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Advances in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 8214

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current market value of carbon fiber-reinforced composites (CFRCs) is ~37 billion USD. This is only a small indication of the utility of CFRCs in a wide range of products influencing almost all spheres of human activity, including health, agriculture, communication, transportation, energy, construction, defense, and space exploration. Carbon fiber-reinforced composites (CFRCs) are emerging as metal substitutes with applications in space exploration, military aircraft components, ship and submarine manufacturing, renewable energy (e.g., blades of wind turbines), and automobiles. In principle, CFRCs can be used in all applications where light weight and high strength materials are required. The main load-bearing component of the CFRCs is the carbon fiber, owing to the high specific strength and light weight of CFs. However, the surface of CFs is chemically inert, making compatibility between CF surfaces and polymer matrixes a problem. As a result, there is weak bonding at the interface between the CF surface and the polymer matrix. Innovative strategies are being developed to modify the surfaces of CFs to make them rough and chemically reactive and to design strong interfacial bonding between the CF surface and polymer matrix, leading to an huge increase in the usefulness of CFRCs due to the enhancement of critical properties of the CFRCs such as interfacial shear strength (IFSS). CFRCs have a rich history of over five decades with the first report being a patent titled “Carbon fiber/polyester or epoxy resin composites” dating back to 1968. Following this report, there have been over 51,567 reports on the subject of “Carbon fiber reinforced composites” to date (20/1/2022) according to a Web of Science.

The Special Issue, entitled Carbon fiber-reinforced composites (CFRC’s), aims at the fusion of the vast amount of knowledge available in the scientific literature lasting over 50 years from 1968 to 2022, leading to a better vision and thorough understanding of the structure, composition, and properties of the interface of CFRCs through publishing original research papers and review articles on this subject. Researchers in the field are encouraged to enthusiastically contribute their results for publication in this Special Issue.

Topics of interest include the following:

  1. Carbon fiber (CF)—Synthesis, structure, properties, and surface modification;
  2. Sizing of carbon fibers for improved adhesion of CFs and polymer matrix;
  3. Carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRCs);
  4. Application of CFRCs in defense, transportation, renewable energy, infrastructure, and space exploration;
  5. Role of the interface on the properties of CFRCs;
  6. Methods of characterization of interface of CFRPs: XRD, spectroscopy (XPS, Raman, FT IR, Magnetic resonance, ToF-SIMS, NMR, EPR), microscopy (SEM-EDAX, TEM, AFM, Fluorescence), chromatography (inverse gas chromatography (IGC)), mechanical methods (singe fiber methods), and electro analytical methods;
  7. Future directions of CFRC research.

Dr. Indra Neel Pulidindi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • carbon fibers
  • surface modifiction
  • sizing
  • carbon fiber reinfroced composites
  • CFRPs
  • CFRCs
  • interface
  • characterization
  • application
  • polymers

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 3740 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Studies for Fatigue Damage Accumulation of CFRP Cross-Ply Laminates Based on Entropy Failure Criterion
by Huachao Deng, Asa Mochizuki, Mohammad Fikry, Shun Abe, Shinji Ogihara and Jun Koyanagi
Materials 2023, 16(1), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010388 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
The transverse cracking behavior of a carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) cross-ply laminate is investigated using a fatigue test and an entropy-based failure criterion in this study. The results of fatigue experiments show that the crack accumulation behavior depends on the cyclic number level and [...] Read more.
The transverse cracking behavior of a carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) cross-ply laminate is investigated using a fatigue test and an entropy-based failure criterion in this study. The results of fatigue experiments show that the crack accumulation behavior depends on the cyclic number level and frequency, in which two obvious transverse cracks are observed after 104 cyclic loads and 37 transverse cracks occur after 105 cycles. The final numbers of transverse cracks decrease from 29 to 11 when the load frequency increases from 5 Hz to 10 Hz. An entropy-based failure criterion is proposed to predict the long-term lifetime of laminates under cyclic loadings. The transverse strength of 90° ply is approximated by the Weibull distribution for a realistic simulation. Progressive damage and transverse cracking behavior in CFRP ply can be reproduced due to entropy generation and strength degradation. The effects of stress level and load frequency on the transverse cracking behavior are investigated. It is discovered that, at the edge, the stress σ22 + σ33 that is a dominant factor for matrix tensile failure mode is greater than the interior at the first cycle load, and as stress levels rise, a transverse initial crack forms sooner. However, the initial transverse crack initiation is delayed as load frequencies increase. In addition, transverse crack density increases quickly after initial crack formation and then increases slowly with the number of load cycles. The proposed method’s results agree well with those of the existing experimental method qualitatively. In addition, the proposed entropy-based failure criterion can account for the effect of load frequency on transverse crack growth rate, which cannot be addressed by the well-known Paris law. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites)
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20 pages, 7468 KiB  
Article
Investigation of CFRP Reinforcement Ratio on the Flexural Capacity and Failure Mode of Plain Concrete Prisms
by Hisham Jahangir Qureshi, Muhammad Umair Saleem, Nauman Khurram, Jawad Ahmad, Muhammad Nasir Amin, Kaffayatullah Khan, Fahid Aslam, Abdulrahman Fahad Al Fuhaid and Md Arifuzzaman
Materials 2022, 15(20), 7248; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207248 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
The utilization of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites as strengthening materials for structural components has become quite famous over the last couple of decades. The present experimental study was carried out to examine the effect of varied widths of externally bonded CFRP on the [...] Read more.
The utilization of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites as strengthening materials for structural components has become quite famous over the last couple of decades. The present experimental study was carried out to examine the effect of varied widths of externally bonded CFRP on the debonding strain of CFRP and the failure mode of plain concrete beams. Twelve plain concrete prims measuring 100 mm × 100 mm × 500 mm were cast and tested under identical loading conditions. The twelve specimens include two control prisms, i.e., without CFRP strips, and the remaining ten prisms were reinforced with CFRP strips with widths of 10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm, 40 mm, and 50 mm, respectively, i.e., two prisms in each group. Four-point loading flexural testing was carried out, and the resulting data are presented in the form of peak load vs. midpoint displacement, load vs. concrete strain, and load vs. CFRP strain. The peak load was directly recorded from the testing machine, while the midpoint deflection was recorded through the linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) installed at the midpoint. To measure the strain, two separate strain gauges were installed at the bottom of each concrete prism, i.e., one on the concrete surface and the other on the surface of the CFRP strip. The results of this study indicate that the debonding strain is a function of CFRP strip width and that the failure patterns of beams are significantly affected by the CFRP reinforcement ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites)
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12 pages, 3919 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity Analysis of Reinforced Aluminum Based Metal Matrix Composites
by Fouzia Gillani, Muhammad Zubair Khan and Owaisur Rahman Shah
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124225 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have wide applications due to being lightweight, their high strength, and immense resistance to wear. To explore new generation materials like aluminum-based metal matrix composites (AMCs) for wide engineering applications, the present work aimed at investigating the effect of [...] Read more.
Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have wide applications due to being lightweight, their high strength, and immense resistance to wear. To explore new generation materials like aluminum-based metal matrix composites (AMCs) for wide engineering applications, the present work aimed at investigating the effect of changes in composition, sintering time, and temperature on the hardness and surface roughness of AMCs containing SiC and ZrSiO4 in wt % of 5, 20, 30, and 40 binary and hybrid sample pallets. The samples have been prepared by powder metallurgy (PM) method under 1000 psi pressure. After compaction, the above pallets sintered at different temperatures ranging from 500 °C to 1100 °C with an increment of 200 °C and 15 min intervals for four levels of temperature and time, respectively. Afterwards, sensitivity analysis has been done by investigating the effect of chemical composition, sintering time, and sintering temperature of the binary and hybrid composites on hardness and surface roughness. Morphological studies on the composites were carried out using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It has been observed that hardness is increased by increasing the sintering temperature in the case of SiC, whereas surface roughness did not change much by changing the composition. Additionally, a rise in temperature lead to liquid-state sintering. SEM images obtained during the elemental analysis showed that porosity is generated within the samples after sintering due to the higher melting point of reinforcements compared to a base metal, i.e., aluminum. Mathematical equations have also been developed via regression analysis using Minitab and excel for the confirmation and validation of experimental data. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) has also been done, and its tables are shown and discussed in the paper. Hence, the most optimized findings relating the changes in the composition of reinforcements, sintering temperature, and sintering time (input variables) with porosity, hardness, and surface roughness have been presented in the current study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites)
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11 pages, 1965 KiB  
Article
Parametric Optimization for Quality of Electric Discharge Machined Profile by Using Multi-Shape Electrode
by Fouzia Gillani, Taiba Zahid, Sameena Bibi, Rana Sami Ullah Khan, Muhammad Raheel Bhutta and Usman Ghafoor
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062205 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
The electrical discharge machining (EDM) process is one of the most efficient non-conventional precise material removal processes. It is a smart process used to intricately shape hard metals by creating spark erosion in electroconductive materials. Sparking occurs in the gap between the tool [...] Read more.
The electrical discharge machining (EDM) process is one of the most efficient non-conventional precise material removal processes. It is a smart process used to intricately shape hard metals by creating spark erosion in electroconductive materials. Sparking occurs in the gap between the tool and workpiece. This erosion removes the material from the workpiece by melting and vaporizing the metal in the presence of dielectric fluid. In recent years, EDM has evolved widely on the basis of its electrical and non-electrical parameters. Recent research has sought to investigate the optimal machining parameters for EDM in order to make intricate shapes with greater accuracy and better finishes. Every method employed in the EDM process has intended to enhance the capability of machining performance by adopting better working conditions and developing techniques to machine new materials with more refinement. This new research aims to optimize EDM’s electrical parameters on the basis of multi-shaped electrodes in order to obtain a good surface finish and high dimensional accuracy and to improve the post-machining hardness in order to improve the overall quality of the machined profile. The optimization of electrical parameters, i.e., spark voltage, current, pulse-on time and depth of cut, has been achieved by conducting the experimentation on die steel D2 with a specifically designed multi-shaped copper electrode. An experimental design is generated using a statistical tool, and actual machining is performed to observe the surface roughness, variations on the surface hardness and dimensional stability. A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) approach has been followed (as there are more than two process parameters) to prepare the samples via EDM. Regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the interpretation and optimization of results has been carried out using Minitab as a statistical tool. The validation of experimental findings with statistical ones confirms the significance of each operating parameter on the output parameters. Hence, the most optimized relationships were found and presented in the current study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites)
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