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Hypolipidemic Effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima Supplementation and a Systematic Physical Exercise Program in Overweight and Obese Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Crossover Controlled Trial

1
Medicine and Psychology School, Autonomous University of Baja California, Tijuana 22390, Mexico
2
Biomedical Sciences Institute. Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez, Ciudad Juarez 32310, Mexico
3
Medicine School, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
4
Physical Culture Sciences School, Autonomous University of Chihuahua, Chihuahua 32310, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050270
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 27 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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Abstract

Low-fat diets, lipid-modifying nutraceuticals and a higher level of physical activity are often recommended to reduce dyslipidemia. A double-blind, randomized, crossover, controlled trial was designed to evaluate the independent and synergistic effects of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima supplementation (4.5 g·day−1) with or without performing a physical exercise program (PEP: aerobic exercise (3 days·week−1) + high-intensity interval training (2 days·week−1)) on blood lipids and BMI of 52 sedentary men with excess body weight. During six weeks, all participants were assigned to four intervention treatments (Spirulina maxima with PEP (SE), placebo with PEP (Ex), Spirulina maxima without PEP (Sm), placebo without PEP (C; control)) and plasma lipids were evaluated spectrophotometrically pre- vs. post intervention in stratified subgroups (overweight, obese and dyslipidemic subjects). Pre/post comparisons showed significant reductions in all plasma lipids in the SE group, particularly in those with dyslipidemia (p ≤ 0.043). Comparing the final vs. the initial values, BMI, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in all treatment groups compared to C. Changes were observed mostly in SE interventions, particularly in dyslipidemic subjects (p < 0.05). Spirulina maxima supplementation enhances the hypolipidemic effect of a systematic PEP in men with excess body weight and dyslipidemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arthrospira maxima; dyslipidemia; physical exercise; obesity; double-blind; randomized controlled trial Arthrospira maxima; dyslipidemia; physical exercise; obesity; double-blind; randomized controlled trial
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Hernández-Lepe, M.A.; Wall-Medrano, A.; López-Díaz, J.A.; Juárez-Oropeza, M.A.; Luqueño-Bocardo, O.I.; Hernández-Torres, R.P.; Ramos-Jiménez, A. Hypolipidemic Effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima Supplementation and a Systematic Physical Exercise Program in Overweight and Obese Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Crossover Controlled Trial. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 270.

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