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Advances in Electromagnetic Properties of Magnetic Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2023) | Viewed by 15434

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, 300223 Timisoara, Romania
Interests: magnetic nanoparticle systems; electromagnetic properties of materials; ferromagnetic resonance; magnetic relaxation; dielectric relaxation; ferrofluids; electromagnetic shielding; magnetic hyperthermia
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magnetic materials are an important category of materials that are intensively studied, both from a fundamental point of view and for applicative reasons, as they are appropriate for use in different automotive, electronics, industrial, power generation, and biomedical applications. Modern challenges based on environmental protection and resource saving create new demands for the synthesis and application of magnetic materials. Eco-friendly obtaining methods, replacement of rare and costly raw materials in the synthesis, and low energy consumption, as well as improvement of the electromagnetic properties of magnetic materials, are permanent demands.

In this Special Issue of Materials, we want to include articles focused on modern technologies for the synthesis and characterization of magnetic materials with superior electromagnetic characteristics, topics that polarize the attention of the scientific community with applications that take into account the current requirements in industry, as well as new challenging topics that open new research routes and develop the horizon of fundamental and applied research.

The topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Synthesis methods of magnetic materials with emphasis on eco-friendly synthesis and environmentally friendly products;
  • Magnetic-active materials;
  • Magnetic materials for bio-medical applications;
  • Magnetic composites;
  • Smart magnetic materials;
  • Characterization methods and processing technologies;
  • Application of magnetic materials in energy production, energy saving, and storage;
  • Magnetic materials for sensors and IoT applications;
  • Magnetic materials for electromagnetic interference shielding;
  • Magnetic materials for environmental protection and de-pollution;
  • Magnetic materials for information protection;
  • Emerging applications of magnetic materials;
  • Theoretical models to explain the electromagnetic properties of magnetic materials and their applications.

Prof. Dr. Catalin Nicolae Marin
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Magnetic materials synthesis
  • Processing technologies
  • Smart magnetic materials
  • Environmental protection
  • Electromagnetic properties of materials
  • Interference shielding
  • Magnetic hyperthermia
  • Sensors
  • Energy

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2199 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Magneto-Induced Modulus by the Combination of Filler and Plasticizer Additives-Based Magnetorheological Elastomer
by Muntaz Hana Ahmad Khairi, Ervina Efzan Mhd Noor, Ubaidillah Ubaidillah, Siti Aishah Abdul Aziz, Saiful Amri Mazlan, Siti Maisarah Ahmad Tarmizi and Nur Azmah Nordin
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6396; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186396 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
Filler additive is used to provide superior bonding in rubber matrix to enhance the storage modulus of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). However, the magneto-induced modulus is reduced as the initial storage modulus increases. Therefore, this paper aims to increase the magneto-induced modulus and maintain [...] Read more.
Filler additive is used to provide superior bonding in rubber matrix to enhance the storage modulus of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). However, the magneto-induced modulus is reduced as the initial storage modulus increases. Therefore, this paper aims to increase the magneto-induced modulus and maintain the initial storage modulus by combining filler and plasticizer additives. Both types of additives have different functions, where cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) is capable of enhancing the maximum storage modulus and silicone oil (SO) reduces the initial storage modulus. Thus, four MRE samples have been fabricated using (a) no additive, (b) CoFe2O4, (c) SO, and (d) a combination of CoFe2O4 and SO. The sample’s hardness and magnetic properties were investigated via Durometer Shore A and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), respectively. Furthermore, the rheological properties of MRE samples in terms of storage modulus were investigated upon the frequency and magnetic field sweep using a rheometer. The results demonstrated that the storage modulus of the MRE samples has increased with increasing the oscillation frequency from 0.1 to 50 Hz. Interestingly, the combination of additives has produced the largest value of magneto-induced modulus of 0.90 MPa as compared to other samples. Furthermore, their initial storage modulus was in between samples with SO (lowest) and without additive (highest). Therefore, fundamental knowledge in adding the combination of additives can offer solutions for a wide range of stiffness in MR device applications such as vibration and noise control devices, sensing devices, and actuators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electromagnetic Properties of Magnetic Materials)
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15 pages, 4796 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Bi2O3 and Fe2O3 Impurity Phases in BiFeO3 Perovskite Materials on Some Electrical Properties in the Low-Frequency Field
by Cristian Casut, Iosif Malaescu, Catalin Nicolae Marin and Marinela Miclau
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144764 - 7 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1829
Abstract
Pure bismuth ferrite (BFO) and BFO with impurity phases (Bi2O3 or Fe2O3) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Complex dielectric permittivity (ε) and electrical conductivity (σ) were determined by complex impedance measurements at different frequencies (200 [...] Read more.
Pure bismuth ferrite (BFO) and BFO with impurity phases (Bi2O3 or Fe2O3) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Complex dielectric permittivity (ε) and electrical conductivity (σ) were determined by complex impedance measurements at different frequencies (200 Hz–2 MHz) and temperatures (25–290) °C. The conductivity spectrum of samples, σ(f), complies with Jonscher’s universal law and the presence of impurity phases leads to a decrease in the static conductivity (σDC); this result is correlated with the increased thermal activation energy of the conduction in impure samples compared to the pure BFO sample. The conduction mechanism in BFO and the effect of impurity phases on σ and ε were analyzed considering the variable range hopping model (VRH). Based on the VRH model, the hopping length (Rh), hopping energy (Wh) and the density of states at the Fermi level (N(EF)) were determined for the first time, for these samples. In addition, from ε(T) dependence, a transition in the electronic structure of samples from a semiconductor-like to a conductor-like behavior was highlighted around 465–490 K for all samples. The results obtained are useful to explain the conduction mechanisms from samples of BFO type, offering the possibility to develop a great variety of electrical devices with novel functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electromagnetic Properties of Magnetic Materials)
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14 pages, 2249 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Impact of Cu2+ Doping on the Morphological, Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles for Use in Electrical Devices
by Shahroz Saleem, Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Yasin Naz, Shazia Shukrullah, Muhammad Adnan Munir, Muhammad Ayyaz, Abdullah Saeed Alwadie, Stanislaw Legutko, Jana Petrů and Saifur Rahman
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103502 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
This study investigated the production of Cu2+-doped CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (CFO NPs) using a facile sol−gel technique. The impact of Cu2+ doping on the lattice parameters, morphology, optical properties, and electrical properties of CFO NPs was investigated for [...] Read more.
This study investigated the production of Cu2+-doped CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (CFO NPs) using a facile sol−gel technique. The impact of Cu2+ doping on the lattice parameters, morphology, optical properties, and electrical properties of CFO NPs was investigated for applications in electrical devices. The XRD analysis revealed the formation of spinel-phased crystalline structures of the specimens with no impurity phases. The average grain size, lattice constant, cell volume, and porosity were measured in the range of 4.55–7.07 nm, 8.1770–8.1097 Å, 546.7414–533.3525 Å3, and 8.77–6.93%, respectively. The SEM analysis revealed a change in morphology of the specimens with a rise in Cu2+ content. The particles started gaining a defined shape and size with a rise in Cu2+ doping. The Cu0.12Co0.88Fe2O4 NPs revealed clear grain boundaries with the least agglomeration. The energy band gap declined from 3.98 eV to 3.21 eV with a shift in Cu2+ concentration from 0.4 to 0.12. The electrical studies showed that doping a trace amount of Cu2+ improved the electrical properties of the CFO NPs without producing any structural distortions. The conductivity of the Cu2+-doped CFO NPs increased from 6.66 × 10−10 to 5.26 × 10−6 ℧ cm−1 with a rise in Cu2+ concentration. The improved structural and electrical characteristics of the prepared Cu2+-doped CFO NPs made them a suitable candidate for electrical devices, diodes, and sensor technology applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electromagnetic Properties of Magnetic Materials)
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16 pages, 45567 KiB  
Article
Temperature Dependent on Mechanical and Rheological Properties of EPDM-Based Magnetorheological Elastomers Using Silica Nanoparticles
by Rusila Zamani Abdul Rashid, Nurul Azhani Yunus, Saiful Amri Mazlan, Norhasnidawani Johari, Siti Aishah Abdul Aziz, Nur Azmah Nordin, Muntaz Hana Ahmad Khairi and Mohd Aidy Faizal Johari
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072556 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Temperature is one of the most influential factors affecting the performance of elastomer matrix in magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). Previous studies have utilized silica as a reinforcing filler in polymer composite and as a coating material in MRE to improve the thermal stability of [...] Read more.
Temperature is one of the most influential factors affecting the performance of elastomer matrix in magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). Previous studies have utilized silica as a reinforcing filler in polymer composite and as a coating material in MRE to improve the thermal stability of the base material. However, the usage of silica as an additive in the thermal stability of MRE has not been explored. Thus, in this study, the effect of silica as an additive on the temperature-dependent mechanical and rheological properties of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM)-based MREs was investigated by using 30 wt.% carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) as the main filler, with different contents of silica nanoparticles (0 to 11 wt.%). The microstructure analysis was examined by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), while the thermal characterizations were studied by using a thermogravimetric analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry. The tensile properties were conducted by using Instron Universal Testing Machine in the absence of magnetic field at various temperatures. Meanwhile, the rheological properties were analyzed under oscillatory loadings in the influence of magnetic field, using a rotational rheometer at 25 to 65 °C. The results revealed that the temperature has diminished the interfacial interactions between filler and matrix, thus affecting the properties of MRE, where the tensile properties and MR effect decrease with increasing temperature. However, the presence of silica capable improved the thermal stability of EPDM-based MRE by enhancing the interactions between filler and matrix, thus reducing the interfacial defects when under the influence of temperature. Consequently, the incorporation of silica nanoparticles as an additive in EPDM-based MRE requires more exploration, since it has the potential to sustain the properties of MRE devices in a variety of temperature conditions. Thus, the study on the temperature-dependent mechanical and rheological properties of MRE is necessary, particularly regarding its practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electromagnetic Properties of Magnetic Materials)
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15 pages, 5587 KiB  
Article
Electric and Dielectric Properties in Low-Frequency Fields of Composites Consisting of Silicone Rubber and Al Particles for Flexible Electronic Devices
by Alexandrina Teusdea, Iosif Malaescu, Paula Sfirloaga and Catalin Nicolae Marin
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2309; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062309 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Understanding the electrical conduction and dielectric polarization properties of elastomer-based composites is important for the design of flexible and elastic electronic devices and circuits. Five samples were manufactured by mixing silicone rubber (RTV-530) with Al particles in different volume fractions, x equal to [...] Read more.
Understanding the electrical conduction and dielectric polarization properties of elastomer-based composites is important for the design of flexible and elastic electronic devices and circuits. Five samples were manufactured by mixing silicone rubber (RTV-530) with Al particles in different volume fractions, x equal to 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5% and 5.1%. Using the complex impedance measurements, the electric modulus, M, the electrical conductivity, σ, and the dielectric permittivity, ε, over the frequency range 100 Hz–200 kHz were analyzed. The electrical conductivity spectrum, σ(f), follows the Jonscher universal law and the DC conductivity of the samples, σDC, increases from 2.637·10−8 S/m to 5.725·10−8 S/m, with increasing x from, 0 to 5.1%. The conduction process was analyzed in terms of Mott’s variable-range-hopping (VRH) model. The hopping distance of the charge carriers, Rh decreases with increasing x, from 7.30 nm (for x = 0) to 5.92 nm (for x = 5.1%). The frequency dependence of permittivity, ε(f) = ε′(f) − iε″(f), reveals a relaxation process with the maximum of ε″(f) shifting from 301 Hz to 385 Hz and values of ε′(f) increasing with the increase of x. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electromagnetic Properties of Magnetic Materials)
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7 pages, 2058 KiB  
Article
Tunable Planar Hall Effect in (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As) Epitaxial Layers
by Tomasz Andrearczyk, Janusz Sadowski, Jerzy Wróbel, Tadeusz Figielski and Tadeusz Wosinski
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164483 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
We have thoroughly investigated the planar Hall effect (PHE) in the epitaxial layers of the quaternary compound (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As). The addition of a small amount of heavy Bi atoms to the prototype dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As enhances significantly the spin–orbit coupling strength in its [...] Read more.
We have thoroughly investigated the planar Hall effect (PHE) in the epitaxial layers of the quaternary compound (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As). The addition of a small amount of heavy Bi atoms to the prototype dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As enhances significantly the spin–orbit coupling strength in its valence band, which essentially modifies certain magnetoelectric properties of the material. Our investigations demonstrate that an addition of just 1% Bi atomic fraction, substituting As atoms in the (Ga,Mn)As crystal lattice, causes an increase in the PHE magnitude by a factor of 2.5. Moreover, Bi incorporation into the layers strongly enhances their coercive fields and uniaxial magneto-crystalline anisotropy between the in-plane ⟨110⟩ crystallographic directions in the layers grown under a compressive misfit strain. The displayed two-state behaviour of the PHE resistivity at zero magnetic field, which may be tuned by the control of applied field orientation, could be useful for application in spintronic devices, such as nonvolatile memory elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electromagnetic Properties of Magnetic Materials)
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13 pages, 3456 KiB  
Article
Behaviors of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
by Ayse Nihan Basmaci
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4069; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154069 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
In this study, behaviors of electromagnetic wave propagation in a double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) are investigated theoretically. For this purpose, the effects of carbon nanotube’s inner and outer tubes’ material property parameters (μ, ε) on electromagnetic wave propagation are discussed. [...] Read more.
In this study, behaviors of electromagnetic wave propagation in a double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) are investigated theoretically. For this purpose, the effects of carbon nanotube’s inner and outer tubes’ material property parameters (μ, ε) on electromagnetic wave propagation are discussed. The effects of interaction between the carbon nanotube’s inner and outer tubes on the electromagnetic wave propagation are defined. Nonlocal effects of the DWCNT on electromagnetic wave propagation are examined. Besides, the electromagnetic wave propagation frequencies are specifically investigated, taking the DWCNT’s nonlocal effects and material property parameters (ε, µ) into account. When the wavenumber, k, is greater than 1.8 × 1010, the frequencies of the fundamental mode and the second mode converge to 3.554 × 108 Hz. Additionally, the electromagnetic wave propagation frequencies decrease with the increase of the DWCNT’s nonlocal parameter (ν) and decrease with material parameter (D). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electromagnetic Properties of Magnetic Materials)
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13 pages, 4131 KiB  
Article
Magnetic and Transport Properties of New Dual-Phase High-Entropy Alloy FeRhIrPdPt
by Kohei Baba, Naoki Ishizu, Terukazu Nishizaki and Jiro Kitagawa
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112877 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2595
Abstract
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are broadly explored from the perspective of mechanical, corrosion-resistance, catalytic, structural, superconducting, magnetic properties, and so on. In magnetic HEAs, 3d transition metals or rare-earth elements are well-studied compositional elements. We researched a magnetic HEA containing Fe combined with [...] Read more.
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are broadly explored from the perspective of mechanical, corrosion-resistance, catalytic, structural, superconducting, magnetic properties, and so on. In magnetic HEAs, 3d transition metals or rare-earth elements are well-studied compositional elements. We researched a magnetic HEA containing Fe combined with 4d and 5d transition metals, which has not been well investigated, and found a new dual-phase face-centered-cubic (fcc) HEA FeRhIrPdPt. The structural, magnetic, and transport properties were evaluated by assuming that FeRhIrPdPt is a mixture of FeRh4, FeIr4, FePd4, and FePt4, all with the fcc structure. The dual-phase is composed of a Rh- and Ir-rich main phase and a Pd- and Pt-rich minor one. FeRh4 and FeIr4 show spin freezings at low temperatures, while FePd4 and FePt4 are ferromagnetic. Two magnetic features can characterize FeRhIrPdPt. One is the canonical spin-glass transition at 90 K, and the other is a ferromagnetic correlation that appears below 300 K. The main and minor phases were responsible for the spin-glass transition and the ferromagnetic correlation below 300 K, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electromagnetic Properties of Magnetic Materials)
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