Special Issue "3D-Printed Dental Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Ji-Man Park
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
Interests: 3D-printed devices; additive manufacturing; bioprinting; digital dentistry; digital denture manufacturing; intraoral scanner; patient-specific dental implant; robotic surgery system; zirconia 3D printer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the dental field, digital scans are becoming indispensable, and digital dentistry is rapidly developing due to the characteristics of fabricating a prosthesis or device customized to the hard and soft tissues in the oral cavity. Compared to clinical applications in the medical field, which mainly use low-resolution CT data, the dental application is made in many cases because dental instruments are manufactured after obtaining a high-resolution image of the oral cavity with an intraoral scanner or a model scanner. 3D printers have been used to produce dental models obtained from intraoral scans and prostheses designed on these scan data. Further, provisional restoration material for tooth protection and aesthetics recovery and occlusion after abutment preparation, castable resins for metal casting or ceramic pressing, and transparent resins visible through inner changes for surgical guides are already available in the dental field. Various technologies of 3D printing, including metal printing, or bioprinting of cell-friendly polymers, have been applied to the dental surgery area, such as replacing the patient’s jawbone, or patient-specific membranes for a bone graft. While it is inevitable that 3D printing technology will be used in various ways soon, there are still many aspects to be verified, such as accuracy, biocompatibility, and clinical effectivity according to DfAM, software pretreatment, the interrelationship between printing equipment and materials, cleaning, and post-curing conditions.

This Special Issue aims to provide insight into recent advances in the field of additive manufacture for dentistry. Potential topics in this Special Issue include but are not limited to in vitro and clinical research using 3D-printed dental devices made from polymer, metal, ceramic, and biomaterial. Studies incorporating an innovative approach or providing new information are of higher priority. It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Original articles, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Ji-Man Park
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Digital dental medicine
  • Digital dentistry
  • 3D-printed devices
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Bioprinting
  • Ceramic printing
  • Metal printing
  • Polymer printing
  • Patient-specific instrument
  • Digital denture manufacturing
  • In vitro research
  • Clinical research

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Stain Susceptibility of 3D-Printed Nanohybrid Composite Restorative Material and the Efficacy of Different Stain Removal Techniques: An In Vitro Study
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5621; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195621 - 27 Sep 2021
Viewed by 143
Abstract
Recent burgeoning development in material science has introduced a 3D-printable, nanohybrid composite resin restorative material. However, its performance has not yet been investigated. This study evaluates the stain susceptibility and efficacy of different stain removal techniques. A total of 120 labial veneers were [...] Read more.
Recent burgeoning development in material science has introduced a 3D-printable, nanohybrid composite resin restorative material. However, its performance has not yet been investigated. This study evaluates the stain susceptibility and efficacy of different stain removal techniques. A total of 120 labial veneers were fabricated using milling (n = 60) and SLA 3D-printing (n = 60). Based on the immersion media: coffee, tea and artificial saliva, each group was divided into three sub-groups (n = 20). Stain susceptibility was evaluated by calculating color difference (∆E00) at 12 and 24 days using a spectrophotometer against black and white backgrounds. Collected data were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test (p < 0.05). A significant interaction effect was found between the staining mediums and fabrication methods in both black and white backgrounds (p < 0.001). 3D-printed restorations showed significantly higher stain susceptibility than milled restorations (p < 0.001). Prolonged immersion time increased the color difference in both groups. In-office bleaching was more effective in stain removal in both 3D-printed and milled restoration groups. The susceptibility of the presented novel 3D-printed restorative material to color changes in different immersion mediums was clinically not-acceptable. The clinicians might expect the need to replace the restoration after 1–2 years and thus, recommendation for the use of such a material as a permanent restoration cannot be made but rather as a long-term temporary restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed Dental Materials)
Article
Dimensional Accuracy of Dental Models for Three-Unit Prostheses Fabricated by Various 3D Printing Technologies
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061550 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 838
Abstract
Previous studies on accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) printed model focused on full arch measurements at few points. The aim of this study was to examine the dimensional accuracy of 3D-printed models which were teeth-prepped for three-unit fixed prostheses, especially at margin and proximal [...] Read more.
Previous studies on accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) printed model focused on full arch measurements at few points. The aim of this study was to examine the dimensional accuracy of 3D-printed models which were teeth-prepped for three-unit fixed prostheses, especially at margin and proximal contact areas. The prepped dental model was scanned with a desktop scanner. Using this reference file, test models were fabricated by digital light processing (DLP), Multi-Jet printing (MJP), and stereo-lithography apparatus (SLA) techniques. We calculated the accuracy (trueness and precision) of 3D-printed models on 3D planes, and deviations of each measured points at buccolingual and mesiodistal planes. We also analyzed the surface roughness of resin printed models. For overall 3D analysis, MJP showed significantly higher accuracy (trueness) than DLP and SLA techniques; however, there was not any statistically significant difference on precision. For deviations on margins of molar tooth and distance to proximal contact, MJP showed significantly accurate results; however, for a premolar tooth, there was no significant difference between the groups. 3D color maps of printed models showed contraction buccolingually, and surface roughness of the models fabricated by MJP technique was observed as the lowest. The accuracy of the 3D-printed resin models by DLP, MJP, and SLA techniques showed a clinically acceptable range to use as a working model for manufacturing dental prostheses Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed Dental Materials)
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Article
Dimensional Accuracy Evaluation of Temporary Dental Restorations with Different 3D Printing Systems
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061487 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
With the advent of 3D printing technologies in dentistry, the optimization of printing conditions has been of great interest, so this study analyzed the accuracy of 3D-printed temporary restorations of different sizes produced by digital light processing (DLP) and liquid crystal display (LCD) [...] Read more.
With the advent of 3D printing technologies in dentistry, the optimization of printing conditions has been of great interest, so this study analyzed the accuracy of 3D-printed temporary restorations of different sizes produced by digital light processing (DLP) and liquid crystal display (LCD) printers. Temporary restorations of 2-unit, 3-unit, 5-unit, 6-unit, and full-arch cases were designed and printed from a DLP printer using NextDent C&B or an LCD printer using Mazic D Temp (n = 10 each). The restorations were scanned, and each restoration standard tessellation language (STL) file was superimposed on the reference STL file, by the alignment functions, to evaluate the trueness through whole/point deviation. In the whole-deviation analysis, the root-mean-square (RMS) values were significantly higher in the 6-unit and full-arch cases for the DLP printer and in the 5-unit, 6-unit, and full-arch cases for the LCD printer. The significant difference between DLP and LCD printers was found in the 5-unit and full-arch cases, where the DLP printer exhibited lower RMS values. Color mapping demonstrated less shrinkage in the DLP printer. In the point deviation analysis, a significant difference in direction was exhibited in all the restorations from the DLP printer but only in some cases from the LCD printer. Within the limitations of this study, 3D printing was most accurate with less deviation and shrinkage when a DLP printer was used for short-unit restorations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed Dental Materials)
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Article
The Role of Solvents in Lithography-Based Ceramic Manufacturing of Lithium Disilicate
Materials 2021, 14(4), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14041045 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Digital dentistry is increasingly replacing conventional methods of manually producing dental restorations. With regards to computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), milling is state of the art. Additive manufacturing (AM), as a complementary approach, has also found its way into dental practices and laboratories. Vat photo-polymerization [...] Read more.
Digital dentistry is increasingly replacing conventional methods of manually producing dental restorations. With regards to computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), milling is state of the art. Additive manufacturing (AM), as a complementary approach, has also found its way into dental practices and laboratories. Vat photo-polymerization is gaining increasing attention, because it enables the production of full ceramic restorations with high precision. One of the two predominantly used ceramic materials for these applications is lithium disilicate, Li2Si2O5. This glass ceramic exhibits a substantial fracture toughness, although possesses much lower bending strength, than the other predominantly used ceramic material, zirconia. Additionally, it shows a much more natural optical appearance, due to its inherent translucency, and therefore is considered for anterior tooth restorations. In this work, an optimized formulation for photo-reactive lithium disilicate suspensions, to be processed by vat photo-polymerization, is presented. Following the fundamental theoretical considerations regarding this processing technique, a variety of solvents was used to adjust the main properties of the suspension. It is shown that this solvent approach is a useful tool to effectively optimize a suspension with regards to refractive index, rheology, and debinding behavior. Additionally, by examining the effect of the absorber, the exposure time could be reduced by a factor of ten. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed Dental Materials)
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Article
In Vitro Comparison between Metal Sleeve-Free and Metal Sleeve-Incorporated 3D-Printed Computer-Assisted Implant Surgical Guides
Materials 2021, 14(3), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030615 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
The present study aims to compare the accuracy of metal sleeve-free 3D-printed computer-assisted implant surgical guides (MSF group) (n = 10) with metal sleeve-incorporated 3D-printed computer-assisted implant surgical guides (MSI group) (n = 10). Implants of diameter 4.0 mm and 5.0 [...] Read more.
The present study aims to compare the accuracy of metal sleeve-free 3D-printed computer-assisted implant surgical guides (MSF group) (n = 10) with metal sleeve-incorporated 3D-printed computer-assisted implant surgical guides (MSI group) (n = 10). Implants of diameter 4.0 mm and 5.0 mm were placed in the left second premolars and bilateral first molars, respectively, using a fully guided system. Closed-form sleeves were used in teeth on the left and open-form sleeves on the right. The weight differences of the surgical guides before and after implant placement, and angular deviations before and after implant placement were measured. Weight differences were compared with Student’s t-tests and angular deviations with Mann–Whitney tests. Cross-sectional views of the insert parts were observed with a scanning electron microscope. Preoperative and postoperative weight differences between the two groups were not statistically significant (p = 0.821). In terms of angular deviations, those along the mesiodistal direction for the left second premolars were significantly lower in the MSF group (p = 0.006). However, those along the mesiodistal direction for the bilateral molars and those along the buccolingual direction for all teeth were not significantly different (p > 0.05). 3D-printed implant surgical guides without metal sleeve inserts enable accurate implant placement without exhausting the guide holes, rendering them feasible for fully guided implant placement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed Dental Materials)
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Article
Evaluation of the 3D Printing Accuracy of a Dental Model According to Its Internal Structure and Cross-Arch Plate Design: An In Vitro Study
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235433 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
The amount of photopolymer material consumed during the three-dimensional (3D) printing of a dental model varies with the volume and internal structure of the modeling data. This study analyzed how the internal structure and the presence of a cross-arch plate influence the accuracy [...] Read more.
The amount of photopolymer material consumed during the three-dimensional (3D) printing of a dental model varies with the volume and internal structure of the modeling data. This study analyzed how the internal structure and the presence of a cross-arch plate influence the accuracy of a 3D printed dental model. The model was designed with a U-shaped arch and the palate removed (Group U) or a cross-arch plate attached to the palate area (Group P), and the internal structure was divided into five types. The trueness and precision were analyzed for accuracy comparisons of the 3D printed models. Two-way ANOVA of the trueness revealed that the accuracy was 135.2 ± 26.3 µm (mean ± SD) in Group U and 85.6 ± 13.1 µm in Group P. Regarding the internal structure, the accuracy was 143.1 ± 46.8 µm in the 1.5 mm-thick shell group, which improved to 111.1 ± 31.9 µm and 106.7 ± 26.3 µm in the roughly filled and fully filled models, respectively. The precision was 70.3 ± 19.1 µm in Group U and 65.0 ± 8.8 µm in Group P. The results of this study suggest that a cross-arch plate is necessary for the accurate production of a model using 3D printing regardless of its internal structure. In Group U, the error during the printing process was higher for the hollowed models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed Dental Materials)
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Article
Realization of a Dental Framework by 3D Printing in Material Cobalt-Chromium with Superior Precision and Fitting Accuracy
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235390 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 502
Abstract
We report on the generation of a cobalt-chromium dental framework with superior precision and fitting accuracy using selective laser melting. The objective of this study is the reduction of surface roughness and the possibility to manufacture a dental framework with high precision for [...] Read more.
We report on the generation of a cobalt-chromium dental framework with superior precision and fitting accuracy using selective laser melting. The objective of this study is the reduction of surface roughness and the possibility to manufacture a dental framework with high precision for passive fit with attachments, in particular a round tack. After selective laser melting, the dental framework is thermally post processed at 750 °C, shot-blasted with glass and highly polished. Nominal to actual 3D form deviation is analyzed by stripe light projection, revealing deviations being less than 250 μm, i.e., warpage is as low as to permit dental application and accurate passive fit. In particular, the critical area of the dental framework, the fixture to the implant (overdenture) shows negligible deviations. This superior fitting accuracy is confirmed by joining the bar with a testing stylus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed Dental Materials)
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Article
A Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of 3D Printed Bioceramic Implants for the Reconstruction of Zygomatic Bone Defects
Materials 2020, 13(20), 4515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13204515 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of patient-specific additive-manufactured CaOSiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramic (BGS-7) implants for reconstructing zygomatic bone defects at a 6-month follow-up. A prospective, single-arm, single-center, clinical [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of patient-specific additive-manufactured CaOSiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramic (BGS-7) implants for reconstructing zygomatic bone defects at a 6-month follow-up. A prospective, single-arm, single-center, clinical trial was performed on patients with obvious zygoma defects who needed and wanted reconstruction. The primary outcome variable was a bone fusion between the implant and the bone evaluated by computed tomography (CT) at 6 months post surgery. Secondary outcomes, including implant immobilization, satisfaction assessment, osteolysis, subsidence of the BGS-7 implant, and safety, were assessed. A total of eight patients were enrolled in the study. Two patients underwent simultaneous reconstruction of the left and right malar defects using a BGS-7 3D printed implant. Cone beam CT analysis showed that bone fusion at 6 months after surgery was 100%. We observed that the average fusion rate was 76.97%. Osteolysis around 3D printed BGS-7 implants was not observed. The mean distance displacement of all 10 implants was 0.4149 mm. Our study showed no adverse event in any of the cases. The visual analog scale score for satisfaction was 9. All patients who enrolled in this trial were aesthetically and functionally satisfied with the surgical results. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the safety and promising value of patient-specific 3D printed BGS-7 implants as a novel facial bone reconstruction method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed Dental Materials)
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Article
Effect of Printing Direction on the Accuracy of 3D-Printed Dentures Using Stereolithography Technology
Materials 2020, 13(15), 3405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13153405 - 02 Aug 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2668
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of the differences in the printing directions of stereolithography (SLA) three-dimensional (3D)-printed dentures on accuracy (trueness and precision). The maxillary denture was designed using computer-aided design (CAD) software with an STL file (master data) as the output. Three [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of the differences in the printing directions of stereolithography (SLA) three-dimensional (3D)-printed dentures on accuracy (trueness and precision). The maxillary denture was designed using computer-aided design (CAD) software with an STL file (master data) as the output. Three different printing directions (0°, 45°, and 90°) were used. Photopolymer resin was 3D-printed (n = 6/group). After scanning all dentures, the scanning data were saved/output as STL files (experimental data). For trueness, the experimental data were superimposed on the master data sets. For precision, the experimental data were selected from six dentures with three different printing directions and superimposed. The root mean square error (RMSE) and color map data were obtained using a deviation analysis. The averages of the RMSE values of trueness and precision at 0°, 45°, and 90° were statistically compared. The RMSE of trueness and precision were lowest at 45°, followed by 90°; the highest occurred at 0°. The RMSE of trueness and precision were significantly different among all printing directions (p < 0.05). The highest trueness and precision and the most favorable surface adaptation occurred when the printing direction was 45°; therefore, this may be the most effective direction for manufacturing SLA 3D-printed dentures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed Dental Materials)
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Article
In Vitro Mechanical and Biological Properties of 3D Printed Polymer Composite and β-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffold on Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells
Materials 2020, 13(14), 3057; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13143057 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
3D printed biomaterials have been extensively investigated and developed in the field of bone regeneration related to clinical issues. However, specific applications of 3D printed biomaterials in different dental areas have seldom been reported. In this study, we aimed to and successfully fabricated [...] Read more.
3D printed biomaterials have been extensively investigated and developed in the field of bone regeneration related to clinical issues. However, specific applications of 3D printed biomaterials in different dental areas have seldom been reported. In this study, we aimed to and successfully fabricated 3D poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate (3D-PLGA/TCP) and 3D β-tricalcium phosphate (3D-TCP) scaffolds using two relatively distinct 3D printing (3DP) technologies. Conjunctively, we compared and investigated mechanical and biological responses on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Physicochemical properties of the scaffolds, including pore structure, chemical elements, and compression modulus, were characterized. hDPSCs were cultured on scaffolds for subsequent investigations of biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Our findings indicate that 3D printed PLGA/TCP and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds possessed a highly interconnected and porous structure. 3D-TCP scaffolds exhibited better compressive strength than 3D-PLGA/TCP scaffolds, while the 3D-PLGA/TCP scaffolds revealed a flexible mechanical performance. The introduction of 3D structure and β-TCP components increased the adhesion and proliferation of hDPSCs and promoted osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, 3D-PLGA/TCP and 3D-TCP scaffolds, with the incorporation of hDPSCs as a personalized restoration approach, has a prospective potential to repair minor and critical bone defects in oral and maxillofacial surgery, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed Dental Materials)
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Article
Evaluation of Effective Condyle Positioning Assisted by 3D Surgical Guide in Mandibular Reconstruction Using Osteocutaneous Free Flap
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102333 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
In the present study, the reproducibility and postoperative stability of a 3D printed surgical guide were evaluated in mandibular reconstruction with an osteocutaneous free flap (OCFF), including a fibular free flap (FFF) and deep circumflex iliac artery free flap (DCIA). Fifteen patients were [...] Read more.
In the present study, the reproducibility and postoperative stability of a 3D printed surgical guide were evaluated in mandibular reconstruction with an osteocutaneous free flap (OCFF), including a fibular free flap (FFF) and deep circumflex iliac artery free flap (DCIA). Fifteen patients were enrolled, and a 3D surgical guide was fabricated by simulation surgery using preoperative (T0) Computed tomography (CT) images. Mandibular reconstruction was performed with OCFF using the 3D surgical guide. Postoperative CTs were taken immediately, 1 week (T1), and 6 months (T2) after surgery, to evaluate the reproducibility of the 3D surgical guide and condyle stability. Error of the 3D surgical guide ranged from 0.85 to 2.56 mm. There were no differences in reproducibility according to flap type. Condylar error and error at mandible midpoint were significantly different in FFF. However, there was no difference in DCIA error between the condyle and mandible midpoint. Regarding condyle stability 6 months after surgery, condyles moved more than 2 mm (up to 2.85 mm) in FFF, whereas there were no significant movement in DCIA. Careful intraoperative flap fixation and closed postoperative observation should be considered for stable clinical outcome, especially in the case of FFF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed Dental Materials)
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Review

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Review
Reliability of Metal 3D Printing with Respect to the Marginal Fit of Fixed Dental Prostheses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214781 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies have been widely used to manufacture crowns and frameworks for fixed dental prostheses. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the reliability of the marginal fit of 3D-printed cobalt-chromium-based fixed dental prostheses in comparison to conventional casting methods. [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies have been widely used to manufacture crowns and frameworks for fixed dental prostheses. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the reliability of the marginal fit of 3D-printed cobalt-chromium-based fixed dental prostheses in comparison to conventional casting methods. Articles published until 25 June 2020, reporting the marginal fit of fixed prostheses fabricated with metal 3D printing, were searched using electronic literature databases. After the screening and quality assessment, 21 eligible peer-reviewed articles were selected. Meta-analysis revealed that the marginal gap of the prostheses manufactured using 3D printing was significantly smaller compared to that manufactured using casting methods (standard mean difference (95% CI): −0.92 (−1.45, −0.38); Z = −3.37; p = 0.0008). The estimated difference between the single and multi-unit types did not differ significantly (p = 0.3573). In the subgroup analysis for the measurement methods, the tendency of marginal discrepancy between the 3D printing and casting groups was significantly different between articles that used direct observation and those that used the silicone replica technique (p < 0.001). Metal 3D printing technologies appear reliable as an alternative to casting methods in terms of the fit of the fixed dental prostheses. In order to analyze the factors influencing manufacturing and confirm the results of this review, further controlled laboratory and clinical studies are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed Dental Materials)
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Review
Challenges of Co–Cr Alloy Additive Manufacturing Methods in Dentistry—The Current State of Knowledge (Systematic Review)
Materials 2020, 13(16), 3524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163524 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Complex dental components which are individually tailored to the patient can be obtained due to new additive manufacturing technology. This paper reviews the metallic powders used in dental applications, the fabrication process (build orientation, process parameters) and post-processing processes (stress relieving, surface finishing). [...] Read more.
Complex dental components which are individually tailored to the patient can be obtained due to new additive manufacturing technology. This paper reviews the metallic powders used in dental applications, the fabrication process (build orientation, process parameters) and post-processing processes (stress relieving, surface finishing). A review of the literature was performed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Mendeley and Google Scholar. Over eighty articles were selected based on relevance to this review. This paper attempts to include the latest research from 2010 until 2020, however, older manuscripts (10 articles) were also selected. Over 1200 records were identified through the search; these were screened for title and/or summary. Over eighty articles were selected based on relevance to this review. In order to obtain a product which can be used in clinical applications, the appropriate manufacturing parameters should be selected. A discussion was made on optimal selective laser melting (SLM) parameters in dentistry. In addition, this paper includes a critical review of applied thermal treatment methods for Co–Cr alloys used in dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed Dental Materials)
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