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Open AccessArticle

Metabolomics Approach Reveals the Effects of Breed and Feed on the Composition of Chicken Eggs

1
Research Center for Global Agromedicine, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan
2
Department of Life and Food Sciences, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan
3
Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(10), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9100224
Received: 24 September 2019 / Revised: 10 October 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 13 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
Chicken eggs provide essential nutrients to consumers around the world. Although both genetic and environmental factors influence the quality of eggs, it is unclear how these factors affect the egg traits including egg metabolites. In this study, we investigated breed and feed effects on 10 egg traits, using two breeds (Rhode Island Red and Australorp) and two feed conditions (mixed feed and fermented feed). We also used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) to analyze 138 yolk and 132 albumen metabolites. Significant breed effects were found on yolk weight, eggshell weight, eggshell colors, and one albumen metabolite (ribitol). Three yolk metabolites (erythritol, threitol, and urea) and 12 albumen metabolites (erythritol, threitol, ribitol, linoleic acid, isoleucine, dihydrouracil, 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, alanine, glycine, N-butyrylglycine, pyruvic acid, and valine) were significantly altered by feed, and a significant interaction between breed and feed was discovered in one albumen metabolite (N-butyrylglycine). Yolk and albumin had higher levels of sugar alcohols when hens were fed a fermented diet, which indicates that sugar alcohol content can be transferred from diet into eggs. Linoleic acid was also enriched in albumen under fermented feed conditions. This study shows that yolk and albumen metabolites will be affected by breed and feed, which is the first step towards manipulating genetic and environmental factors to create “designer eggs.” View Full-Text
Keywords: albumen; breed; chicken; feed; metabolome; yolk albumen; breed; chicken; feed; metabolome; yolk
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Goto, T.; Mori, H.; Shiota, S.; Tomonaga, S. Metabolomics Approach Reveals the Effects of Breed and Feed on the Composition of Chicken Eggs. Metabolites 2019, 9, 224.

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