We present two methods used in the identification of viscoelastic parameters of asphalt mixtures used in pavements. The static creep test and the dynamic test, with a frequency of 10 Hz, were carried out based on the four-point bending beam (4BP). In the method identifying viscoelastic parameters for the Brugers’ model, we included the course of a creeping curve (for static creep) and fatigue hysteresis (for dynamic test). It was shown that these parameters depend significantly on the load time, method used, and temperature and asphalt content. A similar variation of parameters depending on temperature was found for the two tests, but different absolute values were obtained. Additionally, the share of viscous deformations in relation to total deformations is presented, on the basis of back calculations and finite element methods. We obtained a significant contribution of viscous deformations (about 93% for the static test and 25% for the dynamic test) for the temperature 25 °C. The received rheological parameters from both methods appeared to be sensitive to a change in asphalt content, which means that these methods can be used to design an optimal asphalt mixture composition—e.g., due to the permanent deformation of pavement. We also found that the parameters should be determined using the creep curve for the static analyses with persistent load, whereas in the case of the dynamic studies, the hysteresis is more appropriate. The 4BP static creep and dynamic tests are sufficient methods for determining the rheological parameters for materials designed for flexible pavements. In the 4BP dynamic test, we determined relationships between damping and viscosity coefficients, showing material variability depending on the test temperature.
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