Mechanical Behaviors and Damage Mechanisms of Metallic Materials

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Structural Integrity of Metals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2024) | Viewed by 12363

Special Issue Editors

IDMEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: fatigue testing; multiaxial fatigue; ultrasonic fatigue testing; additive manufacturing; product design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Mechanics, Biomechanics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Technická 4, 166 36 Prague, Czech Republic
Interests: structural integrity; uncertainties in fatigue; random loadings; uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue; statistical fatigue models

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is well known that metallic materials are widely used in many traditional and advanced engineering sectors, e.g., civil and ship constructions, automotive, manufacturing, aeronautics, and aerospace, to name just a few.

Considering their possible applications, metals and alloys have to withstand various combinations of loading and environmental conditions, e.g., static or dynamic (fatigue, impact) loadings, at room or high temperature, sometimes in the presence of aggressive or corrosive environments. Each environment/loading combination triggers a specific mechanical response (elastic, plastic, creep, fatigue, ratcheting, wear, fretting, etc.) and makes materials more susceptible to a certain damage mechanism, which in some cases may even lead to catastrophic failure. An in-depth understanding of the different types of mechanical behaviors and damage mechanisms of metals and alloys is of paramount importance to achieve a flawless engineering design.

Based on these insights, this Special Issue aims not only to provide an up-to-date overview on the relevant mechanical behaviors, deformation, and damage mechanisms of metallic materials under various environmental/loading conditions, but also to collect original contributions exemplifying standard or more advanced analysis techniques. This focus is wide-ranging as it includes, but it is not limited to, the characterization of mechanical responses, deformation types, and micro and macro damage mechanisms of traditional and advanced metallic materials under simple and complex loadings.

Researchers are kindly invited to submit original or review articles in which aspects of mechanical behavior and the damage mechanisms of metallic materials are analyzed and discussed through theoretical and/or numerical approaches, or illustrated by experiments or case studies.

Prof. Dr. Denis Benasciutti
Prof. Dr. Luis Reis
Guest Editors

Dr. Julian M. E. Marques
Assistant Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • damage mechanisms
  • mechanical behavior
  • plasticity
  • creep
  • complex loadings
  • microstructure
  • thermal stresses
  • additive manufacturing
  • static failure
  • fatigue damage
  • damage accumulation

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

11 pages, 8743 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of the Mechanical Properties and Fracture Mechanism of Ti-5111 Alloys with Three Typical Microstructures
by Haitao Liu, Longlong Lu, Yanmin Zhang, Fei Zhou and Kexing Song
Metals 2024, 14(6), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14060722 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 523
Abstract
In this work, Ti-5111 alloys with equiaxed, bimodal and lamellar microstructures were prepared by various heat treatment processes. The room-temperature tensile properties, deformation microstructure and fracture mechanism of the alloys with different microstructures were investigated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the microstructure affects [...] Read more.
In this work, Ti-5111 alloys with equiaxed, bimodal and lamellar microstructures were prepared by various heat treatment processes. The room-temperature tensile properties, deformation microstructure and fracture mechanism of the alloys with different microstructures were investigated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the microstructure affects the mechanical properties of Ti-5111 alloys with three typical microstructures was confirmed. The Ti-5111 alloy with a bimodal microstructure has minimum grain size and a large number of αs/β phase boundaries, which are the primary reasons for its higher strength. Simultaneously, the excellent coordination in the deformation ability between the lamellar αs and β phases is what enables the alloy with a bimodal microstructure to have the most outstanding mechanical properties. Additionally, the presence of a grain boundary α phase and the parallel arrangement of a coarse αs phase are the main reasons for the inferior mechanical properties of the Ti-5111 alloy with a lamellar microstructure. The fracture mechanism of the alloy with an equiaxed microstructure is a mixed fracture mechanism including ductile fracture and destructive fracture. The fracture mechanisms of the Ti-5111 alloy with bimodal and lamellar microstructures are typical ductile fracture and cleavage fracture, respectively. These findings serve as a guide for the performance improvement and application of the Ti-5111 alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors and Damage Mechanisms of Metallic Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 6853 KiB  
Article
Poisson’s Ratio of Selected Metallic Materials in the Elastic–Plastic Region
by Vladimír Chmelko, Tomáš Koščo, Miroslav Šulko, Matúš Margetin and Jaroslava Škriniarová
Metals 2024, 14(4), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14040433 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Poisson’s ratio is one of the fundamental characteristics in the material models that are used. In engineering practice, its values are assumed to be constant in the elastic and in the plastic region. In this paper, the conventionally used values of this number [...] Read more.
Poisson’s ratio is one of the fundamental characteristics in the material models that are used. In engineering practice, its values are assumed to be constant in the elastic and in the plastic region. In this paper, the conventionally used values of this number for steel materials and aluminum alloys are confronted with experimental results. By using non-contact strain measurements with the DIC (digital image correlation) method, the evolution of the Poisson ratio value in the regions of transition from the elastic to the plastic region as well as in the regions of large plastic deformations was documented. The obtained experimental results are graphically compared using the proposed strain scaling. The gradient of the Poisson ratio changes in the vicinity of the yield stress is significant, indicating the need for a refinement of the material models in this region. Deviations from the conventionally used value of this number were found in the large plastic deformation region. In conclusion, a possible approach for improving the accuracy of simulations in FEM softwares was formulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors and Damage Mechanisms of Metallic Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 47169 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Crashworthiness Using High-Speed Imaging, 3D Digital Image Correlation, and Finite Element Analysis
by Simon Jonsson and Jörgen Kajberg
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111834 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
To promote the use of newhigh-strengthmaterials in the automotive industry, the evaluation of crashworthiness is essential, both in terms of finite element (FE) analysis aswell as validation experiments. Thiswork proposes an approach to address the crash performance through high-speed imaging combined with 3D [...] Read more.
To promote the use of newhigh-strengthmaterials in the automotive industry, the evaluation of crashworthiness is essential, both in terms of finite element (FE) analysis aswell as validation experiments. Thiswork proposes an approach to address the crash performance through high-speed imaging combined with 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC). By tracking the deformation of the component continuously, cracks can be identified and coupled to the load and intrusion history of the experiment. The so-called crash index (CI) and its decreasing rate (CIDR) can then be estimated using only one single (or a few) component, instead of a set of components with different levels of intrusion and crushing. Crash boxes were axially and dynamically compressed to evaluate the crashworthiness of TRIP-aided bainite ferrite steel and press-hardenable steel. Acalibrated rate-dependent constitutivemodel, and a phenomenological damage model were used to simulate the crash box testing. The absorbed energy, the plastic deformation, and the CIDR were evaluated and compared to the experimentally counterparts. When applying the proposed method to evaluate the CIDR, a good agreement was found when using CI:s reported by other authors using large sets of crash boxes. The FE analyses showed a fairly good agreement with some underestimation in terms of energy absorptions. The crack formation was overestimated resulting in too high a predicted CIDR. It is concluded that the proposed method to evaluate the crashworthiness is promising. To improve the modelling accuracy, better prediction of the crack formation is needed and the introduction of the intrinsic material property, fracture toughness, is suggested for future investigations and model improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors and Damage Mechanisms of Metallic Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 17412 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Fracture Characterization of DP1180 Steel in Combined Simple Shear and Uniaxial Tension
by Farinaz Khameneh, Armin Abedini and Clifford Butcher
Metals 2023, 13(7), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13071305 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
Current tests for plane stress characterization of fracture in automotive sheet metals include simple shear, uniaxial, plane strain, and biaxial tension, but there is a significant gap between shear and uniaxial tension. Presently, it remains uncertain whether the fracture strain experiences a reduction [...] Read more.
Current tests for plane stress characterization of fracture in automotive sheet metals include simple shear, uniaxial, plane strain, and biaxial tension, but there is a significant gap between shear and uniaxial tension. Presently, it remains uncertain whether the fracture strain experiences a reduction between simple shear and uniaxial tension or undergoes an exponential increase as the triaxiality decreases. Fracture in combined simple shear and tension is complicated by premature edge cracking in tension along with a strong sensitivity of fracture strain to the measurement lengthscale. To address these issues, several existing simple shear geometries were modified and evaluated, with a focus on obtaining approximately linear strain paths corresponding to combined uniaxial tension and simple shear suitable for experimental fracture characterization using digital image correlation (DIC). An experimental and numerical investigation was conducted using two planar geometries that do not require through-thickness machining and can be easily tested on a universal test frame. Finite-element analysis was used to investigate the influence of the notch eccentricity on the stress state and predicted fracture location. The most promising geometry in each coupon type was then selected and tested for a dual-phase advanced high-strength steel, DP1180. The performance of the two planar geometries was evaluated based on the linearity of strain and stress state, along with the location of fracture initiation. The best geometry was then used to evaluate and recalibrate the modified Mohr-Coulomb (MMC) fracture locus with data in combined shear and tension. The initial MMC calibration using four fracture tests that suppressed necking provided an accurate estimate for the fracture strain in combined uniaxial tension and simple shear. The MMC model correctly predicted a valley in the fracture strain between these two loading conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors and Damage Mechanisms of Metallic Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4802 KiB  
Article
Biaxial Deformation Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy along RD and Diagonal Direction Degree between TD and ND
by Jiale Mao, Yuanjie Fu, Yao Cheng, Qiuju He, Lingyu Zhao, Yunchang Xin, Gang Chen, Peidong Wu and Qing Liu
Metals 2023, 13(5), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13050845 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
The multiaxial deformation behavior of magnesium alloys is an important factor in understanding the service performance of structures. In the present research, the deformation mechanism of a Mg AZ31 sheet under biaxial tension with various stress ratios (σRD:σ45 [...] Read more.
The multiaxial deformation behavior of magnesium alloys is an important factor in understanding the service performance of structures. In the present research, the deformation mechanism of a Mg AZ31 sheet under biaxial tension with various stress ratios (σRD:σ45) along the rolling direction (RD) and the diagonal direction (45° direction) between the normal direction (ND) and transverse direction (TD) was systematically studied for the first time using cruciform specimens. The impacts of the stress ratio, σRD:σ45, on the mechanical response, twinning behavior, texture and slip behavior were investigated. The results showed that the contribution of twinning to plastic deformation was limited and governed by the Schmid law. The activation of twinning induced a twin texture component with c-axes largely parallel to the 45° between ND and TD. The deformation induced by biaxial tension was accommodated mainly by prismatic and basal slips under the stress ratio of σRD:σ45=4:1, and the fraction of grains favoring basal slip increased with lower stress ratio along the RD. The characteristics of flow stress can be effectively explained by the relative activities of twinning and slip with stress ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors and Damage Mechanisms of Metallic Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 19975 KiB  
Article
Room- and High-Temperature Fatigue Strength of the T5 and Rapid T6 Heat-Treated AlSi10Mg Alloy Produced by Laser-Based Powder Bed Fusion
by Gianluca Di Egidio, Lorella Ceschini, Alessandro Morri and Mattia Zanni
Metals 2023, 13(2), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020263 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2431
Abstract
The AlSi10Mg alloy produced by laser-based powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is widely used to produce high-value-added structural parts subjected to cyclic mechanical loads at high temperatures. The paper aims to widen the knowledge of the room- and high-temperature (200 °C) fatigue behavior of [...] Read more.
The AlSi10Mg alloy produced by laser-based powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is widely used to produce high-value-added structural parts subjected to cyclic mechanical loads at high temperatures. The paper aims to widen the knowledge of the room- and high-temperature (200 °C) fatigue behavior of the L-PBF AlSi10Mg alloy by analyzing the fully reversed rotating bending test results on mechanically polished specimens. Two heat-treated conditions are analyzed: T5 (direct artificial aging: 4 h at 160 °C) and novel T6R (rapid solution: 10 min at 510 °C, artificial aging: 6 h at 160 °C). The study highlights that (i) the T6R alloy is characterized by higher fatigue strength at room (108 MPa) and high temperatures (92 MPa) than the T5 alloy (92 and 78 MPa, respectively); (ii) thermal exposure at 200 °C up to 17 h does not introduce macroscopical microstructural variation; (iii) fracture surfaces of the room- and high-temperature-tested specimens show comparable crack initiation, mostly from sub-superficial gas and keyhole pores, and failure propagation mechanisms. In conclusion, the L-PBF AlSi10Mg alloy offers good cyclic mechanical performances under various operating conditions, especially for the T6R alloy, and could be considered for structural components operating at temperatures up to 200 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors and Damage Mechanisms of Metallic Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 16135 KiB  
Article
Novel Characterizations of Effective SIFs and Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate of Welded Rail Steel Using DIC
by Xiu-Yang Fang, Jian-En Gong, Wei Huang, Jia-Hong Wu and Jun-Jun Ding
Metals 2023, 13(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020227 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
The fatigue crack growth-rate test of rail head, waist, and bottom material for U71Mn welded rail was carried out. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used to capture the full-field displacement. The crack-tip position was accurately obtained based on the full-field displacement data, and [...] Read more.
The fatigue crack growth-rate test of rail head, waist, and bottom material for U71Mn welded rail was carried out. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used to capture the full-field displacement. The crack-tip position was accurately obtained based on the full-field displacement data, and an accurate crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) measurement point was found. The CTOD values of the welded rail head under overloaded and unloaded condition were extracted, and the area size of elastic CTOD and plastic CTOD was obtained. According to COD data under different experimental conditions, the corresponding crack opening force was extracted, the crack opening function introduced based on the Elber model, and a calculation method of effective stress-intensity factors (SIFs) considering the plasticity-induced crack closure proposed. The results in this paper provide some references for accurately assessing the fatigue life of welded rail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors and Damage Mechanisms of Metallic Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 7207 KiB  
Article
Fretting Fatigue Test and Simulation Analysis of Steam Generator Heat Transfer Tube
by Lichen Tang, Hao Qian, Chen Li and Xinqiang Wu
Metals 2023, 13(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13010067 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
In a steam generator, the heat transfer tubes are supported by the contact with support plates and anti-vibration bars. The two-phase flow flows over the tubes and causes a vibration when operating. In fatigue analysis, the heat transfer tube is simplified to a [...] Read more.
In a steam generator, the heat transfer tubes are supported by the contact with support plates and anti-vibration bars. The two-phase flow flows over the tubes and causes a vibration when operating. In fatigue analysis, the heat transfer tube is simplified to a beam model, and the contacts with the support plates and the anti-vibration bars are simplified as simple-supported boundary conditions. This linear simplification improves the computational efficiency but cannot simulate the actual situation of the contact area. In consideration of this situation, in the actual analysis, a downwards modified S–N fatigue curve is used to envelop the fretting. For different materials and contact pressure, this modification needs to be obtained through experimental and computational analysis. In this paper, the effect of fretting on fatigue performance of heat transfer tube material 690 alloy is discussed by means of high cycle fretting fatigue test of tube specimen in room temperature air, low cycle fretting fatigue test of sheet specimen in high temperature water environment, and SWT (Smith–Watson–Topper) fretting fatigue predicting simulation, and the conservatism of design fatigue curve is discussed. It is shown that, in range of low cycle and high cycle, the fatigue strength is lower than the mean curve, but it can still be enveloped by the design curve of ASME (the American Society of Mechanical Engineers). However, under the condition of ultra-high cycle, the design curve of ASME can no longer envelop the effect of fretting on fatigue performance, so a further downward modification is necessary to ensure the safety of design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors and Damage Mechanisms of Metallic Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop