materials-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2022) | Viewed by 19066

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Edyta Pawluczuk
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska 45A, 15–351 Białystok, Poland
Interests: building materials; concrete technology; recycling of concrete structures; lightweight concrete; geopolymer composites; sustainable construction; waste materials; supplementary cementitious materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. José Ramón Jiménez
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Construction Engineering, University of Córdoba, Ed. Leonardo Da Vinci, Campus of Rabanales, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: circular economy; eco-friendly construction materials; sustainable construction; recycled materials; construction and demolition waste; supplementary cementitious materials; cement-based materials, alkali activation; life cycle assessment, real-scale application, stabilization / solidification of hazardous waste, carbon capture and utilization
Prof. Dr. José María Fernández
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Córdoba, 14014 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: capture, storage and use of CO2; application in building materials; eco-construction; LDH/PMOs/cement-based materials; mortars and concretes
Dr. Katarzyna Kalinowska-Wichrowska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor Assistant
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Bialystok University of Technology, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
Interests: civil engineering; concrete technology, recycling of concrete methods, recycled materials and aggregates; waste additions, circular economy; eco-friendly building materials, construction and demolition waste; supplementary cementitious materials, geopolymers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 52nd Scientific Conference Construction Projects Engineering and the International Colloquium Modern Technologies in Construction—Challenges of the 21st Century is one of the most significant conferences on the international stage, bringing together students, scientists, and experts in the field of construction engineering from around the world. The conference includes a large number of invited papers and is supported annually by Materials. Each year, the conference is organized by a different scientific institution in various locations in Poland. This year, the Conference is organized by the Białystok University of Technology.

The main themes of the conference are the planning of construction investments, modern materials and technologies in construction, planning and implementation of construction works, automation and digitization, operation of buildings, economics in planning, designing and implementing construction investments, modern socioeconomic concepts in the implementation of construction projects, life cycle, circular economy, models and scientific methods in designing building structures, management of construction enterprises and projects, etc.

The aim of the conference is to present scientific achievements and exchange views, experiences, and practical knowledge related to the above topics. The conference is addressed to university researchers from Poland and abroad, researchers from scientific institutes, designers, construction contractors, and producers of construction materials and products. Each submissions from the participant of the conference would be offered 15% discount once accepted after peer-review.

Dr. Edyta Pawluczuk
Prof. Dr. José Ramón Jiménez
Prof. Dr. José María Fernández
Dr. Katarzyna Kalinowska-Wichrowska
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • planning
  • modern materials
  • technologies
  • automation
  • digitization
  • operation of buildings
  • economics
  • designing
  • circular economy
  • management

Published Papers (16 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Geopolymer Concrete with Lightweight Artificial Aggregates
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093012 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
This article presents the physical and mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete with lightweight artificial aggregate. A research experiment where the influence of fly ash–slag mix (FA-S), as part of a pozzolanic additive, on the properties of geopolymers was carried out and the most [...] Read more.
This article presents the physical and mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete with lightweight artificial aggregate. A research experiment where the influence of fly ash–slag mix (FA-S), as part of a pozzolanic additive, on the properties of geopolymers was carried out and the most favorable molar concentration of sodium hydroxide solution was determined. The values of three variables of the examined properties of the geopolymer lightweight concrete (GLC) were adopted: X1—the content of the pozzolanic additives with fly ash + flay ash–slag (FA + FA-S) mix: 200, 400 and 600 kg/m3; X2—the total amount of FA-S in the pozzolanic additives: 0, 50 and 100%; X3—the molarity of the activator NaOH: (8, 10 and 12 M). In order to increase the adhesion of the lightweight artificial aggregate to the geopolymer matrix, the impregnation of the NaOH solution was used. Based on the obtained results for the GLC’s compressive strength after 28 days, water absorption, dry and saturated density and thermal conductivity index, it was found that the most favorable parameters were obtained with 400 kg/m3 of pozzolanic additives (with 50% FA-S and 50% FA) and 10 NaOH molarity. Changes in the activator’s concentration from 8 to 10 M improved the compressive strength by 54% (for a pozzolana content of 200 kg/m3) and by 26% (for a pozzolana content of 600 kg/m3). The increase in the content of pozzolanic additives from 200 to 400 kg/m3 resulted in a decrease in water absorption from 23% to 18%. The highest conductivity coefficient, equal to 0.463 W/m·K, was determined, where the largest amount of pozzolanic additives and the least lightweight aggregate were added. The structural tests used scanning electron microscopy analysis, and the beneficial effect of impregnating the artificial aggregate with NaOH solution was proved. It resulted in a compact interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the lightweight aggregate and the geopolymer matrix because of the chemical composition (e.g., silica amount), the silica content and the alkali presoaking process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Performance of Sustainable Mortars Made with Filler from Different Construction By-Products
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2636; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072636 - 03 Apr 2022
Viewed by 994
Abstract
One way to contribute to sustainability in the construction sector is through the incorporation of construction by-products from their own activities. This work intends to extend the possibilities for enhancement of these by-products through the incorporation of four different ones, as fillers, in [...] Read more.
One way to contribute to sustainability in the construction sector is through the incorporation of construction by-products from their own activities. This work intends to extend the possibilities for enhancement of these by-products through the incorporation of four different ones, as fillers, in mortar production. The influence of these incorporations in mortar production was compared with a reference mortar with siliceous filler in its fresh state; workability, entrained air content and fresh density, and in its hardened state; capillary water absorption, water vapour permeability and shrinkage (up to 91 days); and adhesive, compressive, and flexural strength; the last two were studied over time (up to 180 days). Despite the reduction in compressive strength, both in the short and long term, there was a gain in adhesive strength when the construction by-products were incorporated. Regarding the physical properties and durability studied, no relevant differences were found with respect to the reference mortar. According to the European Specifications, these mortars could be used as regular or coloured rendering and plastering mortars, and masonry mortars, and these findings promote the circular economy in the construction sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Performance of Concrete Made with Secondary Products—Recycled Coarse Aggregates, Recycled Cement Mortar, and Fly Ash–Slag Mix
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041438 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 952
Abstract
The properties of cement concrete using waste materials—namely, recycled cement mortar, fly ash–slag, and recycled concrete aggregate—are presented. A treatment process for waste materials is proposed. Two research experiments were conducted. In the first, concretes were made with fly ash–slag mix (FAS) and [...] Read more.
The properties of cement concrete using waste materials—namely, recycled cement mortar, fly ash–slag, and recycled concrete aggregate—are presented. A treatment process for waste materials is proposed. Two research experiments were conducted. In the first, concretes were made with fly ash–slag mix (FAS) and recycled cement mortar (RCM) as additions. The most favorable content of the concrete additive in the form of RCM and FAS was determined experimentally, and their influence on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete was established. For this purpose, 10 test series were carried out according to the experimental plan. In the second study, concretes containing FAS–RCM and recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) as a 30% replacement of natural aggregate (NA) were prepared. The compressive strength, frost resistance, water absorption, volume density, thermal conductivity, and microstructure were researched. The test results show that the addition of FAS–RCM and RCA can produce composites with better physical and mechanical properties compared with concrete made only of natural raw materials and cement. The detailed results show that FAS–RCM can be a valuable substitute for cement and RCA as a replacement for natural aggregates. Compared with traditional cement concretes, concretes made of FAS, RCM, and RCA are characterized by a higher compressive strength: 7% higher in the case of 30% replacement of NA by RCA with the additional use of the innovative FAS–RCM additive as 30% of the cement mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Durability of Mortars with Fly Ash Subject to Freezing and Thawing Cycles and Sulfate Attack
Materials 2022, 15(1), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010220 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 598
Abstract
Destruction of cement composites occurs due to the alternate or simultaneous effects of aggressive media, resulting in the destruction of concrete under the influence of chemical and physical factors. This article presents the results of changes in the measurement of linear strains of [...] Read more.
Destruction of cement composites occurs due to the alternate or simultaneous effects of aggressive media, resulting in the destruction of concrete under the influence of chemical and physical factors. This article presents the results of changes in the measurement of linear strains of samples and changes in the microstructure of cement after 30 freezing and thawing cycles and immersed in 5% sodium sulfate solution. The compressive strengths ratios were carried out at the moment when the samples were moved to the sulfate solution after 30 cycles and at the end of the study when the samples showed visual signs of damage caused by the effect of 5% Na2SO4. The composition of the mixtures was selected based on the Gibbs triangle covering the area up to 40% replacement of Portland cement with low and high-calcium fly ashes or their mixture. Air-entrained and non-air entrained mortars were made of OPC, in which 20%, 26.6%, and 40% of Portland cement were replaced with low and/or high-calcium fly ash. Initial, freezing and thawing cycles accelerated the destruction of non- air-entrained cement mortars immersed in 5% sodium sulfate solution. The sulfate resistance, after the preceding frost damage, decreased along with the increase in the amount of replaced fly ash in the binder. Air-entrained mortars in which 20% of cement was replaced with high-calcium fly ash showed the best resistance to the action of sodium sulfate after 30 freezing and thawing cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Full-Scale Experimental Investigation of Utility Poles Made of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer
Materials 2021, 14(23), 7398; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14237398 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
Utility poles made of glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) are becoming increasingly common in European countries. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately examine their structural properties to ensure the integrity and safety of the poles. The purpose of this article is to compare the [...] Read more.
Utility poles made of glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) are becoming increasingly common in European countries. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately examine their structural properties to ensure the integrity and safety of the poles. The purpose of this article is to compare the bending resistance of GFRP composite lighting columns obtained using European standard procedures with full-scale experimental tests. Several composite lighting columns were tested as part of the research study, and coupon tests were performed to assess the material properties required to calculate their bending resistance according to European Standard (EN) 40-3-3. The results obtained differed significantly. Furthermore, it was observed that the current standard rules for obtaining the resistance of GFRP poles based on the limit state method show a higher load capacity of the column in comparison to the capacity obtained from the tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of Factors Affecting the Circularity of Building Materials
Materials 2021, 14(23), 7296; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14237296 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
A circular economy requires closed circuits of consumed resources. Construction generates approximately 50% of solid waste globally, which is difficult to manage. The aim of this article was to identify the factors that determine the development of circular construction in the context of [...] Read more.
A circular economy requires closed circuits of consumed resources. Construction generates approximately 50% of solid waste globally, which is difficult to manage. The aim of this article was to identify the factors that determine the development of circular construction in the context of waste minimisation in the life cycle of building structures. The identification of cause-and-effect relationships by means of the DEMATEL method allows the problems of construction waste management to be taken into account in the context of the development of sustainable construction and fulfilling the principles of the circular economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Influence of Mechanical and Mineralogical Activation of Biomass Fly Ash on the Compressive Strength Development of Cement Mortars
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216654 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
Biomass combustion is a significant new source of green energy in the European Union. The adequate utilization of byproducts created during that process is a growing challenge for the energy industry. Biomass fly ash could be used in cement composite production after appropriate [...] Read more.
Biomass combustion is a significant new source of green energy in the European Union. The adequate utilization of byproducts created during that process is a growing challenge for the energy industry. Biomass fly ash could be used in cement composite production after appropriate activation of that material. This study had been conducted to assess the usefulness of mechanical and physical activation methods (grinding and sieving), as well as activation through the addition of active silica in the form of silica fume, as potential methods with which to activate biomass fly ash. Setting time, compressive strength, water absorption and bulk density tests were performed on fresh and hardened mortar. While all activation methods influenced the compressive strength development of cement mortar with fly ash, sieving of the biomass fly ash enhanced the early compressive strength of cement mortar. The use of active silica in the form of silica fume ensured higher compressive strength results than those of control specimens throughout the entire measurement period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effect of Steel and Basalt Fibers on the Shear Behavior of Double-Span Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206090 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 962
Abstract
This study investigates the effects of adding different types of fibers to concrete mixes on the shear behavior of double-span fiber-reinforced concrete beams with or without shear reinforcement. As a part of the experimental study, a total of twenty-seven natural-scale double-span beams were [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effects of adding different types of fibers to concrete mixes on the shear behavior of double-span fiber-reinforced concrete beams with or without shear reinforcement. As a part of the experimental study, a total of twenty-seven natural-scale double-span beams were tested. The beams, made of concrete with steel or basalt fiber, with fiber dosages of 78.5 and 5 kg/m3, were tested under shear force. The three tested series consisted of three beams with dimensions of 120 × 300 × 4150 mm, with various numbers of stirrups and contents of fiber reinforcement. During the tests, the shear capacity of the elements was determined. The values of support reactions, deflection in the middle of the span of both beam spans, deformations on the surface of the concrete member in the middle of the span in the compressive and tensile zone, and cracking (crack development and crack width) were also measured. The beams were tested using a digital image correlation (DIC) technique. Test results show that shear capacity increases in beams made of concrete with steel (1.87) or basalt fibers (1.23). Moreover, the failure mode changes from shear (brittle) to flexure-shear (less brittle). The experimental shear capacity of beams was compared with the theoretical values predicted by different design codes, i.e., fib Model Code 2010 and RILEM TC 162-TDF 2003. The results show that all the design codes underestimate the contribution of fiber-reinforced concrete beams to shear resistance and greatly overestimate the contribution of shear reinforcement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Thermal Analysis-Based Field Validation of the Deformation of a Recycled Base Course Made with Innovative Road Binder
Materials 2021, 14(20), 5925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14205925 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 693
Abstract
The deformation of the cold recycled mixture with foamed bitumen in a recycled base with an innovative three-component road binder and foamed bitumen is analysed. Numerical simulation results for the pavement constructed, based on laboratory test results, were verified against the data from [...] Read more.
The deformation of the cold recycled mixture with foamed bitumen in a recycled base with an innovative three-component road binder and foamed bitumen is analysed. Numerical simulation results for the pavement constructed, based on laboratory test results, were verified against the data from the monitoring system installed on the road trial section. In addition, environmental effects, such as air temperature and humidity levels in the pavement structure layers, were considered. Thermal analyses were conducted to identify the thermal properties of the pavement materials under steady heat transfer rate. Determining temperature distribution in the road cross-section in combination with relaxation functions determined for individual pavement layers contributed to the high effectiveness of the numerical simulation of deformation and displacement in the recycled base and the entire pavement. The experimental method of identifying thermal properties allows a fast and satisfactory prediction of temperature distribution in the pavement cross-section. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Properties of Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Based on Sintered Fly Ash and Modified with Exfoliated Vermiculite
Materials 2021, 14(20), 5922; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14205922 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1011
Abstract
Despite the undoubted advantages of using lightweight concrete, its actual use for structural elements is still relatively small in comparison to ordinary concrete. One of the reasons is the wide range of densities and properties of lightweight aggregates available on the market. As [...] Read more.
Despite the undoubted advantages of using lightweight concrete, its actual use for structural elements is still relatively small in comparison to ordinary concrete. One of the reasons is the wide range of densities and properties of lightweight aggregates available on the market. As a part of the research, properties of concrete based on sintered fly ash were determined. The ash, due to its relatively high density is suitable to be used as a filler for structural concretes. Concrete was based on a mixture of sintered fly ash and exfoliated vermiculite aggregate also tested. The purpose of the research was to determine the possibility of using sintered fly ash as alternative aggregate in structural concrete and the impact of sintered fly ash lightweight aggregate on its physical, mechanical and durability properties. Conducted tests were executed according to European and Polish standards. Created concretes were characterized by compressive strength and tensile strength ranging from 20.3 MPa to 54.2 MPa and from 2.4 MPa to 3.8 MPa, respectively. The lightest of created concretes reached the apparent density of 1378 kg/m3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effect of Polymer Powder on the Cracking of the Subbase Layer Composed of Cold Recycled Bitumen Emulsion Mixtures
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5867; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195867 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 768
Abstract
The research was aimed at assessing the effect of the redispersible polymer powder on the fracture resistance of a subbase made of a mineral–cement mixture with a bitumen emulsion. The test was performed at two temperatures, i.e., 0 °C and 20 °C. The [...] Read more.
The research was aimed at assessing the effect of the redispersible polymer powder on the fracture resistance of a subbase made of a mineral–cement mixture with a bitumen emulsion. The test was performed at two temperatures, i.e., 0 °C and 20 °C. The prepared mixtures differed in the content of cement, asphalt emulsion, and polymer modifier. Cement and redispersible polymer powder were dosed in 1.5% steps from 0.5% to 3.5% while the amount of bitumen emulsion ranged from 0.0% to 5.0%. The SCB (semi-circular bending) tests carried out in the laboratory showed the dependence of the influence of the amount of binder and polymer modifier on the fracture resistance of the recycled subbase. Mixes containing a polymer modifier in their composition are characterized by a much higher resistance to cracking than traditional mineral–cement–emulsion mixtures. An example is the doubling of the framework’s fracture toughness (KIC) when the amount of the polymer modifier is increased from 0.5% to 2.0% with a constant cement content of 0.5%. The obtained results (KIC) in this case were 2.90 and 5.81. The key is the right ratio of polymer powder and cement in the base composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of Deformation and Stresses of a Lightweight Floor System (LFS) under Thermal Action
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5727; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195727 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
The lightweight floor system (LFS) with a heating coil is one of many types of radiant heating systems. It differs from most of the others, as it has a much higher thermal efficiency at low flow temperature. To verify whether adhesive mortars can [...] Read more.
The lightweight floor system (LFS) with a heating coil is one of many types of radiant heating systems. It differs from most of the others, as it has a much higher thermal efficiency at low flow temperature. To verify whether adhesive mortars can safely connect the ceramic floor with the insulating substrate, the deformations and stresses values of all light system layers under thermal action should be checked and compared to their maximum strengths. For this purpose, an LFS test field was conducted using the strain gauges and digital measurement techniques, and floor displacements and deformations were determined. The results obtained from the tests were confirmed by finite element method calculations. It was also found that the stress of each floor component was much lower than their strength. This proves that the LFS with a heating coil, without metal lamellas, meets the safety regulation for use. The results of the analysis can be useful in the design of heated/cooled LFSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Thermal Conductivity of Sand-Lime Products Modified with Foam Glass Granulate
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5678; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195678 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
Waste glass constitutes a significant part of general waste worldwide. Unfortunately, only a small percentage is recycled. It is, therefore, quite important that it can be applied in the production of construction materials. The main aim of this article is to determine the [...] Read more.
Waste glass constitutes a significant part of general waste worldwide. Unfortunately, only a small percentage is recycled. It is, therefore, quite important that it can be applied in the production of construction materials. The main aim of this article is to determine the thermal conductivity of the products modified with granulated foam glass (GFG) (recycled product) of the 0.25–0.5 mm fraction, as well as to indicate dependence of the change in volume density of samples caused by the use of GFG and the change of the thermal conductivity coefficient compared to reference samples. For the purpose of this research, various parameters were examined i.a. volume density, water absorption, determination of the pore size distribution by mercury porosimetry and determination of the heat conduction coefficient with the use of a plate apparatus. The test results were developed on the basis of a mathematical model that determined the influence of the filler on the functional properties of the product. The research has shown that the use of GFG in the sand-lime products will contribute to lowering their thermal conductivity by more than 50% compared to traditional products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Fibre-Cement Panel Ventilated Façade Smart Control System
Materials 2021, 14(17), 5076; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14175076 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1063
Abstract
This paper outlines a design for a fibre-cement panel ventilated façade smart control system based on the acoustic emission method. The paper also provides methodology and test results, as well as statistical analysis of the three-point bending results with AE signal acquisition as [...] Read more.
This paper outlines a design for a fibre-cement panel ventilated façade smart control system based on the acoustic emission method. The paper also provides methodology and test results, as well as statistical analysis of the three-point bending results with AE signal acquisition as a basis for the development of the system in question. The test items were samples cut from a full-size fibre-cement panel for interior and exterior use, according to the standard guidelines. The recorded acoustic emission signals were classified statistically into four classes, which were assigned to the processes occurring in the material structure as a result of the applied load. The system development was based on the differences between the characteristics of the individual signal classes and their number for each test case, as well as on the different distribution of successive classes over time. Given the results of the tests and the resulting conclusions indicating the applicability of the acoustic emission method (based on signal classification using the k-means algorithm for the assessment of variations in the mechanical parameters of cement-fibre composites), a methodology for such assessment was therefore developed. The approach proposed is a reasonable method for assessing the variation in mechanical parameters of fibre-cement panels on the basis of the parameters determined by the non-destructive method indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Sustainability of Civil Structures through the Application of Smart Materials: A Review
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4824; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14174824 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2834
Abstract
Every year, structural flaws or breakdowns cause thousands of people to be harmed and cost billions of dollars owing to the limitations of design methods and materials to withstand extreme earthquakes. Since earthquakes have a significant effect on sustainability factors, there is a [...] Read more.
Every year, structural flaws or breakdowns cause thousands of people to be harmed and cost billions of dollars owing to the limitations of design methods and materials to withstand extreme earthquakes. Since earthquakes have a significant effect on sustainability factors, there is a contradiction between these constraints and the growing need for more sustainable structures. There has been a significant attempt to circumvent these constraints by developing various techniques and materials. One of these viable possibilities is the application of smart structures and materials such as shape memory and piezoelectric materials. Many scholars have examined the use of these materials and their structural characteristics up to this point, but the relationship between sustainability considerations and the deployment of smart materials has received little attention. Therefore, through a review of previous experimental, numerical, and conceptual studies, this paper attempts to draw a more significant relationship between smart materials and structural sustainability. First, the significant impact of seismic events on structural sustainability and its major aspects are described. It is then followed by an overview of the fundamentals of smart material’s behaviour and properties. Finally, after a comprehensive review of the most recent applications of smart materials in structures, the influence of their deployment on sustainability issues is discussed. The findings of this study are intended to assist researchers in properly addressing sustainability considerations in any research and implementation of smart materials by establishing a more explicit relationship between these two concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Harnessing 3D Printing of Plastics in Construction—Opportunities and Limitations
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4547; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164547 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2580
Abstract
Additive manufacturing has been of increasing interest to the construction industry for the last ten years. The subject of the research is the printing of concrete, metals, and plastics. In their analysis and research, authors have focused on printing plastics. 3D printing of [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing has been of increasing interest to the construction industry for the last ten years. The subject of the research is the printing of concrete, metals, and plastics. In their analysis and research, authors have focused on printing plastics. 3D printing of reinforcement of concrete elements made of plastics can significantly improve the efficiency of their erection, reduce the amount of waste, and optimize their shape. In this paper, recent developments in the 3D printing of plastics for construction are reviewed. Various applications were discussed, including unconventional spatial reinforcement (impossible to achieve in a traditional way), printed permanent formwork, etc. The challenges for further research and practical applications of such solutions were also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Engineering - Challenges of the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop