Topical Collection "Marine Polysaccharides"

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Editor

Dr. Paola Laurienzo
Website
Collection Editor
Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, CNR, via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078, Italy
Interests: natural polysaccharides; chemical modification; macromolecular synthesis; polymers for drug delivery

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biopolymers, as natural polysaccharides, are considered benign polymers for what concerns the environment. This is not a new invention, but at best a renaissance: the first type of polymers used by human kind were animal hides, cellulose, silk, wool. Among benefits of natural occurring biopolymers there are potential biocompatibility, renewable resources, low processing costs, tailoring of structure by genetic manipulation, and, as said, environmentally compatibility. Limits are, sometimes, premature degradation and high production costs due to the very high purity required for medical uses. Polysaccharides are not drugs by themselves, but their use in pharmaceutical field, for example as drug carriers or antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or anticoagulant agents, is increasingly promising. Marine polysaccharides include chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar and carrageenans. Chitosan is a cationic carbohydrate biopolymer derived from chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharides present in nature after cellulose. The main sources of chitin are the shell wastes of shrimps, lobsters and crabs. For its characteristics, chitosan founds particular application as non viral vector in gene delivery. Films from chitosan are very tough and long lasting. Alginates derive from seaweed extraction (pheophyceae), and are mainly used in drug delivery and as hydrogels for immobilizing cells and enzymes, due to the mild conditions of cross-linking through bivalent cations (Ca2+). Agar (or agar-agar) and carrageenans are linear polysaccharides from red seaweeds. They are highly reactive chemically and are peculiar for thermoreversible gel formation. Exopolysaccharides (EPS), substantial components of the extracellular matrix of many cells of marine origin, also have to be mentioned for their potential interest in pharmaceuticals, and new EPS producing bacteria, particularly from extreme marine environments, are being isolated.
The possibility of chemical modification, blending and addition of biodegradable additives allows to tailor the final properties of polysaccharides and opens the doors to wider applications, particularly in pharmaceutical area. This issue is intended to explore any new potentiality of marine polysaccharides, as those above mentioned, deriving from chemical or chemical-physical modifications, and the scaling-up of their pharmaceutical applications.

Dr. Paola Laurienzo
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts for the topical collection can be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on this website. The topical collection considers regular research articles, short communications and review articles. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The article processing charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • chitosan
  • alginate
  • agar
  • carrageenans
  • exopolysaccharides
  • chemical modification
  • drug delivery
  • gene delivery

Published Papers (88 papers)

2020

Jump to: 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010

Open AccessReview
Potential Beneficial Actions of Fucoidan in Brain and Liver Injury, Disease, and Intoxication—Potential Implication of Sirtuins
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(5), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18050242 - 05 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Increased interest in natural antioxidants has brought to light the fucoidans (sulfated polysaccharides present in brown marine algae) as highly valued nutrients as well as effective and safe therapeutics against several diseases. Based on their satisfactory in vitro antioxidant potency, researchers have identified [...] Read more.
Increased interest in natural antioxidants has brought to light the fucoidans (sulfated polysaccharides present in brown marine algae) as highly valued nutrients as well as effective and safe therapeutics against several diseases. Based on their satisfactory in vitro antioxidant potency, researchers have identified this molecule as an efficient remedy for neuropathological as well as metabolic disorders. Some of this therapeutic activity is accomplished by upregulation of cytoprotective molecular pathways capable of restoring the enzymatic antioxidant activity and normal mitochondrial functions. Sirtuin-3 has been discovered as a key player for achieving the neuroprotective role of fucoidan by managing these pathways, whose ultimate goal is retrieving the entirety of the antioxidant response and preventing apoptosis of neurons, thereby averting neurodegeneration and brain injuries. Another pathway whereby fucoidan exerts neuroprotective capabilities is by interactions with P-selectin on endothelial cells, thereby preventing macrophages from entering the brain proper. Furthermore, beneficial influences of fucoidan have been established in hepatocytes after xenobiotic induced liver injury by decreasing transaminase leakage and autophagy as well as obtaining optimal levels of intracellular fiber, which ultimately prevents fibrosis. The hepatoprotective role of this marine polysaccharide also includes a sirtuin, namely sirtuin-1 overexpression, which alleviates obesity and insulin resistance through suppression of hyperglycemia, reducing inflammation and stimulation of enzymatic antioxidant response. While fucoidan is very effective in animal models for brain injury and neuronal degeneration, in general, it is accepted that fucoidan shows somewhat limited potency in liver. Thus far, it has been used in large doses for treatment of acute liver injuries. Thus, it appears that further optimization of fucoidan derivatives may establish enhanced versatility for treatments of various disorders, in addition to brain injury and disease. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Fucoxanthinol in LPS-Induced RAW264.7 Cells through the NAAA-PEA Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(4), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18040222 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator with powerful anti-inflammatory and analgesic functions. PEA can be hydrolyzed by a lysosomal enzyme N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), which is highly expressed in macrophages and other immune cells. The pharmacological inhibition of NAAA activity is a [...] Read more.
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator with powerful anti-inflammatory and analgesic functions. PEA can be hydrolyzed by a lysosomal enzyme N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), which is highly expressed in macrophages and other immune cells. The pharmacological inhibition of NAAA activity is a potential therapeutic strategy for inflammation-related diseases. Fucoxanthinol (FXOH) is a marine carotenoid from brown seaweeds with various beneficial effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of action of FXOH in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the role of FXOH in the NAAA–PEA pathway and the anti-inflammatory effects based on this mechanism. In vitro results showed that FXOH can directly bind to the active site of NAAA protein and specifically inhibit the activity of NAAA enzyme. In an LPS-induced inflammatory model in macrophages, FXOH pretreatment significantly reversed the LPS-induced downregulation of PEA levels. FXOH also substantially attenuated the mRNA expression of inflammatory factors, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and markedly reduced the production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of FXOH on NO induction was significantly abolished by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) inhibitor GW6471. All these findings demonstrated that FXOH can prevent LPS-induced inflammation in macrophages, and its mechanisms may be associated with the regulation of the NAAA-PEA-PPAR-α pathway. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identification of a Key Enzyme for the Hydrolysis of β-(1→3)-Xylosyl Linkage in Red Alga Dulse Xylooligosaccharide from Bifidobacterium Adolescentis
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(3), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18030174 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Red alga dulse possesses a unique xylan, which is composed of a linear β-(1→3)/β-(1→4)-xylosyl linkage. We previously prepared characteristic xylooligosaccharide (DX3, (β-(1→3)-xylosyl-xylobiose)) from dulse. In this study, we evaluated the prebiotic effect of DX3 on enteric bacterium. Although DX3 was utilized by Bacteroides [...] Read more.
Red alga dulse possesses a unique xylan, which is composed of a linear β-(1→3)/β-(1→4)-xylosyl linkage. We previously prepared characteristic xylooligosaccharide (DX3, (β-(1→3)-xylosyl-xylobiose)) from dulse. In this study, we evaluated the prebiotic effect of DX3 on enteric bacterium. Although DX3 was utilized by Bacteroides sp. and Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bacteroides Ksp. grew slowly as compared with β-(1→4)-xylotriose (X3) but B. adolescentis grew similar to X3. Therefore, we aimed to find the key DX3 hydrolysis enzymes in B. adolescentis. From bioinformatics analysis, two enzymes from the glycoside hydrolase family 43 (BAD0423: subfamily 12 and BAD0428: subfamily 11) were selected and expressed in Escherichia coli. BAD0423 hydrolyzed β-(1→3)-xylosyl linkage in DX3 with the specific activity of 2988 mU/mg producing xylose (X1) and xylobiose (X2), and showed low activity on X2 and X3. BAD0428 showed high activity on X2 and X3 producing X1, and the activity of BAD0428 on DX3 was 1298 mU/mg producing X1. Cooperative hydrolysis of DX3 was found in the combination of BAD0423 and BAD0428 producing X1 as the main product. From enzymatic character, hydrolysis of X3 was completed by one enzyme BAD0428, whereas hydrolysis of DX3 needed more than two enzymes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Advanced Technologies for the Extraction of Marine Brown Algal Polysaccharides
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(3), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18030168 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Over the years, brown algae bioactive polysaccharides laminarin, alginate and fucoidan have been isolated and used in functional foods, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries. The extraction process of these polysaccharides includes several complex and time-consuming steps and the correct adjustment of extraction parameters (e.g., [...] Read more.
Over the years, brown algae bioactive polysaccharides laminarin, alginate and fucoidan have been isolated and used in functional foods, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries. The extraction process of these polysaccharides includes several complex and time-consuming steps and the correct adjustment of extraction parameters (e.g., time, temperature, power, pressure, solvent and sample to solvent ratio) greatly influences the yield, physical, chemical and biochemical properties as well as their biological activities. This review includes the most recent conventional procedures for brown algae polysaccharides extraction along with advanced extraction techniques (microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction and enzymes assisted extraction) which can effectively improve extraction process. The influence of these extraction techniques and their individual parameters on yield, chemical structure and biological activities from the most current literature is discussed, along with their potential for commercial applications as bioactive compounds and drug delivery systems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Advances in Research on the Bioactivity of Alginate Oligosaccharides
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(3), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18030144 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Alginate is a natural polysaccharide present in various marine brown seaweeds. Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) is a degradation product of alginate, which has received increasing attention due to its low molecular weight and promising biological activity. The wide-ranging biological activity of AOS is closely [...] Read more.
Alginate is a natural polysaccharide present in various marine brown seaweeds. Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) is a degradation product of alginate, which has received increasing attention due to its low molecular weight and promising biological activity. The wide-ranging biological activity of AOS is closely related to the diversity of their structures. AOS with a specific structure and distinct applications can be obtained by different methods of alginate degradation. This review focuses on recent advances in the biological activity of alginate and its derivatives, including their anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antibacterial, hypolipidemic, antihypertensive, and hypoglycemic properties, as well as the ability to suppress obesity and promote cell proliferation and regulate plant growth. We hope that this review will provide theoretical basis and inspiration for the high-value research developments and utilization of AOS-related products. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Impact of Prevalence Ratios of Chondroitin Sulfate (CS)- 4 and -6 Isomers Derived from Marine Sources in Cell Proliferation and Chondrogenic Differentiation Processes
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020094 - 31 Jan 2020
Abstract
Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent rheumatic disease. During disease progression, differences have been described in the prevalence of chondroitin sulfate (CS) isomers. Marine derived-CS present a higher proportion of the 6S isomer, offering therapeutic potential. Accordingly, we evaluated the effect of exogenous supplementation [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent rheumatic disease. During disease progression, differences have been described in the prevalence of chondroitin sulfate (CS) isomers. Marine derived-CS present a higher proportion of the 6S isomer, offering therapeutic potential. Accordingly, we evaluated the effect of exogenous supplementation of CS, derived from the small spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula), blue shark (Prionace glauca), thornback skate (Raja clavata) and bovine CS (reference), on the proliferation of osteochondral cell lines (MG-63 and T/C-28a2) and the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MG-G3 proliferation was comparable between R. clavata (CS-6 intermediate ratio) and bovine CS (CS-4 enrichment), for concentrations below 0.5 mg/mL, defined as a toxicity threshold. T/C-28a2 proliferation was significantly improved by intermediate ratios of CS-6 and -4 isomers (S. canicula and R. clavata). A dose-dependent response was observed for S. canicula (200 µg/mL vs 50 and 10 µg/mL) and bovine CS (200 and 100 µg/mL vs 10 µg/mL). CS sulfation patterns discretely affected MSCs chondrogenesis; even though S. canicula and R. clavata CS up-regulated chondrogenic markers expression (aggrecan and collagen type II) these were not statistically significant. We demonstrate that intermediate values of CS-4 and -6 isomers improve cell proliferation and offer potential for chondrogenic promotion, although more studies are needed to elucidate its mechanism of action. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Pre-Treatment with Laminarin Protects Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons and Attenuates Reactive Gliosis Following Transient Forebrain Ischemia in Gerbils
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18010052 - 12 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Transient brain ischemia triggers selective neuronal death/loss, especially in vulnerable regions of the brain including the hippocampus. Laminarin, a polysaccharide originating from brown seaweed, has various pharmaceutical properties including an antioxidant function. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have been conducted [...] Read more.
Transient brain ischemia triggers selective neuronal death/loss, especially in vulnerable regions of the brain including the hippocampus. Laminarin, a polysaccharide originating from brown seaweed, has various pharmaceutical properties including an antioxidant function. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have been conducted on the protective effects of laminarin against ischemic injury induced by ischemic insults. In this study, we histopathologically investigated the neuroprotective effects of laminarin in the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) field of the hippocampus, which is very vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion injury, following transient forebrain ischemia (TFI) for five minutes in gerbils. The neuroprotective effect was examined by cresyl violet staining, Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining and immunohistochemistry for neuronal-specific nuclear protein. Additionally, to study gliosis (glial changes), we performed immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein to examine astrocytes, and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 to examine microglia. Furthermore, we examined alterations in pro-inflammatory M1 microglia by using double immunofluorescence. Pretreatment with 10 mg/kg laminarin failed to protect neurons in the hippocampal CA1 field and did not attenuate reactive gliosis in the field following TFI. In contrast, pretreatment with 50 or 100 mg/kg laminarin protected neurons, attenuated reactive gliosis and reduced pro-inflammatory M1 microglia in the CA1 field following TFI. Based on these results, we firmly propose that 50 mg/kg laminarin can be strategically applied to develop a preventative against injuries following cerebral ischemic insults. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

2019

Jump to: 2020, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010

Open AccessArticle
Fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida Ameliorates Epidermal Barrier Disruption via Keratinocyte Differentiation and CaSR Level Regulation
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(12), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17120660 - 24 Nov 2019
Abstract
The epidermal barrier acts as a line of defense against external agents as well as helps to maintain body homeostasis. The calcium concentration gradient across the epidermal barrier is closely related to the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes (KCs), and the regulation of [...] Read more.
The epidermal barrier acts as a line of defense against external agents as well as helps to maintain body homeostasis. The calcium concentration gradient across the epidermal barrier is closely related to the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes (KCs), and the regulation of these two processes is the key to the repair of epidermal barrier disruption. In the present study, we found that fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida (UPF) could promote the repair of epidermal barrier disruption in mice. The mechanistic study demonstrated that UPF could promote HaCaT cell differentiation under low calcium condition by up-regulating the expression of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which could then lead to the activation of the Catenin/PLCγ1 pathway. Further, UPF could increase the expression of CaSR through activate the ERK and p38 pathway. These findings reveal the molecular mechanism of UPF in the repair of the epidermal barrier and provide a basis for the development of UPF into an agent for the repair of epidermal barrier repair. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Carboxymethylation and Phosphorylation on the Properties of Polysaccharides from Sepia esculenta Ink: Antioxidation and Anticoagulation in Vitro
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(11), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110626 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
To investigate the effect of carboxymethylation and phosphorylation modification on Sepia esculenta ink polysaccharide (SIP) properties, this study prepared carboxymethyl SIP (CSIP) with the chloracetic acid method, and phosphorylated SIP (PSIP) with the sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP)/sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) method, on the basis of [...] Read more.
To investigate the effect of carboxymethylation and phosphorylation modification on Sepia esculenta ink polysaccharide (SIP) properties, this study prepared carboxymethyl SIP (CSIP) with the chloracetic acid method, and phosphorylated SIP (PSIP) with the sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP)/sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) method, on the basis of an orthogonal experiment. The in vitro antioxidant and anticoagulant activities of the derivatives were determined by assessing the scavenging capacity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals, which activated the partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). The results showed that SIP was modified successfully to be CSIP and PSIP, and degrees of substitution (DSs) of the two products were 0.9913 and 0.0828, respectively. Phosphorylation efficiently improved the antioxidant property of SIP, and the IC50 values of PSIP on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals decreased by 63.25% and 13.77%, respectively. But carboxymethylation reduced antioxidant activity of the native polysaccharide, IC50 values of CSIP on the DPPH and hydroxyl radicals increased by 16.74% and 6.89%, respectively. SIP significantly prolonged the APTT, PT, and TT in a dose-dependent fashion, suggesting that SIP played an anticoagulant action through intrinsic, extrinsic, and common coagulation pathways. CSIP and PSIP both possessed a stronger anticoagulant capacity than SIP via the same pathways; moreover, CSIP was observed to be more effective in prolonging APTT and PT than PSIP. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Aging Evaluation of Pigment–Protein Complex Extracted from Chlorella Pyrenoidosa
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(10), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17100586 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Oxidative stress contributes to chronic inflammatory processes implicated in aging, referred to as “inflamm-aging.” In this study, the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-aging effects of a pigment–protein complex (PPC) from Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress contributes to chronic inflammatory processes implicated in aging, referred to as “inflamm-aging.” In this study, the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-aging effects of a pigment–protein complex (PPC) from Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging in a murine model. Results indicated that PPC inhibits the production of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also protected mice from D-gal induced informatory aging by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), inhibiting D-gal-induced NF-κB upregulation, and increasing PPARs expression in the brain and gut. The findings indicated that PPC has favorable anti-inflammatory and anti-aging properties, and could be useful in the treatment of acute inflammation and senescence diseases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Efficiently Anti-Obesity Effects of Unsaturated Alginate Oligosaccharides (UAOS) in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Mice
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(9), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17090540 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Obesity and its related complications have become one of the leading problems affecting human health. However, current anti-obesity treatments are limited by high cost and numerous adverse effects. In this study, we investigated the use of a non-toxic green food additive, known as [...] Read more.
Obesity and its related complications have become one of the leading problems affecting human health. However, current anti-obesity treatments are limited by high cost and numerous adverse effects. In this study, we investigated the use of a non-toxic green food additive, known as unsaturated alginate oligosaccharides (UAOS) from the enzymatic degradation of Laminaria japonicais, which showed effective anti-obesity effects in a high-fat diet (HFD) mouse model. Compared with acid hydrolyzed saturated alginate oligosaccharides (SAOS), UAOS significantly reduced body weight, serum lipid, including triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and free fatty acids (FFA), liver weight, liver TG and TC, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, adipose mass, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and accumulation induced in HFD mice. Moreover, the structural differences in β-d-mannuronate (M) and its C5 epimer α-l-guluronate (G) did not cause significant functional differences. Meanwhile, UAOS significantly increased both AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation in adipocytes, which indicated that UAOS had an anti-obesity effect mainly through AMPK signaling. Our results indicate that UAOS has the potential for further development as an adjuvant treatment for many metabolic diseases such as fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, and possibly diabetes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
In-Depth Characterization of Bioactive Extracts from Posidonia oceanica Waste Biomass
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(7), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17070409 - 09 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Posidonia oceanica waste biomass has been valorised to produce extracts by means of different methodologies and their bioactive properties have been evaluated. Water-based extracts were produced using ultrasound-assisted and hot water methods and classified according to their ethanol-affinity (E1: ethanol soluble; E2: non-soluble). [...] Read more.
Posidonia oceanica waste biomass has been valorised to produce extracts by means of different methodologies and their bioactive properties have been evaluated. Water-based extracts were produced using ultrasound-assisted and hot water methods and classified according to their ethanol-affinity (E1: ethanol soluble; E2: non-soluble). Moreover, a conventional protocol with organic solvents was applied, yielding E3 extracts. Compositional and structural characterization confirmed that while E1 and E3 extracts were mainly composed of minerals and lipids, respectively, E2 extracts were a mixture of minerals, proteins and carbohydrates. All the extracts showed remarkably high antioxidant capacity, which was not only related to phenolic compounds but also to the presence of proteins and polysaccharides. All E2 and E3 extracts inhibited the growth of several foodborne fungi, while only E3 extracts decreased substantially the infectivity of feline calicivirus and murine norovirus. These results show the potential of P. oceanica waste biomass for the production of bioactive extracts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Different Antifungal Activity of Anabaena sp., Ecklonia sp., and Jania sp. against Botrytis cinerea
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050299 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Water extracts and polysaccharides from Anabaena sp., Ecklonia sp., and Jania sp. were tested for their activity against the fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Water extracts at 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/mL inhibited B. cinerea growth in vitro. Antifungal activity of polysaccharides [...] Read more.
Water extracts and polysaccharides from Anabaena sp., Ecklonia sp., and Jania sp. were tested for their activity against the fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Water extracts at 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/mL inhibited B. cinerea growth in vitro. Antifungal activity of polysaccharides obtained by N-cetylpyridinium bromide precipitation in water extracts was evaluated in vitro and in vitro at 0.5, 2.0, and 3.5 mg/mL. These concentrations were tested against fungal colony growth, spore germination, colony forming units (CFUs), CFU growth, and on strawberry fruits against B. cinerea infection with pre- and post-harvest application. In in vitro experiments, polysaccharides from Anabaena sp. and from Ecklonia sp. inhibited B. cinerea colony growth, CFUs, and CFU growth, while those extracted from Jania sp. reduced only the pathogen spore germination. In in vitro experiments, all concentrations of polysaccharides from Anabaena sp., Ecklonia sp., and Jania sp. reduced both the strawberry fruits infected area and the pathogen sporulation in the pre-harvest treatment, suggesting that they might be good candidates as preventive products in crop protection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Broad-Spectrum Anti-Adhesive Coating Based on an Extracellular Polymer from a Marine Cyanobacterium
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040243 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Medical device-associated infections are a major health threat, representing about half of all hospital-acquired infections. Current strategies to prevent this problem based on device coatings with antimicrobial compounds (antibiotics or antiseptics) have proven to be insufficient, often toxic, and even promoting bacterial resistance. [...] Read more.
Medical device-associated infections are a major health threat, representing about half of all hospital-acquired infections. Current strategies to prevent this problem based on device coatings with antimicrobial compounds (antibiotics or antiseptics) have proven to be insufficient, often toxic, and even promoting bacterial resistance. Herein, we report the development of an infection-preventive coating (CyanoCoating) produced with an extracellular polymer released by the marine cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. CCY 0110. CyanoCoating was prepared by spin-coating and its bacterial anti-adhesive efficiency was evaluated against relevant etiological agents (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and platelets, both in the presence or absence of human plasma proteins. CyanoCoating cytotoxicity was assessed using the L929 fibroblasts cell line. CyanoCoating exhibited a smooth topography, low thickness and high hydrophilic properties with mild negative charge. The non-cytotoxic CyanoCoating prevented adhesion of all the bacteria tested (≤80%) and platelets (<87%), without inducing platelet activation (even in the presence of plasma proteins). The significant reduction in protein adsorption (<77%) confirmed its anti-adhesive properties. The development of this anti-adhesive coating is an important step towards the establishment of a new technological platform capable of preventing medical device-associated infections, without inducing thrombus formation in blood-contacting applications. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Biological Activities of Fucoidan and the Factors Mediating Its Therapeutic Effects: A Review of Recent Studies
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17030183 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 41
Abstract
The marine acid polysaccharide fucoidan has attracted attention from both the food and pharmaceutical industries due to its promising therapeutic effects. Fucoidan is a polysaccharide that mainly consists of L-fucose and sulphate groups. Its excellent biological function is attributed to its unique biological [...] Read more.
The marine acid polysaccharide fucoidan has attracted attention from both the food and pharmaceutical industries due to its promising therapeutic effects. Fucoidan is a polysaccharide that mainly consists of L-fucose and sulphate groups. Its excellent biological function is attributed to its unique biological structure. Classical activities include antitumor, antioxidant, anticoagulant, antithrombotic, immunoregulatory, antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. More recently, fucoidan has been shown to alleviate metabolic syndrome, protect the gastrointestinal tract, benefit angiogenesis and bone health. This review focuses on the progress in our understanding of the biological activities of fucoidan, highlighting its benefits for the treatment of human disease. We hope that this review can provide some theoretical basis and inspiration for the product development of fucoidan. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Escherichia coli for Efficient Fermentation of L-Fucose
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17020082 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
L-Fucose, one of the major monomeric sugars in brown algae, possesses high potential for use in the large-scale production of bio-based products. Although fucose catabolic pathways have been enzymatically evaluated, the effects of fucose as a carbon source on intracellular metabolism in industrial [...] Read more.
L-Fucose, one of the major monomeric sugars in brown algae, possesses high potential for use in the large-scale production of bio-based products. Although fucose catabolic pathways have been enzymatically evaluated, the effects of fucose as a carbon source on intracellular metabolism in industrial microorganisms such as Escherichia coli are still not identified. To elucidate the effects of fucose on cellular metabolism and to find clues for efficient conversion of fucose into bio-based products, comparative metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses were performed on E. coli on L-fucose and on D-glucose as a control. When fucose was the carbon source for E. coli, integration of the two omics analyses revealed that excess gluconeogenesis and quorum sensing led to severe depletion of ATP, resulting in accumulation and export of fucose extracellularly. Therefore, metabolic engineering and optimization are needed for E. coil to more efficiently ferment fucose. This is the first multi-omics study investigating the effects of fucose on cellular metabolism in E. coli. These omics data and their biological interpretation could be used to assist metabolic engineering of E. coli producing bio-based products using fucose-containing brown macroalgae. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Activation of Human Dendritic Cells by Ascophyllan Purified from Ascophyllum nodosum
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010066 - 19 Jan 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
In our previous study, we showed that ascophyllan purified from Ascophyllum nodosum treatment promotes mouse dendritic cell (DC) activation in vivo, further induces an antigen-specific immune response and has anticancer effects in mice. However, the effect of ascophyllan has not been studied in [...] Read more.
In our previous study, we showed that ascophyllan purified from Ascophyllum nodosum treatment promotes mouse dendritic cell (DC) activation in vivo, further induces an antigen-specific immune response and has anticancer effects in mice. However, the effect of ascophyllan has not been studied in human immune cells, specifically in terms of activation of human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) and human peripheral blood DCs (PBDCs). We found that the treatment with ascophyllan induced morphological changes in MDDCs and upregulated co-stimulatory molecules and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) and MHC II expression. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in culture medium was also dramatically increased following ascophyllan treatment of MDDCs. Moreover, ascophyllan promoted phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK signaling pathways, and inhibition of p38 almost completely suppressed the ascophyllan-induced activation of MDDCs. Finally, treatment with ascophyllan induced activation of BDCA1 and BDCA3 PBDCs. Thus, these data suggest that ascophyllan could be used as an immune stimulator in humans. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Protective Effect of Low Molecular Weight Seleno-Aminopolysaccharide on the Intestinal Mucosal Oxidative Damage
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010064 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Low molecular weight seleno-aminopolysaccharide (LSA) is an organic selenium compound comprising selenium and low molecular weight aminopolysaccharide (LA), a low molecular weight natural linear polysaccharide derived from chitosan. LSA has been found to exert strong pharmacological activity. In this study, we aimed to [...] Read more.
Low molecular weight seleno-aminopolysaccharide (LSA) is an organic selenium compound comprising selenium and low molecular weight aminopolysaccharide (LA), a low molecular weight natural linear polysaccharide derived from chitosan. LSA has been found to exert strong pharmacological activity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of LSA on intestinal mucosal oxidative stress in a weaning piglet model by detecting the growth performance, intestinal mucosal structure, antioxidant indices, and expression level of intracellular transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its related factors. Our results indicated that LSA significantly increased the average daily gain and feed/gain (p < 0.05), suggesting that LSA can effectively promote the growth of weaning piglets. The results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) microscopy showed that LSA effectively reduced intestinal damage, indicating that LSA improved the intestinal stress response and protected the intestinal structure integrity. In addition, diamine oxidase (DAO) and d-lactic acid (d-LA) levels remarkably decreased in LSA group compared with control group (p < 0.05), suggesting that LSA alleviated the damage and permeability of weaning piglets. LSA significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels, but decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, indicating that LSA significantly enhanced the antioxidant capacity and reduced oxidative stress in weaning piglets. RT-PCR results showed that LSA significantly increased GSH-Px1, GSH-Px2, SOD-1, SOD-2, CAT, Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 gene expression (p < 0.05). Western blot analysis revealed that LSA activated the Nrf2 signaling pathway by downregulating the expression of Keap1 and upregulating the expression of Nrf2 to protect intestinal mucosa against oxidative stress. Collectively, LSA reduced intestinal mucosal damage induced by oxidative stress via Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in weaning stress of infants. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Pathway Analysis of Fucoidan Activity Using a Yeast Gene Deletion Library Screen
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010054 - 14 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Fucoidan, the sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharide derived from brown macroalgae, was reported to display some anti-cancer effects in in vitro and in vivo models that included apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The proposed mechanisms of action involve enhanced immune surveillance and direct pro-apoptotic effects [...] Read more.
Fucoidan, the sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharide derived from brown macroalgae, was reported to display some anti-cancer effects in in vitro and in vivo models that included apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The proposed mechanisms of action involve enhanced immune surveillance and direct pro-apoptotic effects via the activation of cell signaling pathways that remain largely uncharacterized. This study aimed to identify cellular pathways influenced by fucoidan using an unbiased genetic approach to generate additional insights into the anti-cancer effects of fucoidan. Drug–gene interactions of Undaria pinnatifida fucoidan were assessed by a systematic screen of the entire set of 4,733 halpoid Saccharomyces cerevsiae gene deletion strains. Some of the findings were confirmed using cell cycle analysis and DNA damage detection in non-immortalized human dermal fibroblasts and colon cancer cells. The yeast deletion library screen and subsequent pathway and interactome analysis identified global effects of fucoidan on a wide range of eukaryotic cellular processes, including RNA metabolism, protein synthesis, sorting, targeting and transport, carbohydrate metabolism, mitochondrial maintenance, cell cycle regulation, and DNA damage repair-related pathways. Fucoidan also reduced clonogenic survival, induced DNA damage and G1-arrest in colon cancer cells, while these effects were not observed in non-immortalized human fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate global effects of fucoidan in diverse cellular processes in eukaryotic cells and further our understanding about the inhibitory effect of Undaria pinnatifida fucoidan on the growth of human cancer cells. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Structure Analysis and Anti-Tumor and Anti-Angiogenic Activities of Sulfated Galactofucan Extracted from Sargassum thunbergii
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010052 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Sulfated galactofucan (ST-2) was obtained from Sargassum thunbergii. It was then desulfated to obtain ST-2-DS, and autohydrolyzed and precipitated by ethanol to obtain the supernatant (ST-2-S) and precipitate (ST-2-C). ST-2-C was further fractionated by gel chromatography into two fractions, ST-2-H (high molecular [...] Read more.
Sulfated galactofucan (ST-2) was obtained from Sargassum thunbergii. It was then desulfated to obtain ST-2-DS, and autohydrolyzed and precipitated by ethanol to obtain the supernatant (ST-2-S) and precipitate (ST-2-C). ST-2-C was further fractionated by gel chromatography into two fractions, ST-2-H (high molecular weight) and ST-2-L (low molecular weight). Mass spectrometry (MS) of ST-2-DS was performed to elucidate the backbone of ST-2. It was shown that ST-2-DS contained a backbone of alternating galactopyranose residues (Gal)n (n ≤ 3) and fucopyranose residues (Fuc)n. In addition, ST-2-S was also determined by MS to elucidate the branches of ST-2. It was suggested that sulfated fuco-oligomers might be the branches of ST-2. Compared to the NMR spectra of ST-2-H, the spectra of ST-2-L was more recognizable. It was shown that ST-2-L contain a backbone of (Gal)n and (Fuc)n, sulfated mainly at C4 of Fuc, and interspersed with galactose (the linkages were likely to be 1→2 and 1→6). Therefore, ST-2 might contain a backbone of (Gal)n (n ≤ 3) and (Fuc)n. The sulfation pattern was mainly at C4 of fucopyranose and partially at C4 of galactopyranose, and the branches were mainly sulfated fuco-oligomers. Finally, the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activities of ST-2 and its derivates were determined. It was shown that the low molecular-weight sulfated galactofucan, with higher fucose content, had better anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2018

Jump to: 2020, 2019, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010

Open AccessArticle
Isolation, Characterization, and Pharmaceutical Applications of an Exopolysaccharide from Aerococcus Uriaeequi
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(9), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16090337 - 16 Sep 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Many marine bacteria secrete exopolysaccharides (EPSs), which are made up of a substantial component of the macro-molecules surrounding cells. Recently, the wide demand for EPSs for food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and other applications has led to great interest in them. In this study, an [...] Read more.
Many marine bacteria secrete exopolysaccharides (EPSs), which are made up of a substantial component of the macro-molecules surrounding cells. Recently, the wide demand for EPSs for food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and other applications has led to great interest in them. In this study, an EPS produced by marine bacteria Aerococcus uriaeequi HZ strains (EPS-A) was isolated and purified to examine its structure and biological function. The molecular weight of EPS-A analyzed by high-performance liquid gel filtration chromatography (HPGFC) is found to have a number average of 2.22 × 105 and weight average of 2.84 × 105, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier-transform–infrared (FT–IR) analysis indicate that EPS-A was a polysaccharide composed of glucose and a little mannose. In addition, the flocculating rate of sewage of EPS-A was 79.90%. The hygroscopicity studies showed that hygroscopicity of EPS-A was higher than chitosan but lower than that of sodium hyaluronate. The moisture retention of EPS-A showed similar retention activity to both chitosan and sodium hyaluronate. EPS-A also can scavenge free radicals including both OH• free radical and O2 free radical and the activity to O2 free radical is similar to vitamin C. Safety assessment on mice indicated that the EPS-A is safe for external use and oral administration. EPS-A has great potential for applications in medicine due to its characteristics mentioned above. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Characterization of a Novel PolyM-Preferred Alginate Lyase from Marine Vibrio splendidus OU02
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(9), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16090295 - 22 Aug 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Alginate lyases are enzymes that degrade alginate into oligosaccharides which possess a variety of biological activities. Discovering and characterizing novel alginate lyases has great significance for industrial and medical applications. In this study, we reported a novel alginate lyase, AlyA-OU02, derived from the [...] Read more.
Alginate lyases are enzymes that degrade alginate into oligosaccharides which possess a variety of biological activities. Discovering and characterizing novel alginate lyases has great significance for industrial and medical applications. In this study, we reported a novel alginate lyase, AlyA-OU02, derived from the marine Vibrio splendidus OU02. The BLASTP searches showed that AlyA-OU02 belonged to polysaccharide lyase family 7 (PL7) and contained two consecutive PL7 domains, which was rare among the alginate lyases in PL7 family. Both the two domains, AlyAa and AlyAb, had lyase activities, while AlyAa exhibited polyM preference, and AlyAb was polyG-preferred. In addition, the enzyme activity of AlyAa was much higher than AlyAb at 25 °C. The full-length enzyme of AlyA-OU02 showed polyM preference, which was the same as AlyAa. AlyAa degraded alginate into di-, tri-, and tetra-alginate oligosaccharides, while AlyAb degraded alginate into tri-, tetra-, and penta-alginate oligosaccharides. The degraded products of AlyA-OU02 were similar to AlyAa. Our work provided a potential candidate in the application of alginate oligosaccharide production and the characterization of the two domains might provide insights into the use of alginate of this organism. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Extraction and Yield Optimisation of Fucose, Glucans and Associated Antioxidant Activities from Laminaria digitata by Applying Response Surface Methodology to High Intensity Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(8), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16080257 - 30 Jul 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to employ response surface methodology (RSM) to investigate and optimize the effect of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables, temperature, time and amplitude on the yields of polysaccharides (fucose and total glucans) and antioxidant activities (ferric reducing antioxidant power [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to employ response surface methodology (RSM) to investigate and optimize the effect of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables, temperature, time and amplitude on the yields of polysaccharides (fucose and total glucans) and antioxidant activities (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH)) from Laminaria digitata, and to explore the suitability of applying the optimum UAE conditions for L. digitata to other brown macroalgae (L. hyperborea and Ascophyllum nodosum). The RSM with three-factor, four-level Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to study and optimize the extraction variables. A second order polynomial model fitted well to the experimental data with R2 values of 0.79, 0.66, 0.64, 0.73 for fucose, total glucans, FRAP and DPPH, respectively. The UAE parameters studied had a significant influence on the levels of fucose, FRAP and DPPH. The optimised UAE conditions (temperature = 76 °C, time = 10 min and amplitude = 100%) achieved yields of fucose (1060.7 ± 70.6 mg/100 g dried seaweed (ds)), total glucans (968.6 ± 13.3 mg/100 g ds), FRAP (8.7 ± 0.5 µM trolox/mg freeze-dried extract (fde)) and DPPH (11.0 ± 0.2%) in L. digitata. Polysaccharide rich extracts were also attained from L. hyperborea and A. nodosum with variable results when utilizing the optimum UAE conditions for L. digitata. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Glycosaminoglycans from a Sea Snake (Lapemis curtus): Extraction, Structural Characterization and Antioxidant Activity
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16050170 - 18 May 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Sea snakes have wide application prospects in medicine, health food and other fields. Several novel polysaccharides were successfully obtained from the skin and the meat of a sea snake (Lapemis curtus). The structures of polysaccharides LSP3 and LMP3, which were extracted [...] Read more.
Sea snakes have wide application prospects in medicine, health food and other fields. Several novel polysaccharides were successfully obtained from the skin and the meat of a sea snake (Lapemis curtus). The structures of polysaccharides LSP3 and LMP3, which were extracted and purified from Lapemis curtus, were determined to be new and highly heterogenic glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) by means of FT-IR, ESI-MS/MS and NMR. LSP3 is a hybrid dermatan sulfate (DS) and composed of 48% 4-sulfated disaccharides (Di4S), 42% 6-sulfated disaccharides (Di6S) and 5% disulfated disaccharides (Di2,6S), while LMP3 is a hybrid chondroitin sulfate (CS) and composed of 70% Di4S, 20% Di6S, and 8% Di2,6S. More importantly, LSP3 and LMP3 showed a strong scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, iron (Fe2+) chelating activity and total antioxidant capacity in vitro, especially LSP3, with high contents of uronic acid and sulfate, which possessed a higher scavenging ability of DPPH radicals than other fractions. These data suggested that the sea snake polysaccharides could be promising candidates for natural antioxidant ingredients. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Dietary Polysaccharide from Enteromorpha Clathrata Modulates Gut Microbiota and Promotes the Growth of Akkermansia muciniphila, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16050167 - 17 May 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that Enteromorpha clathrata polysaccharide (ECP) could contribute to the treatment of diseases. However, as a promising candidate for marine drug development, although ECP has been extensively studied, less consideration has been given to exploring its effect on gut [...] Read more.
Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that Enteromorpha clathrata polysaccharide (ECP) could contribute to the treatment of diseases. However, as a promising candidate for marine drug development, although ECP has been extensively studied, less consideration has been given to exploring its effect on gut microbiota. In this light, given the critical role of gut microbiota in health and disease, we investigated here the effect of ECP on gut microbiota using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. As revealed by bioinformatic analyses, ECP considerably changed the structure of the gut microbiota and significantly promoted the growth of probiotic bacteria in C57BL/6J mice. However, interestingly, ECP exerted different effects on male and female microbiota. In females, ECP increased the abundances of Bifidobacterium spp. and Akkermansia muciniphila, a next-generation probiotic bacterium, whereas in males, ECP increased the population of Lactobacillus spp. Moreover, by shaping a more balanced structure of the microbiota, ECP remarkably reduced the antigen load from the gut in females. Altogether, our study demonstrates for the first time a prebiotic effect of ECP on gut microbiota and forms the basis for the development of ECP as a novel gut microbiota modulator for health promotion and disease management. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2017

Jump to: 2020, 2019, 2018, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010

Open AccessArticle
The Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Structure of EPCP1-2 from Crypthecodinium cohnii via Modulation of TLR4-NF-κB Pathways in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Cells
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(12), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15120376 - 01 Dec 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Exopolysaccharide from Crypthecodinium cohnii (EPCP1-2) is a marine exopolysaccharide that evidences a variety of biological activities. We isolated a neutral polysaccharide from the fermentation liquid of Crypthecodinium cohnii (CP). In this study, a polysaccharide that is derived from Crypthecodinium cohnii were analyzed and [...] Read more.
Exopolysaccharide from Crypthecodinium cohnii (EPCP1-2) is a marine exopolysaccharide that evidences a variety of biological activities. We isolated a neutral polysaccharide from the fermentation liquid of Crypthecodinium cohnii (CP). In this study, a polysaccharide that is derived from Crypthecodinium cohnii were analyzed and its anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated on protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 and nuclear factor κB pathways in macrophages. The structural characteristics of EPCP1-2 were characterized by GC (gas chromatography) and GC-MS (gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer) analyses. The molecular weight was about 82.5 kDa. The main chain of EPCP1-2 consisted of (1→6)-linked mannopyranosyl, (1→6)-linked glucopyranosyl, branched-chain consisted of (1→3,6)-linked galactopyranosyl and terminal consisted of t-l-Rhapyranosyl. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was representated through assay of proliferation rate, pro-inflammatory factor (NO) and expressions of proteins on RAW 264.7, the macrophage cell line. The results revealed that EPCP1-2 exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity by regulating the expression of toll-like receptor 4, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Nuclear Factor-κB protein. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Degradation of Polysaccharides from Grateloupia filicina and Their Antiviral Activity to Avian Leucosis Virus Subgroup J
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(11), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15110345 - 03 Nov 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
In this study, polysaccharides from Grateloupia filicinia (GFP) were extracted and several low molecular weight (Mw) G. filicina polysaccharides (LGFPs) were prepared by the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation method. Additionally, the effect of different experimental conditions on the degradation [...] Read more.
In this study, polysaccharides from Grateloupia filicinia (GFP) were extracted and several low molecular weight (Mw) G. filicina polysaccharides (LGFPs) were prepared by the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation method. Additionally, the effect of different experimental conditions on the degradation of GFP was determined. Results showed that the GFP degradation rate was positively related to H2O2 concentration and temperature, and negatively related to pH. Chemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) of GFP and LGFPs showed that the degradation caused a slight decrease of total sugar and sulfate content. However, there was no obvious change for monosaccharide contents. Then, the anti-ALV-J activity of GFP and LGFPs were determined in vitro. Results revealed that all of the samples could significantly inhibit ALV-J and lower Mw LGFPs exhibited a stronger suppression, and that the fraction LGFP-3 with Mw 8.7 kDa had the best effect. In addition, the reaction phase assays showed that the inhibition effect was mainly because of the blocking virus adsorption to host cells. Moreover, real-time PCR, western-blot, and IFA were further applied to evaluate the blocking effects of LGFP-3. Results showed that the gene relative expression and gp85 protein for LGFPS-3 groups were all reduced. Data from IFA showed that there was less virus infected cells for 1000 and 200 μg/mL LGFPS-3 groups when compared to virus control. Therefore, lower Mw polysaccharides from G. filicina might supply a good choice for ALV-J prevention and treatment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Identification of a SIRT6 Activator from Brown Algae Fucus distichus
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(6), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15060190 - 21 Jun 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
Brown seaweeds contain many bioactive compounds, including polyphenols, polysaccharides, fucosterol, and fucoxantin. These compounds have several biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic activity, although in most cases their mechanisms of action are not understood. In this study, extracts generated from [...] Read more.
Brown seaweeds contain many bioactive compounds, including polyphenols, polysaccharides, fucosterol, and fucoxantin. These compounds have several biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic activity, although in most cases their mechanisms of action are not understood. In this study, extracts generated from five brown algae (Fucus dichitus, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus), Cytoseira tamariscofolia, Cytoseira nodacaulis, Alaria esculenta) were tested for their ability to activate SIRT6 resulting in H3K9 deacetylation. Three of the five macroalgal extracts caused a significant increase of H3K9 deacetylation, and the effect was most pronounced for F. dichitus. The compound responsible for this in vitro activity was identified by mass spectrometry as fucoidan. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Preparation, Characterization and Properties of Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic acid) Composite Microparticles
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15040091 - 11 Apr 2017
Cited by 21
Abstract
Alginate (Alg) is a renewable polymer with excellent hemostatic properties and biocapability and is widely used for hemostatic wound dressing. However, the swelling properties of alginate-based wound dressings need to be promoted to meet the requirements of wider application. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) [...] Read more.
Alginate (Alg) is a renewable polymer with excellent hemostatic properties and biocapability and is widely used for hemostatic wound dressing. However, the swelling properties of alginate-based wound dressings need to be promoted to meet the requirements of wider application. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) is a natural polymer with high hydrophility. In the current study, novel Alg/PGA composite microparticles with double network structure were prepared by the emulsification/internal gelation method. It was found from the structure characterization that a double network structure was formed in the composite microparticles due to the ion chelation interaction between Ca2+ and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA and the electrostatic interaction between the secondary amine group of PGA and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA. The swelling behavior of the composite microparticles was significantly improved due to the high hydrophility of PGA. Influences of the preparing conditions on the swelling behavior of the composites were investigated. The porous microparticles could be formed while compositing of PGA. Thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis method. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility test of microparticles exhibited good biocompatibility with L929 cells. All results indicated that such Alg/PGA composite microparticles are a promising candidate in the field of wound dressing for hemostasis or rapid removal of exudates. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Degradation of Marine Algae-Derived Carbohydrates by Bacteroidetes Isolated from Human Gut Microbiota
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15040092 - 24 Mar 2017
Cited by 21
Abstract
Carrageenan, agarose, and alginate are algae-derived undigested polysaccharides that have been used as food additives for hundreds of years. Fermentation of dietary carbohydrates of our food in the lower gut of humans is a critical process for the function and integrity of both [...] Read more.
Carrageenan, agarose, and alginate are algae-derived undigested polysaccharides that have been used as food additives for hundreds of years. Fermentation of dietary carbohydrates of our food in the lower gut of humans is a critical process for the function and integrity of both the bacterial community and host cells. However, little is known about the fermentation of these three kinds of seaweed carbohydrates by human gut microbiota. Here, the degradation characteristics of carrageenan, agarose, alginate, and their oligosaccharides, by Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Bacteroides ovatus, and Bacteroides uniforms, isolated from human gut microbiota, are studied. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Immunomodulatory and Anti-IBDV Activities of the Polysaccharide AEX from Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15020036 - 10 Feb 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
A number of polysaccharides have been reported to show immunomodulatory and antiviral activities against various animal viruses. AEX is a polysaccharide extracted from the green algae, Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis. The aim of this study was to examine the function of AEX in regulating [...] Read more.
A number of polysaccharides have been reported to show immunomodulatory and antiviral activities against various animal viruses. AEX is a polysaccharide extracted from the green algae, Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis. The aim of this study was to examine the function of AEX in regulating the immune response in chickens and its capacity to inhibit the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), to gain an understanding of its immunomodulatory and antiviral ability. Here, preliminary immunological tests in vitro showed that the polysaccharide AEX can activate the chicken peripheral blood molecular cells’ (PBMCs) response by inducing the production of cytokines and NO, promote extracellular antigen presentation but negatively regulate intracellular antigen presentation in chicken splenic lymphocytes, and promote the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and DT40 cells. An antiviral analysis showed that AEX repressed IBDV replication by the deactivation of viral particles or by interfering with adsorption in vitro and reduced the IBDV viral titer in the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Finally, in this study, when AEX was used as an adjuvant for the IBDV vaccine, specific anti-IBDV antibody (IgY, IgM, and IgA) titers were significantly decreased. These results indicate that the polysaccharide AEX may be a potential alternative approach for anti-IBDV therapy and an immunomodulator for the poultry industry. However, more experimentation is needed to find suitable conditions for it to be used as an adjuvant for the IBDV vaccine. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2016

Jump to: 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010

Open AccessArticle
Purification and Characterization of a New Alginate Lyase from Marine Bacterium Vibrio sp. SY08
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15010001 - 23 Dec 2016
Cited by 33
Abstract
Unsaturated alginate disaccharides (UADs), enzymatically derived from the degradation of alginate polymers, are considered powerful antioxidants. In this study, a new high UAD-producing alginate lyase, AlySY08, has been purified from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. SY08. AlySY08, with a molecular weight of about [...] Read more.
Unsaturated alginate disaccharides (UADs), enzymatically derived from the degradation of alginate polymers, are considered powerful antioxidants. In this study, a new high UAD-producing alginate lyase, AlySY08, has been purified from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. SY08. AlySY08, with a molecular weight of about 33 kDa and a specific activity of 1070.2 U/mg, showed the highest activity at 40 °C in phosphate buffer at pH 7.6. The enzyme was stable over a broad pH range (6.0–9.0) and retained about 75% activity after incubation at 40 °C for 2 h. Moreover, the enzyme was active in the absence of salt ions and its activity was enhanced by the addition of NaCl and KCl. AlySY08 resulted in an endo-type alginate lyase that degrades both polyM and polyG blocks, yielding UADs as the main product (81.4% of total products). All these features made AlySY08 a promising candidate for industrial applications in the production of antioxidants from alginate polysaccharides. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identification of a Pro-Angiogenic Potential and Cellular Uptake Mechanism of a LMW Highly Sulfated Fraction of Fucoidan from Ascophyllum nodosum
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(10), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/md14100185 - 17 Oct 2016
Cited by 16
Abstract
Herein we investigate the structure/function relationships of fucoidans from Ascophyllum nodosum to analyze their pro-angiogenic effect and cellular uptake in native and glycosaminoglycan-free (GAG-free) human endothelial cells (HUVECs). Fucoidans are marine sulfated polysaccharides, which act as glycosaminoglycans mimetics. We hypothesized that the size [...] Read more.
Herein we investigate the structure/function relationships of fucoidans from Ascophyllum nodosum to analyze their pro-angiogenic effect and cellular uptake in native and glycosaminoglycan-free (GAG-free) human endothelial cells (HUVECs). Fucoidans are marine sulfated polysaccharides, which act as glycosaminoglycans mimetics. We hypothesized that the size and sulfation rate of fucoidans influence their ability to induce pro-angiogenic processes independently of GAGs. We collected two fractions of fucoidans, Low and Medium Molecular Weight Fucoidan (LMWF and MMWF, respectively) by size exclusion chromatography and characterized their composition (sulfate, fucose and uronic acid) by colorimetric measurement and Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. The high affinities of fractionated fucoidans to heparin binding proteins were confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance. We evidenced that LMWF has a higher pro-angiogenic (2D-angiogenesis on Matrigel) and pro-migratory (Boyden chamber) potential on HUVECs, compared to MMWF. Interestingly, in a GAG-free HUVECs model, LMWF kept a pro-angiogenic potential. Finally, to evaluate the association of LMWF-induced biological effects and its cellular uptake, we analyzed by confocal microscopy the GAGs involvement in the internalization of a fluorescent LMWF. The fluorescent LMWF was mainly internalized through HUVEC clathrin-dependent endocytosis in which GAGs were partially involved. In conclusion, a better characterization of the relationships between the fucoidan structure and its pro-angiogenic potential in GAG-free endothelial cells was required to identify an adapted fucoidan to enhance vascular repair in ischemia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Molecular Weight-Dependent Immunostimulative Activity of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan via Regulating NF-κB and AP-1 Signaling Pathways in RAW264.7 Macrophages
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(9), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/md14090169 - 20 Sep 2016
Cited by 14
Abstract
Chitosan and its derivatives such as low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs) have been found to possess many important biological properties, such as antioxidant and antitumor effects. In our previous study, LMWCs were found to elicit a strong immunomodulatory response in macrophages dependent on [...] Read more.
Chitosan and its derivatives such as low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs) have been found to possess many important biological properties, such as antioxidant and antitumor effects. In our previous study, LMWCs were found to elicit a strong immunomodulatory response in macrophages dependent on molecular weight. Herein we further investigated the molecular weight-dependent immunostimulative activity of LMWCs and elucidated its mechanism of action on RAW264.7 macrophages. LMWCs (3 kDa and 50 kDa of molecular weight) could significantly enhance the mRNA expression levels of COX-2, IL-10 and MCP-1 in a molecular weight and concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that LMWCs elicited a significant immunomodulatory response, which was dependent on the dose and the molecular weight. Regarding the possible molecular mechanism of action, LMWCs promoted the expression of the genes of key molecules in NF-κB and AP-1 pathways, including IKKβ, TRAF6 and JNK1, and induced the phosphorylation of protein IKBα in RAW264.7 macrophage. Moreover, LMWCs increased nuclear translocation of p65 and activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1, C-Jun and C-Fos) in a molecular weight-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings suggested that LMWCs exert immunostimulative activity via activation of NF-κB and AP-1 pathways in RAW264.7 macrophages in a molecular weight-dependent manner and that 3 kDa LMWC shows great potential as a novel agent for the treatment of immune suppression diseases and in future vaccines. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Fucoidans in Nanomedicine
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(8), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/md14080145 - 29 Jul 2016
Cited by 35
Abstract
Fucoidans are widespread cost-effective sulfated marine polysaccharides which have raised interest in the scientific community over last decades for their wide spectrum of bioactivities. Unsurprisingly, nanomedicine has grasped these compounds to develop innovative therapeutic and diagnostic nanosystems. The applications of fucoidans in nanomedicine [...] Read more.
Fucoidans are widespread cost-effective sulfated marine polysaccharides which have raised interest in the scientific community over last decades for their wide spectrum of bioactivities. Unsurprisingly, nanomedicine has grasped these compounds to develop innovative therapeutic and diagnostic nanosystems. The applications of fucoidans in nanomedicine as imaging agents, drug carriers or for their intrinsic properties are reviewed here after a short presentation of the main structural data and biological properties of fucoidans. The origin and the physicochemical specifications of fucoidans are summarized in order to discuss the strategy of fucoidan-containing nanosystems in Human health. Currently, there is a need for reproducible, well characterized fucoidan fractions to ensure significant progress. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Electrospinning of Nanodiamond-Modified Polysaccharide Nanofibers with Physico-Mechanical Properties Close to Natural Skins
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(7), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/md14070128 - 07 Jul 2016
Cited by 22
Abstract
Electrospinning of biopolymers has gained significant interest for the fabrication of fibrous mats for potential applications in tissue engineering, particularly for wound dressing and skin regeneration. In this study, for the first time, we report successful electrospinning of chitosan-based biopolymers containing bacterial cellulous [...] Read more.
Electrospinning of biopolymers has gained significant interest for the fabrication of fibrous mats for potential applications in tissue engineering, particularly for wound dressing and skin regeneration. In this study, for the first time, we report successful electrospinning of chitosan-based biopolymers containing bacterial cellulous (33 wt %) and medical grade nanodiamonds (MND) (3 nm; up to 3 wt %). Morphological studies by scanning electron microscopy showed that long and uniform fibers with controllable diameters from 80 to 170 nm were prepared. Introducing diamond nanoparticles facilitated the electrospinning process with a decrease in the size of fibers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy determined hydrogen bonding between the polymeric matrix and functional groups of MND. It was also found that beyond 1 wt % MND, percolation networks of nanoparticles were formed which affected the properties of the nanofibrous mats. Uniaxial tensile testing of the woven mats determined significant enhancement of the strength (from 13 MPa to 25 MP) by dispersion of 1 wt % MND. The hydrophilicity of the mats was also remarkably improved, which was favorable for cell attachment. The water vapor permeability was tailorable in the range of 342 to 423 µg·Pa−1·s−1·m−1. The nanodiamond-modified mats are potentially suitable for wound healing applications. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Anticancer Effect of Fucoidan on DU-145 Prostate Cancer Cells through Inhibition of PI3K/Akt and MAPK Pathway Expression
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(7), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/md14070126 - 07 Jul 2016
Cited by 29
Abstract
In this study, we showed that PI3K/Akt signaling mediates fucoidan’s anticancer effects on prostate cancer cells, including suppression of proliferation. Fucoidan significantly decreased viability of DU-145 cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner as shown by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The drug also significantly [...] Read more.
In this study, we showed that PI3K/Akt signaling mediates fucoidan’s anticancer effects on prostate cancer cells, including suppression of proliferation. Fucoidan significantly decreased viability of DU-145 cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner as shown by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The drug also significantly increased chromatin condensation, which indicates apoptosis, in a concentration-dependent manner as shown by DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining. Fucoidan increased expression of Bax, cleaved poly-ADP ribose polymerase and cleaved caspase-9, and decreased of the Bcl-2, p-Akt, p-PI3K, p-P38, and p-ERK in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, fucoidan (at 5 and 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased tumor volume, and increased apoptosis as assessed by the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay, confirming the tumor inhibitory effect. The drug also increased expression of p-Akt and p-ERK as shown by immunohistochemistry staining. Therefore, fucoidan may be a promising cancer preventive medicine due to its growth inhibitory effects and induction of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Toxicological Evaluation of Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan in Vitro and in Vivo
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(7), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/md14070121 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 25
Abstract
For a long time, fucoidan has been well known for its pharmacological activities, and recently low molecular weight fucoidan (LMF) has been used in food supplements and pharmaceutical products. In the present study, LMF was extracted from Laminaria japonica by enzyme hydrolysis. The [...] Read more.
For a long time, fucoidan has been well known for its pharmacological activities, and recently low molecular weight fucoidan (LMF) has been used in food supplements and pharmaceutical products. In the present study, LMF was extracted from Laminaria japonica by enzyme hydrolysis. The toxicity of LMF in mouse and rat models was determined by many methods, such as total arsenic content, bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosome aberration assay, and in vivo micronucleus assay. The present findings showed that LMF at 5000 μg/mL exhibited no mutagenicity. It also produced no formatting disruption of red blood cells in vivo. At 2000 mg/kg BW/day there were no toxicological indications. LMF is expected to be used as a safe food supplement. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Experimental Parameters on Alginate/Chitosan Microparticles for BCG Encapsulation
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(5), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/md14050090 - 11 May 2016
Cited by 32
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to develop novel Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-loaded polymeric microparticles with optimized particle surface characteristics and biocompatibility, so that whole live attenuated bacteria could be further used for pre-exposure vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the intranasal [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to develop novel Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-loaded polymeric microparticles with optimized particle surface characteristics and biocompatibility, so that whole live attenuated bacteria could be further used for pre-exposure vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the intranasal route. BCG was encapsulated in chitosan and alginate microparticles through three different polyionic complexation methods by high speed stirring. For comparison purposes, similar formulations were prepared with high shear homogenization and sonication. Additional optimization studies were conducted with polymers of different quality specifications in a wide range of pH values, and with three different cryoprotectors. Particle morphology, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, surface charge, physicochemical properties and biocompatibility were assessed. Particles exhibited a micrometer size and a spherical morphology. Chitosan addition to BCG shifted the bacilli surface charge from negative zeta potential values to strongly positive ones. Chitosan of low molecular weight produced particle suspensions of lower size distribution and higher stability, allowing efficient BCG encapsulation and biocompatibility. Particle formulation consistency was improved when the availability of functional groups from alginate and chitosan was close to stoichiometric proportion. Thus, the herein described microparticulate system constitutes a promising strategy to deliver BCG vaccine by the intranasal route. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/md14020034 - 05 Feb 2016
Cited by 81
Abstract
Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and [...] Read more.
Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Fucoidan as a Potential Therapeutic for Major Blinding Diseases—A Hypothesis
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/md14020031 - 03 Feb 2016
Cited by 18
Abstract
Fucoidan is a heterogeneous group of sulfated polysaccharide with a high content of l-fucose, which can be extracted from brown algae and marine invertebrates. It has many beneficial biological activities that make fucoidan an interesting candidate for therapeutic application in a variety [...] Read more.
Fucoidan is a heterogeneous group of sulfated polysaccharide with a high content of l-fucose, which can be extracted from brown algae and marine invertebrates. It has many beneficial biological activities that make fucoidan an interesting candidate for therapeutic application in a variety of diseases. Age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy are major causes for vision loss and blindness in the industrialized countries and increasingly in the developing world. Some of the characteristics found in certain fucoidans, such as its anti-oxidant activity, complement inhibition or interaction with the Vascular Endothelial Growth factor, which would be of high interest for a potential application of fucoidan in age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. However, the possible usage of fucoidan in ophthalmological diseases has received little attention so far. In this review, biological activities of fucoidan that could be of interest regarding these diseases will be discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2015

Jump to: 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010

Open AccessArticle
Structural and Immunological Activity Characterization of a Polysaccharide Isolated from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/md14010006 - 29 Dec 2015
Cited by 8
Abstract
Polysaccharides from marine clams perform various biological activities, whereas information on structure is scarce. Here, a water-soluble polysaccharide MMPX-B2 was isolated from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus. The proposed structure was deduced through characterization and its immunological activity was investigated. MMPX-B2 consisted of d-glucose [...] Read more.
Polysaccharides from marine clams perform various biological activities, whereas information on structure is scarce. Here, a water-soluble polysaccharide MMPX-B2 was isolated from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus. The proposed structure was deduced through characterization and its immunological activity was investigated. MMPX-B2 consisted of d-glucose and d-galctose residues at a molar ratio of 3.51:1.00. The average molecular weight of MMPX-B2 was 510 kDa. This polysaccharide possessed a main chain of (1→4)-linked-α-d-glucopyranosyl residues, partially substituted at the C-6 position by a few terminal β-d-galactose residues or branched chains consisting of (1→3)-linked β-d-galactose residues. Preliminary immunological tests in vitro showed that MMPX-B2 could stimulate the murine macrophages to release various cytokines, and the structure-activity relationship was then established. The present study demonstrated the potential immunological activity of MMPX-B2, and provided references for studying the active ingredients in M. meretrix. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/md14010004 - 29 Dec 2015
Cited by 30
Abstract
Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, [...] Read more.
Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Heparanase and Syndecan-4 Are Involved in Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan-Induced Angiogenesis
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(11), 6588-6608; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13116588 - 28 Oct 2015
Cited by 6
Abstract
Induction of angiogenesis is a potential treatment for chronic ischemia. Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF), the sulfated polysaccharide from brown seaweeds, has been shown to promote revascularization in a rat limb ischemia, increasing angiogenesis in vivo. We investigated the potential role of [...] Read more.
Induction of angiogenesis is a potential treatment for chronic ischemia. Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF), the sulfated polysaccharide from brown seaweeds, has been shown to promote revascularization in a rat limb ischemia, increasing angiogenesis in vivo. We investigated the potential role of two heparan sulfate (HS) metabolism enzymes, exostosin-2 (EXT2) and heparanase (HPSE), and of two HS-membrane proteoglycans, syndecan-1 and -4 (SDC-1 and SDC-4), in LMWF induced angiogenesis. Our results showed that LMWF increases human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and angiogenesis in vitro. We report that the expression and activity of the HS-degrading HPSE was increased after LMWF treatment. The phenotypic tests of LMWF-treated and EXT2- or HPSE-siRNA-transfected cells indicated that EXT2 or HPSE expression significantly affect the proangiogenic potential of LMWF. In addition, LMWF increased SDC-1, but decreased SDC-4 expressions. The effect of LMWF depends on SDC-4 expression. Silencing EXT2 or HPSE leads to an increased expression of SDC-4, providing the evidence that EXT2 and HPSE regulate the SDC-4 expression. Altogether, these data indicate that EXT2, HPSE, and SDC-4 are involved in the proangiogenic effects of LMWF, suggesting that the HS metabolism changes linked to LMWF-induced angiogenesis offer the opportunity for new therapeutic strategies of ischemic diseases. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(10), 6425-6439; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13106425 - 20 Oct 2015
Cited by 7
Abstract
Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts [...] Read more.
Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Immunostimulative Activity of Low Molecular Weight Chitosans in RAW264.7 Macrophages
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(10), 6210-6225; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13106210 - 30 Sep 2015
Cited by 24
Abstract
Chitosan and its derivatives such as low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs) have been reported to exert many biological activities, such as antioxidant and antitumor effects. However, complex and molecular weight dependent effects of chitosan remain controversial and the mechanisms that mediate these complex [...] Read more.
Chitosan and its derivatives such as low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs) have been reported to exert many biological activities, such as antioxidant and antitumor effects. However, complex and molecular weight dependent effects of chitosan remain controversial and the mechanisms that mediate these complex effects are still poorly defined. This study was carried out to investigate the immunostimulative effect of different molecular weight chitosan in RAW264.7 macrophages. Our data suggested that two LMWCs (molecular weight of 3 kDa and 50 kDa) both possessed immunostimulative activity, which was dependent on dose and, at the higher doses, also on the molecular weight. LMWCs could significantly enhance the the pinocytic activity, and induce the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a molecular weight and concentration-dependent manner. LMWCs were further showed to promote the expression of the genes including iNOS, TNF-α. Taken together, our findings suggested that LMWCs elicited significantly immunomodulatory response through up-regulating mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and activated RAW264.7 macrophage in a molecular weight- and concentration-dependent manner. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Alginate-Derived Oligosaccharide Inhibits Neuroinflammation and Promotes Microglial Phagocytosis of β-Amyloid
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5828-5846; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13095828 - 16 Sep 2015
Cited by 24
Abstract
Alginate from marine brown algae has been widely applied in biotechnology. In this work, the effects of alginate-derived oligosaccharide (AdO) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation and microglial phagocytosis of Aβ were studied. We found that pretreatment of BV2 microglia with AdO prior to [...] Read more.
Alginate from marine brown algae has been widely applied in biotechnology. In this work, the effects of alginate-derived oligosaccharide (AdO) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation and microglial phagocytosis of Aβ were studied. We found that pretreatment of BV2 microglia with AdO prior to LPS/Aβ stimulation led to a significant inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. We further demonstrated that AdO remarkably attenuated the LPS-activated overexpression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB in BV2 cells. In addition to the impressive inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation, we also found that AdO promoted the phagocytosis of Aβ through its interaction with TLR4 in microglia. Our results suggested that AdO exerted the inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation and the promotion effect on microglial phagocytosis, indicating its potential as a nutraceutical or therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Mucus of Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Cnidaria): An Unexplored Resource for Potential Applicative Purposes
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 5276-5296; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13085276 - 19 Aug 2015
Cited by 23
Abstract
The mucus produced by many marine organisms is a complex mixture of proteins and polysaccharides forming a weak watery gel. It is essential for vital processes including locomotion, navigation, structural support, heterotrophic feeding and defence against a multitude of environmental stresses, predators, parasites, [...] Read more.
The mucus produced by many marine organisms is a complex mixture of proteins and polysaccharides forming a weak watery gel. It is essential for vital processes including locomotion, navigation, structural support, heterotrophic feeding and defence against a multitude of environmental stresses, predators, parasites, and pathogens. In the present study we focused on mucus produced by a benthic cnidarian, the sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758) for preventing burial by excess sedimentation and for protection. We investigated some of the physico-chemical properties of this matrix such as viscosity, osmolarity, electrical conductivity, protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents. Some biological activities such as hemolytic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial lysozyme-like activities were also studied. The A. equina mucus is mainly composed by water (96.2% ± 0.3%), whereas its dry weight is made of 24.2% ± 1.3% proteins and 7.8% ± 0.2% carbohydrates, with the smallest and largest components referable to lipids (0.9%) and inorganic matter (67.1%). The A. equina mucus matrix exhibited hemolytic activity on rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell line K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia) and antibacterial lysozyme-like activity. The findings from this study improve the available information on the mucus composition in invertebrates and have implications for future investigations related to exploitation of A. equina and other sea anemones’ mucus as a source of bioactive compounds of high pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Chitosan: An Update on Potential Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 5156-5186; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13085156 - 14 Aug 2015
Cited by 336
Abstract
Chitosan is a natural polycationic linear polysaccharide derived from chitin. The low solubility of chitosan in neutral and alkaline solution limits its application. Nevertheless, chemical modification into composites or hydrogels brings to it new functional properties for different applications. Chitosans are recognized as [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a natural polycationic linear polysaccharide derived from chitin. The low solubility of chitosan in neutral and alkaline solution limits its application. Nevertheless, chemical modification into composites or hydrogels brings to it new functional properties for different applications. Chitosans are recognized as versatile biomaterials because of their non-toxicity, low allergenicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. This review presents the recent research, trends and prospects in chitosan. Some special pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are also highlighted. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Laminarin from Irish Brown Seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and Laminaria hyperborea: Ultrasound Assisted Extraction, Characterization and Bioactivity
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(7), 4270-4280; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13074270 - 10 Jul 2015
Cited by 68
Abstract
Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), purification, characterization and antioxidant activity of laminarin from Irish brown seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and Laminarina hyperborea were investigated. UAE was carried out using 60% ultrasonic power amplitude and 0.1 M hydrochloric acid for 15 min. Separately, solid-liquid extraction was [...] Read more.
Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), purification, characterization and antioxidant activity of laminarin from Irish brown seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and Laminarina hyperborea were investigated. UAE was carried out using 60% ultrasonic power amplitude and 0.1 M hydrochloric acid for 15 min. Separately, solid-liquid extraction was carried in an orbital shaker using 0.1 M hydrochloric acid at 70 °C for 2.5 h. UAE with hydrochloric acid resulted in the highest concentration of laminarin, 5.82% and 6.24% on dry weight basis from A. nodosum and L. hyperborea, respectively. Purification of all extracts was carried out using molecular weight cut off dialysis at 10 kDa. Characterization of the laminarin fraction was carried out using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity of A. nodosum and L. hyperborea extracts had 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition levels of 93.23% and 87.57%, respectively. Moreover, these extracts have shown inihibition of bacterial growth of Staphylcoccus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fucoidan Stimulates Monocyte Migration via ERK/p38 Signaling Pathways and MMP9 Secretion
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(7), 4156-4170; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13074156 - 30 Jun 2015
Cited by 9
Abstract
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) induces the secretion of paracrine signals, leading to monocyte recruitment and thereby contributing to the initiation of angiogenesis and tissue healing. We have previously demonstrated that fucoidan, an antithrombotic polysaccharide, promotes the formation of new blood vessels in a [...] Read more.
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) induces the secretion of paracrine signals, leading to monocyte recruitment and thereby contributing to the initiation of angiogenesis and tissue healing. We have previously demonstrated that fucoidan, an antithrombotic polysaccharide, promotes the formation of new blood vessels in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. We examined the effect of fucoidan on the capacity of peripheral blood monocytes to adhere and migrate. Monocytes negatively isolated with magnetic beads from peripheral blood of healthy donors were treated with fucoidan. Fucoidan induced a 1.5-fold increase in monocyte adhesion to gelatin (p < 0.05) and a five-fold increase in chemotaxis in Boyden chambers (p < 0.05). Fucoidan also enhanced migration 2.5-fold in a transmigration assay (p < 0.05). MMP9 activity in monocyte supernatants was significantly enhanced by fucoidan (p < 0.05). Finally, Western blot analysis of fucoidan-treated monocytes showed upregulation of ERK/p38 phosphorylation. Inhibition of ERK/p38 phosphorylation abrogated fucoidan enhancement of migration (p < 0.01). Fucoidan displays striking biological effects, notably promoting monocyte adhesion and migration. These effects involve the ERK and p38 pathways, and increased MMP9 activity. Fucoidan could improve critical limb ischemia by promoting monocyte recruitment. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Seaweed Hydrocolloid Production: An Update on Enzyme Assisted Extraction and Modification Technologies
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(6), 3340-3359; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13063340 - 27 May 2015
Cited by 84
Abstract
Agar, alginate, and carrageenans are high-value seaweed hydrocolloids, which are used as gelation and thickening agents in different food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. The annual global production of these hydrocolloids has recently reached 100,000 tons with a gross market value just above US$ [...] Read more.
Agar, alginate, and carrageenans are high-value seaweed hydrocolloids, which are used as gelation and thickening agents in different food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. The annual global production of these hydrocolloids has recently reached 100,000 tons with a gross market value just above US$ 1.1 billion. The techno-functional properties of the seaweed polysaccharides depend strictly on their unique structural make-up, notably degree and position of sulfation and presence of anhydro-bridges. Classical extraction techniques include hot alkali treatments, but recent research has shown promising results with enzymes. Current methods mainly involve use of commercially available enzyme mixtures developed for terrestrial plant material processing. Application of seaweed polysaccharide targeted enzymes allows for selective extraction at mild conditions as well as tailor-made modifications of the hydrocolloids to obtain specific functionalities. This review provides an update of the detailed structural features of κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans, agars, and alginate, and a thorough discussion of enzyme assisted extraction and processing techniques for these hydrocolloids. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Production of Chondroitin Sulphate from Head, Skeleton and Fins of Scyliorhinus canicula By-Products by Combination of Enzymatic, Chemical Precipitation and Ultrafiltration Methodologies
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(6), 3287-3308; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13063287 - 27 May 2015
Cited by 25
Abstract
This study illustrates the optimisation of the experimental conditions of three sequential steps for chondroitin sulphate (CS) recovery from three cartilaginous materials of Scyliorhinus canicula by-products. Optimum conditions of temperature and pH were first obtained for alcalase proteolysis of head cartilage (58 °C/pH [...] Read more.
This study illustrates the optimisation of the experimental conditions of three sequential steps for chondroitin sulphate (CS) recovery from three cartilaginous materials of Scyliorhinus canicula by-products. Optimum conditions of temperature and pH were first obtained for alcalase proteolysis of head cartilage (58 °C/pH 8.5/0.1% (v/w)/10 h of hydrolysis). Then, similar optimal conditions were observed for skeletons and fin materials. Enzymatic hydrolysates were subsequently treated with a combination of alkaline hydroalcoholic saline solutions in order to improve the protein hydrolysis and the selective precipitation of CS. Ranges of 0.53–0.64 M (NaOH) and 1.14–1.20 volumes (EtOH) were the levels for optimal chemical treatment depending on the cartilage origin. Finally, selective purification and concentration of CS and protein elimination of samples obtained from chemical treatment, was assessed by a combination of ultrafiltration and diafiltration (UF-DF) techniques at 30 kDa. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Antidiabetic Activity of Differently Regioselective Chitosan Sulfates in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 3072-3090; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053072 - 15 May 2015
Cited by 11
Abstract
The present study investigated and compared the hypoglycemic activity of differently regioselective chitosan sulfates in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Compared with the normal control rats, significantly higher blood glucose levels were observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The differently regioselective chitosan sulfates exhibited hypoglycemic [...] Read more.
The present study investigated and compared the hypoglycemic activity of differently regioselective chitosan sulfates in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Compared with the normal control rats, significantly higher blood glucose levels were observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The differently regioselective chitosan sulfates exhibited hypoglycemic activities at different doses and intervals, especially 3-O-sulfochitosan (3-S). The major results are as follows. First, 3,6-di-O-sulfochitosan and 3-O-sulfochitosan exhibited more significant hypoglycemic activities than 2-N-3, 6-di-O-sulfochitosan and 6-O-sulfochitosan. Moreover, 3-S-treated rats showed a more significant reduction of blood glucose levels than those treated by 3,6-di-O-sulfochitosan. These results indicated that –OSO3 at the C3-position of chitosan is a key active site. Second, 3-S significantly reduced the blood glucose levels and regulated the glucose tolerance effect in the experimental rats. Third, treatment with 3-S significantly increased the plasma insulin levels in the experimental diabetic rats. A noticeable hypoglycemic activity of 3-S in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats was shown. Clinical trials are required in the future to confirm the utility of 3-S. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2967-3028; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13052967 - 15 May 2015
Cited by 191
Abstract
There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one [...] Read more.
There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Alginate Hydrogels Coated with Chitosan for Wound Dressing
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2890-2908; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13052890 - 11 May 2015
Cited by 60
Abstract
In this work, a coating of chitosan onto alginate hydrogels was realized using the water-soluble hydrochloride form of chitosan (CH-Cl), with the dual purpose of imparting antibacterial activity and delaying the release of hydrophilic molecules from the alginate matrix. Alginate hydrogels with different [...] Read more.
In this work, a coating of chitosan onto alginate hydrogels was realized using the water-soluble hydrochloride form of chitosan (CH-Cl), with the dual purpose of imparting antibacterial activity and delaying the release of hydrophilic molecules from the alginate matrix. Alginate hydrogels with different calcium contents were prepared by the internal setting method and coated by immersion in a CH-Cl solution. Structural analysis by cryo-scanning electron microscopy was carried out to highlight morphological alterations due to the coating layer. Tests in vitro with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were assessed to check the absence of toxicity of CH-Cl. Swelling, stability in physiological solution and release characteristics using rhodamine B as the hydrophilic model drug were compared to those of relative uncoated hydrogels. Finally, antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was tested. Results show that alginate hydrogels coated with chitosan hydrochloride described here can be proposed as a novel medicated dressing by associating intrinsic antimicrobial activity with improved sustained release characteristics. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd) Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2875-2889; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13052875 - 08 May 2015
Cited by 11
Abstract
The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ)-, lambda(λ)-, and kappa(κ)-carrageenan at 1 g·L−1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom [...] Read more.
The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ)-, lambda(λ)-, and kappa(κ)-carrageenan at 1 g·L−1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and lipoxygenase (LOX), were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA) dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Perspective on the Use of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Organisms as a Source of New Antithrombotic Drugs
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2770-2784; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13052770 - 06 May 2015
Cited by 46
Abstract
Thromboembolic diseases are increasing worldwide and always require anticoagulant therapy. We still need safer and more secure antithrombotic drugs than those presently available. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may constitute a new source for the development of such drugs. Investigation of these compounds [...] Read more.
Thromboembolic diseases are increasing worldwide and always require anticoagulant therapy. We still need safer and more secure antithrombotic drugs than those presently available. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may constitute a new source for the development of such drugs. Investigation of these compounds usually attempts to reproduce the therapeutic effects of heparin. However, we may need to follow different routes, focusing particularly in the following aspects: (1) defining precisely the specific structures required for interaction of these sulfated polysaccharides with proteins of the coagulation system; (2) looking for alternative mechanisms of action, distinct from those of heparin; (3) identifying side effects (mostly pro-coagulant action and hypotension rather than bleeding) and preparing derivatives that retain the desired antithrombotic action but are devoid of side effects; (4) considering that sulfated polysaccharides with low anticoagulant action on in vitro assays may display potent effects on animal models of experimental thrombosis; and finally (5) investigating the antithrombotic effect of these sulfated polysaccharides after oral administration or preparing derivatives that may achieve this effect. If these aspects are successfully addressed, sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may conquer the frontier of antithrombotic therapy and open new avenues for treatment or prevention of thromboembolic diseases. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Employment of Marine Polysaccharides to Manufacture Functional Biocomposites for Aquaculture Feeding Applications
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2680-2693; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13052680 - 29 Apr 2015
Cited by 6
Abstract
In this study, polysaccharides of marine origin (agar, alginate and κ-carrageenan) were used to embed nutrients to fabricate biocomposites to be employed in animal feeding. The consistency of biocomposites in water has been evaluated up to 14 days, by several methods: swelling, nutrient [...] Read more.
In this study, polysaccharides of marine origin (agar, alginate and κ-carrageenan) were used to embed nutrients to fabricate biocomposites to be employed in animal feeding. The consistency of biocomposites in water has been evaluated up to 14 days, by several methods: swelling, nutrient release and granulometric analysis. Biocomposites were produced with varying percentages of nutrients (5%–25%) and polysaccharides (1%–2%–3%). All possible biopolymer combinations were tested in order to select those with the best network strength. The best performing biocomposites were those manufactured with agar 2% and nutrients 10%, showing the lowest percentage of water absorption and nutrient release. Biocomposites made of agar 2% and nutrients 10% were the most stable in water and were therefore used to analyze their behavior in water with respect to the release of quercetin, a phenolic compound with demonstrated high antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The leaching of such molecules in water was therefore employed as a further indicator of biocomposite water stability. Altogether, our results confirm the suitability of agar as a binder for biocomposites and provide a positive contribution to aquaculture. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Seaweed Polysaccharides (Laminarin and Fucoidan) as Functional Ingredients in Pork Meat: An Evaluation of Anti-Oxidative Potential, Thermal Stability and Bioaccessibility
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2447-2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13042447 - 20 Apr 2015
Cited by 30
Abstract
The anti-oxidative potential of laminarin (L), fucoidan (F) and an L/F seaweed extract was measured using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, in 25% pork (longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL)) homogenates (TBARS) (3 and 6 mg/mL) and in horse heart oxymyoglobin (OxyMb) [...] Read more.
The anti-oxidative potential of laminarin (L), fucoidan (F) and an L/F seaweed extract was measured using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, in 25% pork (longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL)) homogenates (TBARS) (3 and 6 mg/mL) and in horse heart oxymyoglobin (OxyMb) (0.1 and 1 mg/mL). The DPPH activity of fresh and cooked minced LTL containing L (100 mg/g; L100), F100 and L/F100,300, and bioaccessibility post in vitro digestion (L/F300), was assessed. Theoretical cellular uptake of antioxidant compounds was measured in a transwell Caco-2 cell model. Laminarin displayed no activity and fucoidan reduced lipid oxidation but catalysed OxyMb oxidation. Fucoidan activity was lowered by cooking while the L/F extract displayed moderate thermal stability. A decrease in DPPH antioxidant activity of 44.15% and 36.63%, after 4 and 20 h respectively, indicated theoretical uptake of L/F antioxidant compounds. Results highlight the potential use of seaweed extracts as functional ingredients in pork. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Chitin-Lignin Material as a Novel Matrix for Enzyme Immobilization
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2424-2446; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13042424 - 20 Apr 2015
Cited by 41
Abstract
Innovative materials were made via the combination of chitin and lignin, and the immobilization of lipase from Aspergillus niger. Analysis by techniques including FTIR, XPS and 13C CP MAS NMR confirmed the effective immobilization of the enzyme on the surface of [...] Read more.
Innovative materials were made via the combination of chitin and lignin, and the immobilization of lipase from Aspergillus niger. Analysis by techniques including FTIR, XPS and 13C CP MAS NMR confirmed the effective immobilization of the enzyme on the surface of the composite support. The electrokinetic properties of the resulting systems were also determined. Results obtained from elemental analysis and by the Bradford method enabled the determination of optimum parameters for the immobilization process. Based on the hydrolysis reaction of para-nitrophenyl palmitate, a determination was made of the catalytic activity, thermal and pH stability, and reusability. The systems with immobilized enzymes were found to have a hydrolytic activity of 5.72 mU, and increased thermal and pH stability compared with the native lipase. The products were also shown to retain approximately 80% of their initial catalytic activity, even after 20 reaction cycles. The immobilization process, using a cheap, non-toxic matrix of natural origin, leads to systems with potential applications in wastewater remediation processes and in biosensors. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Potential of Chitosan and Its Derivatives in Prevention and Treatment of Age-Related Diseases
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2158-2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13042158 - 13 Apr 2015
Cited by 54
Abstract
Age-related, diet-related and protein conformational diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases are common in the elderly population. The potential of chitosan, chitooligosaccharides and their derivatives in prevention and treatment of age-related dysfunctions is reviewed and discussed in [...] Read more.
Age-related, diet-related and protein conformational diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases are common in the elderly population. The potential of chitosan, chitooligosaccharides and their derivatives in prevention and treatment of age-related dysfunctions is reviewed and discussed in this paper. The influence of oxidative stress, low density lipoprotein oxidation, increase of tissue stiffness, protein conformational changes, aging-associated chronic inflammation and their pathobiological significance have been considered. The chitosan-based functional food also has been reviewed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Structural Analysis and Anticoagulant Activities of the Novel Sulfated Fucan Possessing a Regular Well-Defined Repeating Unit from Sea Cucumber
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2063-2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13042063 - 13 Apr 2015
Cited by 29
Abstract
Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC–MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif [...] Read more.
Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC–MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1→2) and (1→3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan) contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Prophylactic Administration of Fucoidan Represses Cancer Metastasis by Inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) in Lewis Tumor-Bearing Mice
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 1882-1900; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13041882 - 03 Apr 2015
Cited by 50
Abstract
Fucoidan, a heparin-like sulfated polysaccharide, is rich in brown algae. It has a wide assortment of protective activities against cancer, for example, induction of hepatocellular carcinoma senescence, induction of human breast and colon carcinoma apoptosis, and impediment of lung cancer cells migration and [...] Read more.
Fucoidan, a heparin-like sulfated polysaccharide, is rich in brown algae. It has a wide assortment of protective activities against cancer, for example, induction of hepatocellular carcinoma senescence, induction of human breast and colon carcinoma apoptosis, and impediment of lung cancer cells migration and invasion. However, the anti-metastatic mechanism that fucoidan exploits remains elusive. In this report, we explored the effects of fucoidan on cachectic symptoms, tumor development, lung carcinoma cell spreading and proliferation, as well as expression of metastasis-associated proteins in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells-inoculated mice model. We discovered that administration of fucoidan has prophylactic effects on mitigation of cachectic body weight loss and improvement of lung masses in tumor-inoculated mice. These desired effects are attributed to inhibition of LLC spreading and proliferation in lung tissues. Fucoidan also down-regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, the tumor-bearing mice supplemented with fucoidan indeed benefit from an ensemble of the chemo-phylacticity. The fact is that fucoidan significantly decreases viability, migration, invasion, and MMPs activities of LLC cells. In summary, fucoidan is suitable to act as a chemo-preventative agent for minimizing cachectic symptoms as well as inhibiting lung carcinoma metastasis through down-regulating metastatic factors VEGF and MMPs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Exopolysaccharides from Paenibacillus spp.: Production, Isolation, Structure, and Bioactivities
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 1847-1863; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13041847 - 01 Apr 2015
Cited by 54
Abstract
This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments of various aspects (i.e., production, purification, structure, and bioactivity) of the exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from Paenibacillus spp. For the production, in particular, squid pen waste was first utilized successfully to produce [...] Read more.
This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments of various aspects (i.e., production, purification, structure, and bioactivity) of the exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from Paenibacillus spp. For the production, in particular, squid pen waste was first utilized successfully to produce a high yield of inexpensive EPSs from Paenibacillus sp. TKU023 and P. macerans TKU029. In addition, this technology for EPS production is prevailing because it is more environmentally friendly. The Paenibacillus spp. EPSs reported from various references constitute a structurally diverse class of biological macromolecules with different applications in the broad fields of pharmacy, cosmetics and bioremediation. The EPS produced by P. macerans TKU029 can increase in vivo skin hydration and may be a new source of natural moisturizers with potential value in cosmetics. However, the relationships between the structures and activities of these EPSs in many studies are not well established. The contents and data in this review will serve as useful references for further investigation, production, structure and application of Paenibacillus spp. EPSs in various fields. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Stability of Chitosan—A Challenge for Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 1819-1846; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13041819 - 01 Apr 2015
Cited by 241
Abstract
Chitosan—one of the natural multifunctional polymers—due to its unique and versatile biological properties is regarded as a useful compound in medical and pharmaceutical technology. Recently, considerable research effort has been made in order to develop safe and efficient chitosan products. However, the problem [...] Read more.
Chitosan—one of the natural multifunctional polymers—due to its unique and versatile biological properties is regarded as a useful compound in medical and pharmaceutical technology. Recently, considerable research effort has been made in order to develop safe and efficient chitosan products. However, the problem of poor stability of chitosan-based systems restricts its practical applicability; thus, it has become a great challenge to establish sufficient shelf-life for chitosan formulations. Improved stability can be assessed by controlling the environmental factors, manipulating processing conditions (e.g., temperature), introducing a proper stabilizing compound, developing chitosan blends with another polymer, or modifying the chitosan structure using chemical or ionic agents. This review covers the influence of internal, environmental, and processing factors on the long-term stability of chitosan products. The aim of this paper is also to highlight the latest developments which enable the physicochemical properties of chitosan-based applications to be preserved upon storage. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract