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Materials That Improve the Performance and Functional Properties of Roads Infrastructure

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 11584

Special Issue Editors

Department of Highway and Transportation Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-263 Gdansk, Poland
Interests: road engineering; pavement design; road materials; asphalt pavements; asphalt mixtures; effect of heavy loads on pavement structure; bituminous materials
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Guest Editor
Department of Highway Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-263 Gdansk, Poland
Interests: road pavement; road design; road recycling; cold recycling of asphalt pavement

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Guest Editor Assistant
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
Interests: unbound granular materials; asphalt mixtures; pavement design; sustainable road construction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Road infrastructure needs to establish that roads are in good technical condition and ensure the safety and comfort for users. Premature road infrastructure damage is disadvantageous due to technical, economic and transport sustainable factors, and contributes to more frequent maintenance and rehabilitation. From this reason, this Special Issue aims to collect the latest achievements in the field of materials used for road construction, which makes roads more durable, safe and which reduces adverse effects of road transport on environment. The topics of papers can include the following issues:

  • Studies on asphalt binders (bitumens, modifiers of bitumens, bituminous emulsions)
  • Studies on durable asphalt mixtures
  • Improvement of cement concrete properties to enhance high durability and functional properties of rigid pavements
  • New trends in materials used for block pavements
  • Additives which improve properties of road materials
  • Application of geosynthetics for road construction
  • Materials and techniques used to ensure high performance and economic efficiency of earthworks
  • Structural solutions that enable the most optimal use of properties of road materials to ensure durability
  • Structural and material solutions which allow to reduce noise and air pollution caused by road transport
  • Solutions to reduce wear of pavements caused by vehicles and climatic conditions
  • Materials and construction solutions used for road barriers and other safety devices.

Dr. Dawid Ryś
Dr. Mariusz Jaczewski
Dr. Diego Maria Barbieri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • road materials
  • asphalt
  • bitumen
  • cement
  • asphalt modifiers
  • asphalt mixtures
  • cement concrete
  • flexible pavements
  • rigid pavements
  • geosynthetics
  • reinforcement fibers
  • earthworks
  • road barriers

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 75671 KiB  
Article
Assessing Roadside Hybrid Energy Absorbers Using the Example of SafeEnd
by Marcin Budzynski, Kazimierz Jamroz, Lukasz Jelinski, Dawid Bruski, Lukasz Pachocki and Grzegorz Baginski
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1712; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051712 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1903
Abstract
A combination of crash cushion and end-terminal, hybrid energy absorbing devices have been in use worldwide for a few years already. They include SafeEnd, a system Poland has recently introduced. Some road authorities have raised concerns as regards the operating conditions of the [...] Read more.
A combination of crash cushion and end-terminal, hybrid energy absorbing devices have been in use worldwide for a few years already. They include SafeEnd, a system Poland has recently introduced. Some road authorities have raised concerns as regards the operating conditions of the devices and how they work together with safety barriers. The objective of this research is to clarify the concerns and answer the following questions: (1) Can SafeEnd devices be used as hybrid devices and combine the roles of end-terminal and crash cushion placed before an obstacle? (2) What should be the rules for installing crash cushions at diverging roads and at the start of an off-ramp? The article presents characteristics of SafeEnd devices, defines the doubts raised by road safety auditors, discusses the results of field and numerical tests of the devices and explains the design principles for interchange ramps where crash cushions are required. The study results have helped to answer the research questions: SafeEnd devices fulfil the role of end-terminal and crash cushion, it is possible to make them more visible and principles have been defined for how the devices should be used at road interchanges. Further research should help to define general principles of deploying road restraint systems such as crashworthy terminals, crash cushions or hybrid devices. Full article
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15 pages, 3896 KiB  
Article
Repeated Load Triaxial Testing of Recycled Excavation Materials Blended with Recycled Phyllite Materials
by Solomon Adomako, Christian John Engelsen, Rein Terje Thorstensen and Diego Maria Barbieri
Materials 2022, 15(2), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020621 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Recycled Excavation Materials (REM) are becoming viable alternative construction resources due to their economic benefits. However, REM may be composed of weak rocks, e.g., phyllites, limiting the use in a base layer. The present paper attempts to further the knowledge of the mechanical [...] Read more.
Recycled Excavation Materials (REM) are becoming viable alternative construction resources due to their economic benefits. However, REM may be composed of weak rocks, e.g., phyllites, limiting the use in a base layer. The present paper attempts to further the knowledge of the mechanical performance of REM by performing Repeated Load Triaxial Tests (RLTT). REM are mixed with Recycled Phyllite Materials (RPM) in systematic blends of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 100%. The batches’ resilient modulus (MR) and permanent deformation (PD) characteristics were assessed to establish the maximum RPM allowed into REM while maintaining the required performance. Hicks and Monismith’s and Uzan’s models were used to characterize the stiffness behavior. A wide variation in the stiffness between the two materials was observed. Batches comprised of 0% RPM–100% REM and 25% RPM–75% REM showed high stiffness performance. The Coulomb model assessed the PD behavior, and the results showed a similar response for all batches. Unlike the stiffness, blended mixtures did not show sensitivity to increased RPM content in the PD. This study may help end-users to understand the performance of REM given the documented threshold on the allowable quantity of RPM in REM. Full article
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15 pages, 3853 KiB  
Article
Field Evaluation of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Resistance to Low-Temperature Cracking
by Marek Pszczola, Dawid Rys and Mariusz Jaczewski
Materials 2022, 15(1), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010369 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
High-modulus asphalt concrete has numerous advantages in comparison to conventional asphalt concrete, including increased resistance to permanent deformations and increased pavement fatigue life. However, previous studies have shown that the construction of road pavements with High Modulus Asphalt Concrete (HMAC) may significantly increase [...] Read more.
High-modulus asphalt concrete has numerous advantages in comparison to conventional asphalt concrete, including increased resistance to permanent deformations and increased pavement fatigue life. However, previous studies have shown that the construction of road pavements with High Modulus Asphalt Concrete (HMAC) may significantly increase the risk of low-temperature cracking. Those observations were the motivation for the research presented in this paper. Four test sections with HMAC used in base and binder courses were evaluated in the study. Field investigations of the number of low-temperature cracks were performed over several years. It was established that the number of new low-temperature cracks is susceptible to many random factors, and the statistical term “reversion to the mean” should be considered. A new factor named Increase in Cracking Index was developed to analyze the resistance of pavement to low-temperature cracking. For all the considered field sections, samples were cut from each asphalt layer, and Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Tests were performed in the laboratory. Correlations of temperature at failure and cryogenic stresses with the cracking intensity observed in the field were analyzed. The paper provides practical suggestions for pavement designers. When the use of high modulus asphalt concrete is planned for binder course and asphalt base, which may result in lower resistance to low-temperature cracking of pavement than in the case of conventional asphalt concrete, it is advisable to apply a wearing course with improved resistance to low-temperature cracking. Such an approach may compensate for the adverse effects of usage of high modulus asphalt concrete. Full article
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15 pages, 4711 KiB  
Article
Microwave Heating as an Innovative Road Maintenance Technology: Aging Effect on Binder and Feasibility Evaluation
by Aimin Sha, Baowen Lou, Diego Maria Barbieri and Inge Hoff
Materials 2022, 15(1), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010316 - 02 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
The microwave heating/healing technique is regarded as a green maintenance approach for asphalt pavements thanks to its promising environmental and economic benefits. However, the main concern about this technology is represented by the possible aging effect generated on bituminous binders. Currently, there is [...] Read more.
The microwave heating/healing technique is regarded as a green maintenance approach for asphalt pavements thanks to its promising environmental and economic benefits. However, the main concern about this technology is represented by the possible aging effect generated on bituminous binders. Currently, there is a significant lack of studies dealing with this topic. Based on these premises, the main purpose of this study is to appraise the feasibility of implementing microwave-based maintenance operations considering the associated aging effect. The assessment of fatigue life after cyclic microwave heating (MH) based on a linear amplitude sweep (LAS) test and the changes in the chemical groups detected through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy document the aging phenomenon. The results indicate that the microwave aging degree on bituminous binder is nonlinear with MH cycles. The microwave radiation causes a distinct aging impact on binders during the first 10 cycles, then the values become constant. Furthermore, a feasibility analysis of MH technology is developed, encompassing four main multidisciplinary aspects: evaluation of microwave aging degree, working mechanism of MH equipment, safety assessment, and economic and ecological considerations. Despite the associated aging issue, the MH method is an efficient technology, considering its various advantages (i.e., rapidity of execution, uniform and non-pollutant treatment, and deep penetration). Meanwhile, the use of steel slag as a microwave absorber bolsters the sustainability of MH technology. This study provides a new perspective to evaluate the microwave heating technique in road engineering comprising the generated aging effect. Practice-oriented recommendations are also formulated regarding the safe implementation of MH technical operations. Full article
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17 pages, 4612 KiB  
Article
Study on the Road Performance of Foamed Warm-Mixed Reclaimed Semi-Flexible Asphalt Pavement Material
by Jiawen Xie, Wenke Huang, Bei Hu, Zhicheng Xiao, Hafiz Muhammad Zahid Hassan and Kuanghuai Wu
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185379 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Warm-mixed reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) technology has been widely studied worldwide as a recycled environmental method to reuse waste materials. However, the aggregate skeleton structure of the warm-mixed reclaimed asphalt mixture is not stable because of the existence of the recycled materials. Warm-mixed [...] Read more.
Warm-mixed reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) technology has been widely studied worldwide as a recycled environmental method to reuse waste materials. However, the aggregate skeleton structure of the warm-mixed reclaimed asphalt mixture is not stable because of the existence of the recycled materials. Warm-mixed recycled semi-flexible pavement material can solve the defects of the above materials. In this study, five different types of open-graded asphalt mixtures containing different contents of RAP were designed, and relevant laboratory tests were conducted to assess the road performance of the warm-mixed recycled semi-flexible pavement material. The test results indicated that the road performance of warm-mixed reclaimed semi-flexible pavement materials has good resistance to rut deformation ability. Furthermore, the materials also had good water stability and fatigue performance. The grey correlation analysis shows that the asphalt binder content has the most significant correlation with the high-temperature stability, and the correlation between RAP content and the fatigue performance was the greatest. Furthermore, the curing age has the most remarkable with the low-temperature crack resistance of the warm-mixed reclaimed semi-flexible material. Full article
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23 pages, 8426 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Performance of Double-Layered Asphalt Concrete Beams Reinforced with New Type of Geocomposites
by Piotr Jaskula, Dawid Rys, Marcin Stienss, Cezary Szydlowski, Michał Golos and Jacek Kawalec
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2190; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092190 - 24 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
The reinforcement of asphalt layers with geosynthetics has been used for several decades, but proper evaluation of the influence of these materials on pavement fatigue life is still a challenging task. The presented study investigates a novel approach to the reinforcement of asphalt [...] Read more.
The reinforcement of asphalt layers with geosynthetics has been used for several decades, but proper evaluation of the influence of these materials on pavement fatigue life is still a challenging task. The presented study investigates a novel approach to the reinforcement of asphalt layers using a new type of geogrid composite, in which square or hexagonal polypropylene stiff monolithic paving grid with integral junctions is bonded to polypropylene non-woven paving fabric. The laboratory fatigue tests were performed on large asphalt concrete beams reinforced with the new type of geocomposite. Unreinforced samples were used as reference. Test results were analysed in several aspects, including the standardised approach based on stiffness reduction, but also using energy dissipation. The effect of reinforcement on pavement fatigue life was also estimated. Based on the obtained final results of fatigue life calculations, it can be concluded that the evaluated geogrid composites have an evident positive effect on pavement performance and have a significant potential to extend the overall pavement life, especially in the case of hexagonal grid. Full article
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