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Special Issue "Marine Chitin 2019"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Hitoshi Sashiwa

Kaneka Co., Ltd, 5-1-1 Torikai-Nishi, Settsu, Osaka 566-0072, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81-72-653-8333
Interests: chemical modification of chitin and chitosan and their biomedical applications; biodegradable polymer; bio-based polymer
Guest Editor
Dr. Hironori Izawa

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Tottori, 680-8552, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: chitin and chitosan derivatives; micro-structured surfaces; drug delivery system

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As results of our calls in 2014–2018 for submissions to Special Issues related to Chitin and Chitosan in Marine Drugs, we are pleased to tell you that these issues were published as books. A number of high class papers were included in these issues. Because of these successes, we now seek to publish a Special Issue, “Marine Chitin, 2019” in Marine Drugs. As before, we plan to produce a strong, and very exciting issue that will encompass breakthroughs in high value, scientific and industrial chitin and chitosan research. Despite significant advances in chitin and chitosan research since the 1970s, current overviews in recent publications involving chitin and chitosan research advances need reporting.

We look forward to your input.

Dr. Hitoshi Sashiwa
Dr. Hironori Izawa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chitosan
  • chito-oligosaccharide
  • glucosamine
  • N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
  • polysaccharides
  • chemical modification
  • nanomaterials
  • gel materials
  • biomaterials
  • drug delivery system

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Antifungal and Antioxidant Properties of Chitosan Polymers Obtained from Nontraditional Polybius henslowii Sources
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040239
Received: 27 January 2019 / Revised: 24 March 2019 / Accepted: 24 March 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
Chitin was extracted from Polybius henslowii, a swimming crab, captured in large quantities throughout the Portuguese coast by purse seine vessels as bycatch. After standard chitin extraction procedures, water-soluble chitosan products were obtained via two different methods: (1) N-acetylation with the [...] Read more.
Chitin was extracted from Polybius henslowii, a swimming crab, captured in large quantities throughout the Portuguese coast by purse seine vessels as bycatch. After standard chitin extraction procedures, water-soluble chitosan products were obtained via two different methods: (1) N-acetylation with the addition of acetic anhydride and (2) a reaction with hydrogen peroxide. The chemical structure and molecular weight of chitosan derivatives, water-soluble chitosan (WSC) and chitooligosaccharides (COS), were confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Antioxidant and metal chelation activities were evaluated, and the growth inhibition capacity was tested on four phytopatogens. The chitooligosaccharides from pereopods (pCOS) and shell body parts (sCOS) inhibited all fungal species tested, particularly Cryphonectria parasitica with 84.7% and 85.5%, respectively. Both radical scavenging and antifungal activities proved to be dose-dependent. Chitooligosaccharides with a low molecular weight (2.7, 7.4, and 10.4 Kg·mol−1) showed the highest activity among all properties tested. These results suggested that chitosan derivatives from P. henslowii raw material could potentially be used against phytopathogens or as ingredient in cosmetics and other products related to oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Production of a Thermostable Chitosanase from Shrimp Heads via Paenibacillus mucilaginosus TKU032 Conversion and its Application in the Preparation of Bioactive Chitosan Oligosaccharides
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040217
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
Chitosanase has attracted great attention due to its potential applications in medicine, agriculture, and nutraceuticals. In this study, P. mucilaginosus TKU032, a bacterial strain isolated from Taiwanese soil, exhibited the highest chitosanase activity (0.53 U/mL) on medium containing shrimp heads as the sole [...] Read more.
Chitosanase has attracted great attention due to its potential applications in medicine, agriculture, and nutraceuticals. In this study, P. mucilaginosus TKU032, a bacterial strain isolated from Taiwanese soil, exhibited the highest chitosanase activity (0.53 U/mL) on medium containing shrimp heads as the sole carbon and nitrogen (C/N) source. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, a chitosanase isolated from P. mucilaginosus TKU032 cultured on shrimp head medium was determined at approximately 59 kDa. The characterized chitosanase showed interesting properties with optimal temperature and thermal stability up to 70 °C. Three chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) fractions were isolated from hydrolyzed colloidal chitosan that was catalyzed by TKU032 chitosanase. Of these, fraction I showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitor (aGI) activity (65.86% at 20 mg/mL); its inhibitory mechanism followed the mixed noncompetitive inhibition model. Fractions II and III exhibited strong 2,2-diphenyl1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (79.00% at 12 mg/mL and 73.29% at 16 mg/mL, respectively). In summary, the COS fractions obtained by hydrolyzing colloidal chitosan with TKU032 chitosanase may have potential use in medical or nutraceutical fields due to their aGI and antioxidant activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Express Method for Isolation of Ready-to-Use 3D Chitin Scaffolds from Aplysina archeri (Aplysineidae: Verongiida) Demosponge
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(2), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17020131
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sponges are a valuable source of natural compounds and biomaterials for many biotechnological applications. Marine sponges belonging to the order Verongiida are known to contain both chitin and biologically active bromotyrosines. Aplysina archeri (Aplysineidae: Verongiida) is well known to contain bromotyrosines with relevant [...] Read more.
Sponges are a valuable source of natural compounds and biomaterials for many biotechnological applications. Marine sponges belonging to the order Verongiida are known to contain both chitin and biologically active bromotyrosines. Aplysina archeri (Aplysineidae: Verongiida) is well known to contain bromotyrosines with relevant bioactivity against human and animal diseases. The aim of this study was to develop an express method for the production of naturally prefabricated 3D chitin and bromotyrosine-containing extracts simultaneously. This new method is based on microwave irradiation (MWI) together with stepwise treatment using 1% sodium hydroxide, 20% acetic acid, and 30% hydrogen peroxide. This approach, which takes up to 1 h, made it possible to isolate chitin from the tube-like skeleton of A. archeri and to demonstrate the presence of this biopolymer in this sponge for the first time. Additionally, this procedure does not deacetylate chitin to chitosan and enables the recovery of ready-to-use 3D chitin scaffolds without destruction of the unique tube-like fibrous interconnected structure of the isolated biomaterial. Furthermore, these mechanically stressed fibers still have the capacity for saturation with water, methylene blue dye, crude oil, and blood, which is necessary for the application of such renewable 3D chitinous centimeter-sized scaffolds in diverse technological and biomedical fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Evaluation of a Chitosan Oligosaccharide-Streptomycin Conjugate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010043
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Microbial biofilms are considerably more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells. It has been reported that chitosan coupling with the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin dramatically disrupted biofilms of several Gram-positive bacteria. This finding suggested the application of the covalent conjugate of antimicrobial natural polysaccharides [...] Read more.
Microbial biofilms are considerably more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells. It has been reported that chitosan coupling with the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin dramatically disrupted biofilms of several Gram-positive bacteria. This finding suggested the application of the covalent conjugate of antimicrobial natural polysaccharides and antibiotics on anti-infection therapy. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the chitosan-streptomycin conjugate (CS-Strep) remains unclear and the poor water-solubility of the conjugate might restrict its applications for anti-infection therapy. In this study, we conjugated streptomycin with water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharides (COS). Unlike CS-Strep, the COS-streptomycin conjugate (COS-Strep) barely affected biofilms of tested Gram-positive bacteria. However, COS-Strep efficiently eradicated established biofilms of the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This activity of COS-Strep was influenced by the degree of polymerization of chitosan oligosaccharide. The increased susceptibility of P. aeruginosa biofilms to antibiotics after conjugating might be related to the following: Suppression of the activation of MexX-MexY drug efflux pump system induced by streptomycin treatment; and down-regulation of the biosynthesis of biofilm exopolysaccharides. Thus, this work indicated that covalently linking antibiotics to chitosan oligosaccharides was a possible approach for the development of antimicrobial drugs against biofilm-related infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Immunostimulatory Effects of Chitooligosaccharides on RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages via Regulation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010036
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chitooligosaccharides (COS), the hydrolyzed products of chitin and chitosan, can be obtained by various methods. In this study, water-soluble COS were prepared from α- and β-chitosan by microwave-assisted degradation and their immunostimulatory effects were investigated in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that [...] Read more.
Chitooligosaccharides (COS), the hydrolyzed products of chitin and chitosan, can be obtained by various methods. In this study, water-soluble COS were prepared from α- and β-chitosan by microwave-assisted degradation and their immunostimulatory effects were investigated in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that α-COS were more active than β-COS in promoting the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting indicated that COS also enhanced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α. Further analyses demonstrated that COS induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, p85 and Akt, and the nuclear translocation of p65, indicating that they are able to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways dependent on nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. In conclusion, COS activate RAW 264.7 cells via the MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and are potential novel immune potentiators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Chitosan Oleate Salt as an Amphiphilic Polymer for the Surface Modification of Poly-Lactic-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles. Preliminary Studies of Mucoadhesion and Cell Interaction Properties
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110447
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8682 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most of the methods of poly-lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) preparation involve the passage through the emulsification of a PLGA organic solution in water followed by solvent evaporation or extraction. The choice of the droplet stabilizer during the emulsion step is critical for the dimensions [...] Read more.
Most of the methods of poly-lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) preparation involve the passage through the emulsification of a PLGA organic solution in water followed by solvent evaporation or extraction. The choice of the droplet stabilizer during the emulsion step is critical for the dimensions and the surface characteristics of the nanoparticles (NPs). In the present work, a recently described ionic amphiphilic chitosan derivative, chitosan oleate salt (CS-OA), was proposed for the first time to prepare PLGA NPs. A full factorial design was used to understand the effect of some formulation and preparation parameters on the NP dimensions and on encapsulation efficiency (EE%) of Nile red, used as a tracer. On the basis of the DoE study, curcumin loaded NPs were prepared, having 329 ± 42 nm dimensions and 68.75% EE%. The presence of a chitosan coating at the surface was confirmed by positive zeta potential and resulted in mucoadhesion behavior. The expected improvement of the interaction of the chitosan surface modified nanoparticles with cell membrane surface was confirmed in Caco-2 cell culture by the internalization of the loaded curcumin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Preparation Methods of Chitooligosaccharides on Their Physicochemical Properties and Their Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Mice and in RAW264.7 Macrophages
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110430
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The methods to obtain chitooligosaccharides are tightly related to the physicochemical properties of the end products. Knowledge of these physicochemical characteristics is crucial to describing the biological functions of chitooligosaccharides. Chitooligosaccharides were prepared either in a single-step enzymatic hydrolysis using chitosanase, or in [...] Read more.
The methods to obtain chitooligosaccharides are tightly related to the physicochemical properties of the end products. Knowledge of these physicochemical characteristics is crucial to describing the biological functions of chitooligosaccharides. Chitooligosaccharides were prepared either in a single-step enzymatic hydrolysis using chitosanase, or in a two-step chemical-enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrolyzed products obtained in the single-step preparation were composed mainly of 42% fully deacetylated oligomers plus 54% monoacetylated oligomers, and they attenuated the inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-induced mice and in RAW264.7 macrophages. However, chitooligosaccharides from the two-step preparation were composed of 50% fully deacetylated oligomers plus 27% monoacetylated oligomers and, conversely, they promoted the inflammatory response in both in vivo and in vitro models. Similar proportions of monoacetylated and deacetylated oligomers is necessary for the mixtures of chitooligosaccharides to achieve anti-inflammatory effects, and it directly depends on the preparation method to which chitosan was submitted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Reclamation of Marine Chitinous Materials for Chitosanase Production via Microbial Conversion by Paenibacillus macerans
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110429
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitinous materials from marine byproducts elicit great interest among biotechnologists for their potential biomedical or agricultural applications. In this study, four kinds of marine chitinous materials (squid pens, shrimp heads, demineralized shrimp shells, and demineralized crab shells) were used to screen the best [...] Read more.
Chitinous materials from marine byproducts elicit great interest among biotechnologists for their potential biomedical or agricultural applications. In this study, four kinds of marine chitinous materials (squid pens, shrimp heads, demineralized shrimp shells, and demineralized crab shells) were used to screen the best source for producing chitosanase by Paenibacillus macerans TKU029. Among them, the chitosanase activity was found to be highest in the culture using the medium containing squid pens as the sole carbon/nitrogen (C/N) source. A chitosanase which showed molecular weights at 63 kDa was isolated from P. macerans cultured on a squid pens medium. The purified TKU029 chitosanase exhibited optimum activity at 60 °C and pH 7, and was stable at temperatures under 50 °C and pH 3-8. An analysis by MALDI-TOF MS revealed that the chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) obtained from the hydrolysis of water-soluble chitosan by TKU029 crude enzyme showed various degrees of polymerization (DP), varying from 3–6. The obtained COS enhanced the growth of four lactic acid bacteria strains but exhibited no effect on the growth of E. coli. By specialized growth enhancing effects, the COS produced from hydrolyzing water soluble chitosan with TKU029 chitinolytic enzymes could have potential for use in medicine or nutraceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Complex of Chitosan–Sodium Carbonate and Its Properties
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110416
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
PDF Full-text (3251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan has excellent properties, as it is nontoxic, mucoadhesive, biocompatible, and biodegradable. However, the poor water solubility of chitosan is a major disadvantage. Here, a novel chitosan-sodium carbonate complex was formed by adding a large amount of sodium carbonate to a chitosan/acetic acid [...] Read more.
Chitosan has excellent properties, as it is nontoxic, mucoadhesive, biocompatible, and biodegradable. However, the poor water solubility of chitosan is a major disadvantage. Here, a novel chitosan-sodium carbonate complex was formed by adding a large amount of sodium carbonate to a chitosan/acetic acid solution, which is water-soluble. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used to detect and characterize the aforementioned complex, which appeared to be a neat flake crystal. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) was used to verify the connections between carbonate, sodium ions, and the protonated amino group in chitosan on the basis of 13C signals at the chemical shift of 167.745 ppm and 164.743 ppm. Further confirmation was provided by the strong cross-polarization signals identified by the SSNMR 2D 13C–1H frequency-switched Lee–Goldberg heteronuclear correlation spectrum. The cytotoxicity of a film prepared using this complex was tested using rat fibroblasts. The results show that the film promoted cell proliferation, which provides evidence to support its nontoxicity. The ease of film-forming and the results of cytocompatibility testing suggest that the chitosan-sodium carbonate complex has the potential for use in tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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