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Special Issue "Testing of Cement-Based Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Jae Hong Kim

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: concrete; mechanics; rheology; non-destructive testing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Concrete is the most consumed engineering material and has been used for more than 100 years. The construction material is used to build a structure outdoors, different from the other engineering materials produced inside manufacturing factories, which results in a unique process for its implementation. The construction material is usally produced in a local batch plant, and as a premature state it is transformed to a construction site (spatially distributed). Various producers and engineers are involved in its production, transformation, casting, and placing processes. Therefore, the application of the standard test methods is important for its quallity control and performance evaluation.

Advances in cement-based materials (e.g., high-performance concrete; high-strength concrete; self-consolidating concrete; fiber-reinforced cementitious composites; engineered cementitious composites; pervious concrete; low carbon concrete; and others) have brought the development of novel test methods to evalute their enhanced performances and material characterization. The test results and analysis for the new cement-based materials are also of interest in accompany with the test methods.

On the other hand, the technological advancement of the material characterization allows us to deeply understand the microstructure and behavior of cement-based materials. The characterization technology includes, but is not limited to, nanotechnolgy, rheological evaluation, nondstructive testing, and the multiphysics apporach. There are many other technologies related to the testing of cement-based materials. The field is rapidly advancing into new areas of discovery.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcomed.

Assoc. Prof. Jae Hong Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • concrete
  • cementitious materials
  • test method
  • performance evaluation
  • material characterization

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Properties of Alkali-Activated Slag Paste Using New Colloidal Nano-Silica Mixing Method
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091571
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
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Abstract
Previous studies of alkali-activated slag cement (AASC) using nano-silica have mentioned mostly powdered nano-silica and binder weight replacement methods, which have a rapid decrease in fluidity, a short setting time and a low nano-silica replacement rate (< 5%). In this study, colloidal nano-silica [...] Read more.
Previous studies of alkali-activated slag cement (AASC) using nano-silica have mentioned mostly powdered nano-silica and binder weight replacement methods, which have a rapid decrease in fluidity, a short setting time and a low nano-silica replacement rate (< 5%). In this study, colloidal nano-silica (CNS) was used and the mixing-water weight substitution method was applied. The substitution method was newly applied to improve the dispersibility of nano-silica and to increase the substitution rate. In the experiment, the CNS was replaced by 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% of the mixing-water weight. As a result, as the substitution rate of CNS increased, the fluidity decreased, and the setting time decreased. High compressive strength values and increased rates were also observed, and the diameter and volume of pores decreased rapidly. In particular, the increase of CNS replacement rate had the greatest effect on decrease of medium capillary pores (50–10 nm) and increase of gel pores (< 10 nm). The new displacement method was able to replace up to 50% of the mixing water. As shown in the experimental results, despite the high substitution rate of 50%, the minimum fluidity of the mixture was secured, and a high-strength and compact matrix could be formed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing of Cement-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Activation of Granulated Copper Slag and Its Influence on Hydration Heat and Compressive Strength of Blended Cement
Materials 2019, 12(5), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050772
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3004 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mechanical activation of granulated copper slag (GCS) is carried out in the present study for the purposes of enhancing pozzolanic activity for the GCS. A vibration mill mills the GCS for 1, 2, and 3 h to produce samples with specific surface area [...] Read more.
Mechanical activation of granulated copper slag (GCS) is carried out in the present study for the purposes of enhancing pozzolanic activity for the GCS. A vibration mill mills the GCS for 1, 2, and 3 h to produce samples with specific surface area of 0.67, 1.03 and 1.37 m2/g, respectively. The samples are used to replace 30% cement (PC) to get 3 PC-GCS binders. The hydration heat and compressive strength are measured for the binders and derivative thermogravimetric /thermogravimetric analysis (DTG/TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize the paste samples. It is shown that cumulative heat and compressive strength at different ages of hydration and curing, respectively, are higher for the binders blending the GCS milled for a longer time. The compressive strength after 90 d of curing for the binder with the longest milling time reaches 35.7 MPa, which is higher than the strength of other binders and close to the strength value of 39.3 MPa obtained by the PC pastes. The percentage of fixed lime by the binder pastes at 28 days is correlated with the degree of pozzolanic reaction and strength development. The percentage is higher for the binder blending the GCS with longer milling time and higher specific surface area. The pastes with binders blending the GCS of specific surface area of 0.67 and 1.37 m2/g fix lime of 15.20 and 21.15%, respectively. These results together with results from X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, and SEM investigations demonstrate that the mechanical activation via vibratory milling is an effective method to enhance the pozzolanic activity and the extent for cement substitution by the GCS as a suitable supplementary cementitious material (SCM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing of Cement-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling the Influence of Waste Rubber on Compressive Strength of Concrete by Artificial Neural Networks
Materials 2019, 12(4), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040561
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
One of the major causes of ecological and environmental problems comes from the enormous number of discarded waste tires, which is directly connected to the exponential growth of the world’s population. In this paper, previous works carried out on the effects of partial [...] Read more.
One of the major causes of ecological and environmental problems comes from the enormous number of discarded waste tires, which is directly connected to the exponential growth of the world’s population. In this paper, previous works carried out on the effects of partial or full replacement of aggregate in concrete with waste rubber on some properties of concrete were investigated. A database containing 457 mixtures with partial or full replacement of natural aggregate with waste rubber in concrete provided by different researchers was formed. This database served as the basis for investigating the influence of partial or full replacement of natural aggregate with waste rubber in concrete on compressive strength. With the aid of the database, the possibility of achieving reliable prediction of the compressive strength of concrete with tire rubber is explored using neural network modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing of Cement-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
A New, Carbon-Negative Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Admixture (PCC-A) for Low Carbon Portland Cements
Materials 2019, 12(4), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040554
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
The production of Portland cement accounts for approximately 7% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Carbon CAPture and CONversion (CAPCON) technology under development by the authors allows for new methods to be developed to offset these emissions. Carbon-negative Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC), produced [...] Read more.
The production of Portland cement accounts for approximately 7% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Carbon CAPture and CONversion (CAPCON) technology under development by the authors allows for new methods to be developed to offset these emissions. Carbon-negative Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC), produced from CO2 emissions, can be used as a means of offsetting the carbon footprint of cement production while potentially providing benefits to cement hydration, workability, durability and strength. In this paper, we present preliminary test results obtained for the mechanical and chemical properties of a new class of PCC blended Portland cements. These initial findings have shown that these cements behave differently from commonly used Portland cement and Portland limestone cement, which have been well documented to improve workability and the rate of hydration. The strength of blended Portland cements incorporating carbon-negative PCC Admixture (PCC-A) has been found to exceed that of the reference baseline—Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The reduction of the cement clinker factor, when using carbon-negative PCC-A, and the observed increase in compressive strength and the associated reduction in member size can reduce the carbon footprint of blended Portland cements by more than 25%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing of Cement-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Microwave Radiation as a Pre-Treatment for Standard and Innovative Fragmentation Techniques in Concrete Recycling
Materials 2019, 12(3), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030488
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
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Abstract
Recent advances in concrete recycling technology focus on novel fragmentation techniques to obtain aggregate fractions with low cement matrix content. This study assesses the aggregate liberation effectiveness of four different treatment processes including standard and innovative concrete fragmentation techniques. Lab-made concrete samples were [...] Read more.
Recent advances in concrete recycling technology focus on novel fragmentation techniques to obtain aggregate fractions with low cement matrix content. This study assesses the aggregate liberation effectiveness of four different treatment processes including standard and innovative concrete fragmentation techniques. Lab-made concrete samples were subjected to either standard mechanical crushing technique (SMT) or electrodynamic fragmentation (EDF). For both fragmentation processes, the influence of a microwave weakening pre-treatment technique (MWT) was investigated. A detailed analysis of the particle size distribution was carried out on samples after fragmentation. The >5.6 mm fraction was more deeply characterized for aggregate selective liberation (manual classification to separate liberated aggregates) and for cement matrix content (thermogravimetric measurements). Results highlight that EDF treatment is more effective than SMT treatment to selectively liberate aggregates and to decrease the cement matrix content of the >5.6 mm fraction. EDF fully liberates up to 37 wt.% of the >5.6 mm natural aggregates, while SMT only liberates 14–16 wt.%. MWT pre-treatment positively affects aggregate liberation and cement matrix removal only if used in combination with SMT; no significant effect in combination with EDF was recorded. These results of this study can provide insights to successfully implement innovative technology in concrete recycling plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing of Cement-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydration and Microstructure of Cement Pastes with Calcined Hwangtoh Clay
Materials 2019, 12(3), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030458
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Calcined Hwangtoh (HT) clay is a very promising supplementary cementitious material (SCM). In this work, the development of the mechanical properties and microstructures of HT-blended cement paste was studied after substituting the binder with HT powder calcined at 800 °C. The water-to-binder (w/b) [...] Read more.
Calcined Hwangtoh (HT) clay is a very promising supplementary cementitious material (SCM). In this work, the development of the mechanical properties and microstructures of HT-blended cement paste was studied after substituting the binder with HT powder calcined at 800 °C. The water-to-binder (w/b) ratios of the paste used were 0.2 and 0.5, and the quantities of HT powder added to the mixture were 0, 10, and 20%. The compressive strength test indicates that the addition of the HT powder increases the compressive strength of the paste after seven days of curing, and the highest compressive strength is obtained with the 10% HT substitution, regardless of whether the w/b ratio is 0.5 or 0.2. X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis show that the HT powder not only has a physical effect (i.e., nucleation effect and dilution effect) on cement hydration but also has a chemical effect (i.e., chemical reaction of HT). The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) analysis show that the paste has more ettringite during the early stage, and the microstructure is refined after the addition of the HT powder. In addition, the relationships between chemically bound water, hydration heat, and compressive strength are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing of Cement-Based Materials)
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Open AccessCommunication
Nonlinear Resonance Vibration Assessment to Evaluate the Freezing and Thawing Resistance of Concrete
Materials 2019, 12(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12020325
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Under cold environments, the freezing and thawing cycles of water in concrete reduce the lifetime and durability of concrete structures. For enhanced freezing and thawing resistance, entrained air voids are generally required, but malfunctioning of air entrainment is sometimes reported in the field. [...] Read more.
Under cold environments, the freezing and thawing cycles of water in concrete reduce the lifetime and durability of concrete structures. For enhanced freezing and thawing resistance, entrained air voids are generally required, but malfunctioning of air entrainment is sometimes reported in the field. To evaluate the quality of air entrainment, this study proposes a nondestructive method that is a preceding evaluation before damage to the concrete. A nonlinear resonance vibration method is adopted in samples having an identical air void content. The durable concrete sample with resistance to freezing and thawing cycles shows higher nonlinearity in its resonance. Thus, the quality of air entrainment and, furthermore, the potential freezing and thawing resistance can possibly be evaluated by measuring the nonlinearity parameter of the concrete, which is preliminary study to attempt the preceding evaluation of freezing and thawing resistance using nondestructive method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing of Cement-Based Materials)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. A New, Carbon-Negative Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Admixture (PCC-A) for Low Carbon Portland Cements

McDonald, F. P. Glasser and M. S. Imbabi

The manufacture of Portland cement accounts for approximately 7% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Carbon capture and conversion technology under development by the authors allows for new methods to be developed to offset these emissions. Carbon-negative Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) produced from CO2 emissions can be used as a means of offsetting the carbon footprint of cement production while potentially providing benefits to cement hydration, workability and strength. In this paper we present recent test results obtained for the mechanical and chemical properties of PCC blended Portland cements. Initial findings show that these cements behave differently from commonly used Portland and Portland limestone cements, which have been well documented to improve workability and rate of hydration. The strength of blended Portland cements incorporating carbon-negative PCC has been found to exceed that of the reference baseline Portland cement. The reduction of cement clinker factor when using carbon-negative PCC, and the observed increase in compressive strength and associated reduction in member size, can reduce the carbon footprint of blended Portland cements by more than 25%.

 

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