interests: copper; copper alloys; CuMg; metal forming; continuous casting; material characterization; metallography; microscopy; mechanical properties; electrical conductivity; microalloyed copper

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Guest Editor Assistant
Faculty of Technology, Cooperative State University Stuttgart, Lerchenstraße 1, 70174 Stuttgart, Germany
Interests: production processes; casting; forming; heat treatment; alloy design; copper; aluminum; materials characterization; metallography; microscopy; electrical conductivity; thermo-physical properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Copper, with its exceptional ability to conduct electricity, adaptability to different shapes, and facile recyclability, is a crucial metal employed across various industries. The functional metal is an essential element for technical and socio-economic progress in emerging trends such as, for example, the transformation of mobility towards electricity. This promotes research to enhance its mechanical properties, such as its strength, wear, creep resistance or corrosion resistance, without disadvantages related to its electrical and thermal conductivity. These trends demand innovative alloy designs, new production concepts and novel application requirements. As such, refining the way we fabricate copper and its alloys, as well as delving deeper into the field to discover its applicative potential, is vital. An in-depth understanding of the relationships between the metal, its processing, the resulting microstructure, and its macroscopic properties is necessary in order to optimize its performance and ensure confidence in advanced applications.

In this Special Issue, we aim to showcase the latest research and most exciting findings regarding copper. We invite scientists, educators, and industry workers to share their studies and findings. We will address a wide array of topics, from basic information about copper and its alloys, to different processing methods (like casting, shaping, heat treatments, 3D printing) and recycling. We will also explore how computer simulations can help to improve the material and its processing techniques.

We trust that this collection of research articles will enhance our understanding of copper materials. It will also set the stage for new applications and sustainable practices. We are excited to see where this research will lead us.

Prof. Dr. Ulrich Prahl
Prof. Dr. Andreas Zilly
Guest Editors
Ms. Julia Dölling
Guest Editor Assistant

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • copper
  • copper alloys
  • casting
  • forming
  • additive manufacturing
  • joining
  • microstructure
  • characterization
  • recycling
  • simulation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 10072 KiB  
Article
Compositional Design and Thermal Processing of a Novel Lead-Free Cu–Zn–Al–Sn Medium Entropy Brass Alloy
by Spyridon Chaskis, Stavroula Maritsa, Paul Stavroulakis, Sofia Papadopoulou, Russell Goodall and Spyros Papaefthymiou
Metals 2024, 14(6), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14060620 - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 447
Abstract
In the current work, a novel medium entropy copper alloy was designed with the aim of avoiding the use of expensive, hazardous or scarce alloying elements and instead employing widely available and cost-effective alternatives. In order to investigate this unknown region of multicomponent [...] Read more.
In the current work, a novel medium entropy copper alloy was designed with the aim of avoiding the use of expensive, hazardous or scarce alloying elements and instead employing widely available and cost-effective alternatives. In order to investigate this unknown region of multicomponent alloy compositions, the thermo-physical parameters were calculated and the CALPHAD method was utilized. This led to the design of the Cu50Zn25Al20Sn5 at. % (Cu53.45Zn27.49Al9.08Sn9.98 wt. %) alloy with a relatively low density of 6.86 g/cm3 compared with conventional brasses. The designed alloy was manufactured through vacuum induction melting, producing two ingots weighing 1.2 kg each, which were subjected to a series of heat treatments. The microstructural evolution of the alloy in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions was assessed through optical and scanning electron microscopy. The hardness of the as-cast and heat-treated alloy at room temperature was also studied. The alloy was characterized by a multiphase microstructure containing a major Cu-rich (Cu–Zn–Al) matrix reinforced with a secondary Zn-rich (Zn–Cu) phase and pure Sn. In terms of mechanical properties, the developed alloy exhibited high hardness values of roughly 378 HV0.2 and 499 HV0.2 in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Copper, Copper Alloys and Their Processing)
22 pages, 11237 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Precipitation Effects in Low-Alloyed Copper Alloys Containing Hafnium and Chromium
by Julia Dölling, Moritz Kuglstatter, Ulrich Prahl, Heinz Werner Höppel, Patrick Ortner, Benedict Ott, Stefanie Felicia Kracun, Martin Fehlbier and Andreas Zilly
Metals 2024, 14(3), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14030258 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Copper alloys containing chromium and hafnium combine elevated mechanical strength and high electrical and thermal conductivity. For the simultaneous enhancement of both material properties, precipitation hardening is the utilized mechanism. Therefore, the aim is to analyze the influence of chromium and hafnium in [...] Read more.
Copper alloys containing chromium and hafnium combine elevated mechanical strength and high electrical and thermal conductivity. For the simultaneous enhancement of both material properties, precipitation hardening is the utilized mechanism. Therefore, the aim is to analyze the influence of chromium and hafnium in binary and ternary low-alloyed copper alloys and to compare the precipitation processes during temperature exposure. Atom probe tomography (APT) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements enable to understand the precipitation sequence in detail. CuCr0.7 starts to precipitate directly, whereas CuHf0.7 is highly influenced by prior diffusion facilitating cold rolling. Within the ternary alloy, hafnium atoms accumulate at the shell of mainly Cr-containing precipitates. Increasing the local hafnium concentration results in the formation of intermetallic CuHf precipitates at the sites of mainly Cr-containing precipitates. Indirect methods are utilized to investigate the materials’ properties and show the impact of cold rolling prior to an aging treatment on binary alloys CuCr and CuHf. Finally, ternary alloys combine the benefits of facilitated precipitation processes and decelerated growing and coarsening, which classifies the alloys to be applicable for usage at elevated temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Copper, Copper Alloys and Their Processing)
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15 pages, 7023 KiB  
Article
Effects of Sintering Temperature on the Microstructure and Properties of a W-Cu Pseudo-Alloy
by Mikhail Lebedev, Vladimir Promakhov, Nikita Schulz, Alexander Vorozhtsov and Marat Lerner
Metals 2023, 13(10), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13101741 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
This paper studies the feasibility of fabricating pseudo-alloys based on a W-Cu system through vacuum sintering of spherical bimetallic particles synthesized using the electric explosion of copper–tungsten wires in argon. The effects of the sintering temperature on the structure and hardness of the [...] Read more.
This paper studies the feasibility of fabricating pseudo-alloys based on a W-Cu system through vacuum sintering of spherical bimetallic particles synthesized using the electric explosion of copper–tungsten wires in argon. The effects of the sintering temperature on the structure and hardness of the fabricated composites was studied. In terms of the structure of the samples, tungsten particles of predominantly spherical shapes with sizes ranging from submicrons to 80–90 µm were uniformly distributed throughout the copper matrix. Based on the analysis, the volume fractions of tungsten and copper were approximately equal. The calculated average phase compositions for all the samples were 58.9 wt% for W, 27.3 wt% for Cu, and 13.8 wt% WO2. When the annealing temperature increased from 1100 °C to 1250 °C, the wetting of tungsten by molten copper improved, which resulted in the porosity of the copper matrix being at the minimum, as observed in the contact zone. Due to good wetting and a decrease in the viscosity of copper, rearrangement of the solid phase of the tungsten in the bulk of the composites improved, and the density and hardness of the pseudo-alloy increased. The formation of coarse tungsten grains is caused by the fact that submicron and micron particles are growing in size and merging into agglomerates during the course of liquid-phase sintering, and this happens because of the high surface activity of ultrafine particles. Further research will be devoted to solving the discovered problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Copper, Copper Alloys and Their Processing)
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