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Special Issue "3D Printing of Metal"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Additive Manufacturing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022 | Viewed by 4857

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Zhanyong Zhao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan, China
Interests: metal 3D printing; laser cladding; semi-solid forming
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metal 3D printing, as an advanced forming, can manufacture parts directly from digital model by using layer by layer material build-up approach. This manufacturing method can prepare complex shape metal parts in short time, with and high precision. 3D printing processes can be classified into two major groups, Powder Bed Fusion based technologies and Directed Energy Deposition. 3D printing features freedom to part complexity, part design and light-weighting for aerospace, automobile and other industries application. The Global Metal 3D Printing Market is mainly driven by the the fast developing of aerospace and automobile industry. The Global Metal 3D Printing Market size was valued at USD 534.18 Million in 2020 and is projected to reach USD 4458.76 Million by 2028, growing at a CAGR of 30.38% from 2021 to 2028.

In this Special Issue, we welcome articles that focus on metal 3D printing materials, processes and their influence on the final products’ microstructure and performance, providing guidance for the development of metal 3D printing technology.

Prof. Dr. Zhanyong Zhao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • metal 3D printing
  • laser cladding
  • semi-solid forming
  • microstructure
  • mechanical properties
  • performance

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser Melted Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel
Metals 2022, 12(12), 2044; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12122044 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Cube and tensile samples of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel were formed at different laser powers and scanning velocities using a selective laser melting process; the microstructural characteristics and tensile properties of the cube and tensile samples were investigated in this study. The experimental [...] Read more.
Cube and tensile samples of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel were formed at different laser powers and scanning velocities using a selective laser melting process; the microstructural characteristics and tensile properties of the cube and tensile samples were investigated in this study. The experimental results showed that the SLMed CLF-1 samples that formed with selected laser melting were near-fully dense, and the relative density of the SLMed CLF-1 samples exceeded 99%. Meanwhile, there were numerous nano-sized spherical and needle-like precipitate dispersions distributed in the grains and boundary of the grains, and the precipitates were mainly composed of M23C6 carbide and MX carbide. The microstructure was composed of columnar grains and equiaxed grains arranged in a sequence, and the smallest average size of the grains was 15 ± 2.1 µm when measured at 320 W of power and 800 mm/s scanning velocity. In addition, the sample at 320 W of power and 800 mm/s scanning velocity exhibited higher yield strength (875 ± 6.0 MPa) and higher elongation (25.6 ± 0.8%) than that of the sample at 200 W of power, 800 mm/s scanning velocity, yield strength of 715 ± 1.5 MPa, and elongation of 22.6 ± 1.2%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metal)
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Article
Influence of Relative Humidity and Oxygen Concentration on Corrosion Behaviour of Copper in H2S-Containing Liquid Petroleum Gas
Metals 2022, 12(12), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12122015 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 223
Abstract
In this paper, the influences of relative humidity (RH) and concentration of O2 on copper corrosion in H2S-containing LPG (liquid petroleum gas) were studied. The corrosion products obtained in different environments were also analysed by scanning electron microscopy [...] Read more.
In this paper, the influences of relative humidity (RH) and concentration of O2 on copper corrosion in H2S-containing LPG (liquid petroleum gas) were studied. The corrosion products obtained in different environments were also analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In H2S-containing LPG, RH has pronounced influence on the corrosion grade of copper. The variation in the critical point (CP) with the RH of LPG is a linear relationship. The presence of O2 in dry H2S has limited influence on the corrosion of copper. In the presence of different RHs, the CP always follows a negative exponential function with O2 concentration. The analysis of different corrosion products implies different corrosion behaviours and mechanisms, which are dependent on the presence or absence of water vapour. The corrosion mechanisms obtained in four different environments were also proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metal)
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Article
Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Residual Stresses on the Effective Mechanical Properties of 3D-Printed TPMS Lattices
Metals 2022, 12(8), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12081344 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
The layer-by-layer process of additive manufacturing (AM) is known to give rise to high thermal gradients in the built body resulting in the accumulation of high residual stresses. In the current study, a numerical investigation is conducted on the effect of residual stresses [...] Read more.
The layer-by-layer process of additive manufacturing (AM) is known to give rise to high thermal gradients in the built body resulting in the accumulation of high residual stresses. In the current study, a numerical investigation is conducted on the effect of residual stresses on the mechanical properties of IN718 triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) lattices fabricated using the selective laser melting (SLM) process for different relative densities. The AM simulation of four different sheet- and ligament-based TPMS topologies, namely, Schwarz Primitive, Schoen Gyroid, Schoen IWP-S, and IWP-L, are performed using a sequentially coupled thermomechanical finite element model to evaluate the thermal histories and residual stress evolution throughout the SLM process. The finite element results are utilized to obtain the effective mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, and specific energy absorption (SEA), of the TPMS lattices while accounting for the residual stress field arising from the SLM process. The mechanical properties are correlated to relative density using the Gibson–Ashby power laws and reveal that the effect of the residual stresses on the elastic modulus of the as-built TPMS samples can be significant, especially for the Schwarz Primitive and Schoen-IWP-L TPMS topologies, when compared to the results without accounting for residual stresses. However, the effect of the residual stresses is less significant on yield strength and SEA of the TPMS samples. The work demonstrates a methodology for numerical simulations of the SLM process to quantify the influence of inherited residual stresses on the effective mechanical properties of complex TPMS topologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metal)
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Article
Influence of Powder Characteristics on the Microstructure and Mechanical Behaviour of GH4099 Superalloy Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting
Metals 2022, 12(8), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12081301 - 03 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
A Chinese superalloy, GH4099 (~20 vol.% γ′ phase), which can operate for long periods of time at temperatures of 1173–1273 K, was fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM). Argon gas atomized (GA) and plasma rotation electrode process (PREP) powders with similar composition and [...] Read more.
A Chinese superalloy, GH4099 (~20 vol.% γ′ phase), which can operate for long periods of time at temperatures of 1173–1273 K, was fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM). Argon gas atomized (GA) and plasma rotation electrode process (PREP) powders with similar composition and size distribution were used as raw materials for comparison. The microstructure and mechanical properties of both the as-EBMed and post-treated alloy samples were investigated. The results show that the different powder characteristics result in different build temperatures for GA and PREP samples, which are 1253 K and 1373 K, respectively. By increasing the building temperature, the EBM processing window shifts towards a higher scanning speed direction. Microstructure analysis reveals that both as-EBM samples show a similar grain width (measured to be ~200 μm), while the size of γ′ precipitated in the PREP sample (~90 nm) is larger than that of the GA sample (~130 nm) due to the higher build temperature. Fine spherical γ′ phase precipitates uniformly after heat treatment (HT). Furthermore, intergranular cracking was observed for the as-fabricated PREP sample as a result of local enrichment of Si at grain boundaries. The cracks were completely eliminated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and did not re-open during subsequent heat treatment (HT) of solution treatment and aging. The tensile strength of the PREP sample after HIP and HT is ~920 MPa in the building direction and ~850 MPa in the horizontal direction, comparable with that of the wrought alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metal)
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Article
Effects of Process Parameters on the Relative Density and Properties of CuCrZr Alloy Produced by Selective Laser Melting
Metals 2022, 12(5), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12050701 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
CuCrZr alloy has the advantages of good electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, high hardness, crack resistance and high softening temperature. It is extensively used in important fields such as rail transit, aerospace, thermonuclear fusion and electronic information. Due to its high melting point, reflectivity, [...] Read more.
CuCrZr alloy has the advantages of good electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, high hardness, crack resistance and high softening temperature. It is extensively used in important fields such as rail transit, aerospace, thermonuclear fusion and electronic information. Due to its high melting point, reflectivity, thermal conductivity, etc., it is more difficult to manufacture by selective laser melting (SLM). In this work, the effect of SLM process parameters on the characteristics of CuCrZr samples, such as relative density, hardness and tensile properties, has been investigated using orthogonal experiment method. The experimental results show that laser power is the main factor affecting the properties of the alloy. The tensile strength of the alloy increases with an increase in laser power; it first increases and then decreases with an increase in scanning speed. The optimal combination of process parameters in this paper is as follows: laser power is 240 W, scanning speed is 750 mm/s and scanning spacing is 0.07 mm. The relative density, ultimate tensile strength and hardness of the alloy fabricated by best SLM process parameters was 98.79%, 347 MPa, 133.9 HV, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metal)
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Article
Effect of Solution Temperature on the Microstructure and Properties of 17-4PH High-Strength Steel Samples Formed by Selective Laser Melting
Metals 2022, 12(3), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12030425 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
Samples of 17-4PH high-strength steel were processed by selective laser melting (SLM) and solution-processed. The effects of the solution temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The 17-4PH high-strength steel is primarily composed of martensite, with a small [...] Read more.
Samples of 17-4PH high-strength steel were processed by selective laser melting (SLM) and solution-processed. The effects of the solution temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The 17-4PH high-strength steel is primarily composed of martensite, with a small number of austenite phases, and contains many dislocations. After the solution treatment, the grain size gradually increased, yielding typical martensite. The samples were subjected to an aging treatment after the solution treatment. Precipitates formed in the samples, conducive to improving their strength and hardness. The Vickers hardening and wear properties of the 17-4PH high-strength steel samples first increased and then decreased with increasing solution temperature. After the solution treatment at 1040 °C for 2 h and aging at 480 °C for 4 h, the Vickers hardening of the 17-4PH high-strength steel increased to 392 HV0.5, and the friction coefficient was approximately 0.6. These values were, respectively, 7% and 5% higher than those for the untreated samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metal)
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