Special Issue "Marine Chitin 2019"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019) | Viewed by 55641

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Hironori Izawa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Tottori, 680-8552, Japan
Interests: chitin and chitosan derivatives; micro-structured surfaces; drug delivery system

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As results of our calls in 2014–2018 for submissions to Special Issues related to Chitin and Chitosan in Marine Drugs, we are pleased to tell you that these issues were published as books. A number of high class papers were included in these issues. Because of these successes, we now seek to publish a Special Issue, “Marine Chitin, 2019” in Marine Drugs. As before, we plan to produce a strong, and very exciting issue that will encompass breakthroughs in high value, scientific and industrial chitin and chitosan research. Despite significant advances in chitin and chitosan research since the 1970s, current overviews in recent publications involving chitin and chitosan research advances need reporting.

We look forward to your input.

Dr. Hitoshi Sashiwa
Dr. Hironori Izawa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chitosan
  • chito-oligosaccharide
  • glucosamine
  • N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
  • polysaccharides
  • chemical modification
  • nanomaterials
  • gel materials
  • biomaterials
  • drug delivery system

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Understanding the Performance of a Novel Direct Compression Excipient Comprising Roller Compacted Chitin
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020115 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
Chitin has been investigated in the context of finding new excipients suitable for direct compression, when subjected to roller compaction. Ball milling was concurrently carried out to compare effects from different energy or stress-inducing techniques. Samples of chitin powders (raw, processed, dried and [...] Read more.
Chitin has been investigated in the context of finding new excipients suitable for direct compression, when subjected to roller compaction. Ball milling was concurrently carried out to compare effects from different energy or stress-inducing techniques. Samples of chitin powders (raw, processed, dried and humidified) were compared for variations in morphology, X-ray diffraction patterns, densities, FT-IR, flowability, compressibility and compactibility. Results confirmed the suitability of roller compaction to convert the fluffy powder of raw chitin to a bulky material with improved flow. X-ray powder diffraction studies showed that, in contrast to the high decrease in crystallinity upon ball milling, roller compaction manifested a slight deformation in the crystal lattice. Moreover, the new excipient showed high resistance to compression, due to the high compactibility of the granules formed. This was correlated to the significant extent of plastic deformation compared to the raw and ball milled forms of chitin. On the other hand, drying and humidification of raw and processed materials presented no added value to the compressibility and compactibility of the directly compressed excipient. Finally, compacted chitin showed direct compression similarity with microcrystalline cellulose when formulated with metronidazole (200 mg) without affecting the immediate drug release action of the drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Article
The Antimicrobial Properties of Chitosan Can Be Tailored by Formulation
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020096 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2807
Abstract
Topical administration of drugs into the vagina can provide local therapy of vaginal infections, preventing the possible systemic side effects of the drugs. The natural polysaccharide chitosan is known for its excellent mucoadhesive properties, safety profile, and antibacterial effects, and thus it can [...] Read more.
Topical administration of drugs into the vagina can provide local therapy of vaginal infections, preventing the possible systemic side effects of the drugs. The natural polysaccharide chitosan is known for its excellent mucoadhesive properties, safety profile, and antibacterial effects, and thus it can be utilized in improving localized vaginal therapy by prolonging the residence time of a drug at the vaginal site while acting as an antimicrobial in synergy. Therefore, we aimed to explore the potential of chitosan, namely chitosan-coated liposomes and chitosan hydrogel, as an excipient with intrinsic antimicrobial properties. Liposomes were prepared by the thin-film hydration method followed by vesicle size reduction by sonication to the desired size, approximately 200 nm, and coated with chitosan (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3%, w/v, respectively). The mucoadhesive properties of chitosan-coated liposomes were determined through their binding efficiency to mucin compared to non-coated liposomes. Non-coated liposomal suspensions were incorporated in chitosan hydrogels forming the liposomes-in-hydrogel formulations, which were further assessed for their texture properties in the presence of biological fluid simulants. The antibacterial effect of chitosan-coated liposomes (0.03%, 0.1% and 0.3%, w/v) and chitosan hydrogels (0.1% and 0.3%, w/w) on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus was successfully confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Article
Effects of Chitosan on Clostridium perfringens and Application in the Preservation of Pork Sausage
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020070 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2211
Abstract
The effects of chitosan with 95% deacetylation degree (DD95) on the spore germination, cell proliferation, and heat resistance of Clostridium perfringens CCRC 10,648 and CCRC 13,019 were investigated, and its application on pork sausage with sodium nitrite reduction was also evaluated. DD95 chitosan [...] Read more.
The effects of chitosan with 95% deacetylation degree (DD95) on the spore germination, cell proliferation, and heat resistance of Clostridium perfringens CCRC 10,648 and CCRC 13,019 were investigated, and its application on pork sausage with sodium nitrite reduction was also evaluated. DD95 chitosan can strongly reduce the heat resistance of both strains. The D80 and D100 values for strain CCRC 13,019 decreased from 40.98 and 4.64 min to 39.21 and 3.26 min, respectively, as a result of adding 250 ppm DD95; meanwhile, addition of chitosan decreased the D80 and D100 values for CCRC 10,648 from 41.15 and 6.46 min to 39.52 and 3.78 min, respectively. In pork sausage, addition of 3000 ppm DD95 chitosan considerably slowed down the bacterial proliferation and volatile basic nitrogen production. There were no significant differences in color (L* and b* values), shearing force, and hardness in the pork sausages with or without DD95 chitosan during storage at 4 and 25 °C. However, the addition of DD95 chitosan in pork sausage significantly retarded the decrease of the a* value. Therefore, DD95 chitosan could reduce the concentration of sodium nitrite required in pork sausages for color retention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Article
Vaginal Polyelectrolyte Layer-by-Layer Films Based on Chitosan Derivatives and Eudragit® S100 for pH Responsive Release of Tenofovir
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18010044 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3712
Abstract
Women are still at high risk of contracting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virus due to the lack of protection methods under their control, especially in sub-Saharan countries. Polyelectrolyte multilayer smart vaginal films based on chitosan derivatives (chitosan lactate, chitosan tartate, and chitosan [...] Read more.
Women are still at high risk of contracting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virus due to the lack of protection methods under their control, especially in sub-Saharan countries. Polyelectrolyte multilayer smart vaginal films based on chitosan derivatives (chitosan lactate, chitosan tartate, and chitosan citrate) and Eudragit® S100 were developed for the pH-sensitive release of Tenofovir. Films were characterized through texture analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Swelling and drug release studies were carried out in simulated vaginal fluid and a mixture of simulated vaginal and seminal fluids. Ex vivo mucoadhesion was evaluated in bovine vaginal mucosa. SEM micrographs revealed the formation of multilayer films. According to texture analysis, chitosan citrate was the most flexible compared to chitosan tartrate and lactate. The swelling studies showed a moderate water uptake (<300% in all cases), leading to the sustained release of Tenofovir in simulated vaginal fluid (up to 120 h), which was accelerated in the simulated fluid mixture (4–6 h). The films had high mucoadhesion in bovine vaginal mucosa. The multilayer films formed by a mixture of chitosan citrate and Eudragit® S100 proved to be the most promising, with zero toxicity, excellent mechanical properties, moderate swelling (<100%), high mucoadhesion capacity, and Tenofovir release of 120 h and 4 h in vaginal fluid and the simulated fluid mixture respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Article
Different Molecular Interaction between Collagen and α- or β-Chitin in Mechanically Improved Electrospun Composite
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060318 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2857
Abstract
Although collagens from vertebrates are mainly used in regenerative medicine, the most elusive issue in the collagen-based biomedical scaffolds is its insufficient mechanical strength. To solve this problem, electrospun collagen composites with chitins were prepared and molecular interactions which are the cause of [...] Read more.
Although collagens from vertebrates are mainly used in regenerative medicine, the most elusive issue in the collagen-based biomedical scaffolds is its insufficient mechanical strength. To solve this problem, electrospun collagen composites with chitins were prepared and molecular interactions which are the cause of the mechanical improvement in the composites were investigated by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS). The electrospun collagen is composed of two kinds of polymorphs, α- and β-chitin, showing different mechanical enhancement and molecular interactions due to different inherent configurations in the crystal structure, resulting in solvent and polymer susceptibility. The collagen/α-chitin has two distinctive phases in the composite, but β-chitin composite has a relatively homogeneous phase. The β-chitin composite showed better tensile strength with ~41% and ~14% higher strength compared to collagen and α-chitin composites, respectively, due to a favorable secondary interaction, i.e., inter- rather than intra-molecular hydrogen bonds. The revealed molecular interaction indicates that β-chitin prefers to form inter-molecular hydrogen bonds with collagen by rearranging their uncrumpled crystalline regions, unlike α-chitin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Article
Antifungal and Antioxidant Properties of Chitosan Polymers Obtained from Nontraditional Polybius henslowii Sources
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040239 - 22 Apr 2019
Cited by 78 | Viewed by 3752
Abstract
Chitin was extracted from Polybius henslowii, a swimming crab, captured in large quantities throughout the Portuguese coast by purse seine vessels as bycatch. After standard chitin extraction procedures, water-soluble chitosan products were obtained via two different methods: (1) N-acetylation with the [...] Read more.
Chitin was extracted from Polybius henslowii, a swimming crab, captured in large quantities throughout the Portuguese coast by purse seine vessels as bycatch. After standard chitin extraction procedures, water-soluble chitosan products were obtained via two different methods: (1) N-acetylation with the addition of acetic anhydride and (2) a reaction with hydrogen peroxide. The chemical structure and molecular weight of chitosan derivatives, water-soluble chitosan (WSC) and chitooligosaccharides (COS), were confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Antioxidant and metal chelation activities were evaluated, and the growth inhibition capacity was tested on four phytopatogens. The chitooligosaccharides from pereopods (pCOS) and shell body parts (sCOS) inhibited all fungal species tested, particularly Cryphonectria parasitica with 84.7% and 85.5%, respectively. Both radical scavenging and antifungal activities proved to be dose-dependent. Chitooligosaccharides with a low molecular weight (2.7, 7.4, and 10.4 Kg·mol−1) showed the highest activity among all properties tested. These results suggested that chitosan derivatives from P. henslowii raw material could potentially be used against phytopathogens or as ingredient in cosmetics and other products related to oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Article
Production of a Thermostable Chitosanase from Shrimp Heads via Paenibacillus mucilaginosus TKU032 Conversion and its Application in the Preparation of Bioactive Chitosan Oligosaccharides
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040217 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2941
Abstract
Chitosanase has attracted great attention due to its potential applications in medicine, agriculture, and nutraceuticals. In this study, P. mucilaginosus TKU032, a bacterial strain isolated from Taiwanese soil, exhibited the highest chitosanase activity (0.53 U/mL) on medium containing shrimp heads as the sole [...] Read more.
Chitosanase has attracted great attention due to its potential applications in medicine, agriculture, and nutraceuticals. In this study, P. mucilaginosus TKU032, a bacterial strain isolated from Taiwanese soil, exhibited the highest chitosanase activity (0.53 U/mL) on medium containing shrimp heads as the sole carbon and nitrogen (C/N) source. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, a chitosanase isolated from P. mucilaginosus TKU032 cultured on shrimp head medium was determined at approximately 59 kDa. The characterized chitosanase showed interesting properties with optimal temperature and thermal stability up to 70 °C. Three chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) fractions were isolated from hydrolyzed colloidal chitosan that was catalyzed by TKU032 chitosanase. Of these, fraction I showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitor (aGI) activity (65.86% at 20 mg/mL); its inhibitory mechanism followed the mixed noncompetitive inhibition model. Fractions II and III exhibited strong 2,2-diphenyl1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (79.00% at 12 mg/mL and 73.29% at 16 mg/mL, respectively). In summary, the COS fractions obtained by hydrolyzing colloidal chitosan with TKU032 chitosanase may have potential use in medical or nutraceutical fields due to their aGI and antioxidant activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Article
Express Method for Isolation of Ready-to-Use 3D Chitin Scaffolds from Aplysina archeri (Aplysineidae: Verongiida) Demosponge
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(2), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17020131 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 4690
Abstract
Sponges are a valuable source of natural compounds and biomaterials for many biotechnological applications. Marine sponges belonging to the order Verongiida are known to contain both chitin and biologically active bromotyrosines. Aplysina archeri (Aplysineidae: Verongiida) is well known to contain bromotyrosines with relevant [...] Read more.
Sponges are a valuable source of natural compounds and biomaterials for many biotechnological applications. Marine sponges belonging to the order Verongiida are known to contain both chitin and biologically active bromotyrosines. Aplysina archeri (Aplysineidae: Verongiida) is well known to contain bromotyrosines with relevant bioactivity against human and animal diseases. The aim of this study was to develop an express method for the production of naturally prefabricated 3D chitin and bromotyrosine-containing extracts simultaneously. This new method is based on microwave irradiation (MWI) together with stepwise treatment using 1% sodium hydroxide, 20% acetic acid, and 30% hydrogen peroxide. This approach, which takes up to 1 h, made it possible to isolate chitin from the tube-like skeleton of A. archeri and to demonstrate the presence of this biopolymer in this sponge for the first time. Additionally, this procedure does not deacetylate chitin to chitosan and enables the recovery of ready-to-use 3D chitin scaffolds without destruction of the unique tube-like fibrous interconnected structure of the isolated biomaterial. Furthermore, these mechanically stressed fibers still have the capacity for saturation with water, methylene blue dye, crude oil, and blood, which is necessary for the application of such renewable 3D chitinous centimeter-sized scaffolds in diverse technological and biomedical fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Article
Synthesis and Evaluation of a Chitosan Oligosaccharide-Streptomycin Conjugate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010043 - 10 Jan 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3395
Abstract
Microbial biofilms are considerably more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells. It has been reported that chitosan coupling with the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin dramatically disrupted biofilms of several Gram-positive bacteria. This finding suggested the application of the covalent conjugate of antimicrobial natural polysaccharides [...] Read more.
Microbial biofilms are considerably more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells. It has been reported that chitosan coupling with the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin dramatically disrupted biofilms of several Gram-positive bacteria. This finding suggested the application of the covalent conjugate of antimicrobial natural polysaccharides and antibiotics on anti-infection therapy. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the chitosan-streptomycin conjugate (CS-Strep) remains unclear and the poor water-solubility of the conjugate might restrict its applications for anti-infection therapy. In this study, we conjugated streptomycin with water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharides (COS). Unlike CS-Strep, the COS-streptomycin conjugate (COS-Strep) barely affected biofilms of tested Gram-positive bacteria. However, COS-Strep efficiently eradicated established biofilms of the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This activity of COS-Strep was influenced by the degree of polymerization of chitosan oligosaccharide. The increased susceptibility of P. aeruginosa biofilms to antibiotics after conjugating might be related to the following: Suppression of the activation of MexX-MexY drug efflux pump system induced by streptomycin treatment; and down-regulation of the biosynthesis of biofilm exopolysaccharides. Thus, this work indicated that covalently linking antibiotics to chitosan oligosaccharides was a possible approach for the development of antimicrobial drugs against biofilm-related infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Article
Immunostimulatory Effects of Chitooligosaccharides on RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages via Regulation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010036 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3442
Abstract
Chitooligosaccharides (COS), the hydrolyzed products of chitin and chitosan, can be obtained by various methods. In this study, water-soluble COS were prepared from α- and β-chitosan by microwave-assisted degradation and their immunostimulatory effects were investigated in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that [...] Read more.
Chitooligosaccharides (COS), the hydrolyzed products of chitin and chitosan, can be obtained by various methods. In this study, water-soluble COS were prepared from α- and β-chitosan by microwave-assisted degradation and their immunostimulatory effects were investigated in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that α-COS were more active than β-COS in promoting the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting indicated that COS also enhanced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α. Further analyses demonstrated that COS induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, p85 and Akt, and the nuclear translocation of p65, indicating that they are able to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways dependent on nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. In conclusion, COS activate RAW 264.7 cells via the MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and are potential novel immune potentiators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Article
Chitosan Oleate Salt as an Amphiphilic Polymer for the Surface Modification of Poly-Lactic-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles. Preliminary Studies of Mucoadhesion and Cell Interaction Properties
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110447 - 15 Nov 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2798
Abstract
Most of the methods of poly-lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) preparation involve the passage through the emulsification of a PLGA organic solution in water followed by solvent evaporation or extraction. The choice of the droplet stabilizer during the emulsion step is critical for the dimensions [...] Read more.
Most of the methods of poly-lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) preparation involve the passage through the emulsification of a PLGA organic solution in water followed by solvent evaporation or extraction. The choice of the droplet stabilizer during the emulsion step is critical for the dimensions and the surface characteristics of the nanoparticles (NPs). In the present work, a recently described ionic amphiphilic chitosan derivative, chitosan oleate salt (CS-OA), was proposed for the first time to prepare PLGA NPs. A full factorial design was used to understand the effect of some formulation and preparation parameters on the NP dimensions and on encapsulation efficiency (EE%) of Nile red, used as a tracer. On the basis of the DoE study, curcumin loaded NPs were prepared, having 329 ± 42 nm dimensions and 68.75% EE%. The presence of a chitosan coating at the surface was confirmed by positive zeta potential and resulted in mucoadhesion behavior. The expected improvement of the interaction of the chitosan surface modified nanoparticles with cell membrane surface was confirmed in Caco-2 cell culture by the internalization of the loaded curcumin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Article
Influence of Preparation Methods of Chitooligosaccharides on Their Physicochemical Properties and Their Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Mice and in RAW264.7 Macrophages
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110430 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2651
Abstract
The methods to obtain chitooligosaccharides are tightly related to the physicochemical properties of the end products. Knowledge of these physicochemical characteristics is crucial to describing the biological functions of chitooligosaccharides. Chitooligosaccharides were prepared either in a single-step enzymatic hydrolysis using chitosanase, or in [...] Read more.
The methods to obtain chitooligosaccharides are tightly related to the physicochemical properties of the end products. Knowledge of these physicochemical characteristics is crucial to describing the biological functions of chitooligosaccharides. Chitooligosaccharides were prepared either in a single-step enzymatic hydrolysis using chitosanase, or in a two-step chemical-enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrolyzed products obtained in the single-step preparation were composed mainly of 42% fully deacetylated oligomers plus 54% monoacetylated oligomers, and they attenuated the inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-induced mice and in RAW264.7 macrophages. However, chitooligosaccharides from the two-step preparation were composed of 50% fully deacetylated oligomers plus 27% monoacetylated oligomers and, conversely, they promoted the inflammatory response in both in vivo and in vitro models. Similar proportions of monoacetylated and deacetylated oligomers is necessary for the mixtures of chitooligosaccharides to achieve anti-inflammatory effects, and it directly depends on the preparation method to which chitosan was submitted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Article
Reclamation of Marine Chitinous Materials for Chitosanase Production via Microbial Conversion by Paenibacillus macerans
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110429 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2877
Abstract
Chitinous materials from marine byproducts elicit great interest among biotechnologists for their potential biomedical or agricultural applications. In this study, four kinds of marine chitinous materials (squid pens, shrimp heads, demineralized shrimp shells, and demineralized crab shells) were used to screen the best [...] Read more.
Chitinous materials from marine byproducts elicit great interest among biotechnologists for their potential biomedical or agricultural applications. In this study, four kinds of marine chitinous materials (squid pens, shrimp heads, demineralized shrimp shells, and demineralized crab shells) were used to screen the best source for producing chitosanase by Paenibacillus macerans TKU029. Among them, the chitosanase activity was found to be highest in the culture using the medium containing squid pens as the sole carbon/nitrogen (C/N) source. A chitosanase which showed molecular weights at 63 kDa was isolated from P. macerans cultured on a squid pens medium. The purified TKU029 chitosanase exhibited optimum activity at 60 °C and pH 7, and was stable at temperatures under 50 °C and pH 3-8. An analysis by MALDI-TOF MS revealed that the chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) obtained from the hydrolysis of water-soluble chitosan by TKU029 crude enzyme showed various degrees of polymerization (DP), varying from 3–6. The obtained COS enhanced the growth of four lactic acid bacteria strains but exhibited no effect on the growth of E. coli. By specialized growth enhancing effects, the COS produced from hydrolyzing water soluble chitosan with TKU029 chitinolytic enzymes could have potential for use in medicine or nutraceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Article
A Novel Complex of Chitosan–Sodium Carbonate and Its Properties
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110416 - 30 Oct 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2556
Abstract
Chitosan has excellent properties, as it is nontoxic, mucoadhesive, biocompatible, and biodegradable. However, the poor water solubility of chitosan is a major disadvantage. Here, a novel chitosan-sodium carbonate complex was formed by adding a large amount of sodium carbonate to a chitosan/acetic acid [...] Read more.
Chitosan has excellent properties, as it is nontoxic, mucoadhesive, biocompatible, and biodegradable. However, the poor water solubility of chitosan is a major disadvantage. Here, a novel chitosan-sodium carbonate complex was formed by adding a large amount of sodium carbonate to a chitosan/acetic acid solution, which is water-soluble. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used to detect and characterize the aforementioned complex, which appeared to be a neat flake crystal. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) was used to verify the connections between carbonate, sodium ions, and the protonated amino group in chitosan on the basis of 13C signals at the chemical shift of 167.745 ppm and 164.743 ppm. Further confirmation was provided by the strong cross-polarization signals identified by the SSNMR 2D 13C–1H frequency-switched Lee–Goldberg heteronuclear correlation spectrum. The cytotoxicity of a film prepared using this complex was tested using rat fibroblasts. The results show that the film promoted cell proliferation, which provides evidence to support its nontoxicity. The ease of film-forming and the results of cytocompatibility testing suggest that the chitosan-sodium carbonate complex has the potential for use in tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Review

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Review
Enzymatic Modification of Native Chitin and Conversion to Specialty Chemical Products
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020093 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5215
Abstract
Chitin is one of the most abundant biomolecules on earth, occurring in crustacean shells and cell walls of fungi. While the polysaccharide is threatening to pollute coastal ecosystems in the form of accumulating shell-waste, it has the potential to be converted into highly [...] Read more.
Chitin is one of the most abundant biomolecules on earth, occurring in crustacean shells and cell walls of fungi. While the polysaccharide is threatening to pollute coastal ecosystems in the form of accumulating shell-waste, it has the potential to be converted into highly profitable derivatives with applications in medicine, biotechnology, and wastewater treatment, among others. Traditionally this is still mostly done by the employment of aggressive chemicals, yielding low quality while producing toxic by-products. In the last decades, the enzymatic conversion of chitin has been on the rise, albeit still not on the same level of cost-effectiveness compared to the traditional methods due to its multi-step character. Another severe drawback of the biotechnological approach is the highly ordered structure of chitin, which renders it nigh impossible for most glycosidic hydrolases to act upon. So far, only the Auxiliary Activity 10 family (AA10), including lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs), is known to hydrolyse native recalcitrant chitin, which spares the expensive first step of chemical or mechanical pre-treatment to enlarge the substrate surface. The main advantages of enzymatic conversion of chitin over conventional chemical methods are the biocompability and, more strikingly, the higher product specificity, product quality, and yield of the process. Products with a higher Mw due to no unspecific depolymerisation besides an exactly defined degree and pattern of acetylation can be yielded. This provides a new toolset of thousands of new chitin and chitosan derivatives, as the physio-chemical properties can be modified according to the desired application. This review aims to provide an overview of the biotechnological tools currently at hand, as well as challenges and crucial steps to achieve the long-term goal of enzymatic conversion of native chitin into specialty chemical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Review
Crab vs. Mushroom: A Review of Crustacean and Fungal Chitin in Wound Treatment
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18010064 - 18 Jan 2020
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 7133
Abstract
Chitin and its derivative chitosan are popular constituents in wound-treatment technologies due to their nanoscale fibrous morphology and attractive biomedical properties that accelerate healing and reduce scarring. These abundant natural polymers found in arthropod exoskeletons and fungal cell walls affect almost every phase [...] Read more.
Chitin and its derivative chitosan are popular constituents in wound-treatment technologies due to their nanoscale fibrous morphology and attractive biomedical properties that accelerate healing and reduce scarring. These abundant natural polymers found in arthropod exoskeletons and fungal cell walls affect almost every phase of the healing process, acting as hemostatic and antibacterial agents that also support cell proliferation and attachment. However, key differences exist in the structure, properties, processing, and associated polymers of fungal and arthropod chitin, affecting their respective application to wound treatment. High purity crustacean-derived chitin and chitosan have been widely investigated for wound-treatment applications, with research incorporating chemically modified chitosan derivatives and advanced nanocomposite dressings utilizing biocompatible additives, such as natural polysaccharides, mineral clays, and metal nanoparticles used to achieve excellent mechanical and biomedical properties. Conversely, fungi-derived chitin is covalently decorated with -glucan and has received less research interest despite its mass production potential, simple extraction process, variations in chitin and associated polymer content, and the established healing properties of fungal exopolysaccharides. This review investigates the proven biomedical properties of both fungal- and crustacean-derived chitin and chitosan, their healing mechanisms, and their potential to advance modern wound-treatment methods through further research and practical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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