Heart Failure and Heart Transplantation

A topical collection in Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This collection belongs to the section "Medical Research".

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Editors


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Heidelberg University Hospital, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Interests: heart failure; heart transplantation; ventricular assist devices; pacemaker/ICD/CRT systems; arrhythmias; atrial fibrillation; cardiomyopathies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Co-Collection Editor
1. Department of Pneumology and Oncology, Asklepios Hospital, 36433 Bad Salzungen, Germany
2. Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Heidelberg University Hospital, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Interests: heart failure; heart transplantation; ventricular assist devices; preventive cardiology; physical medicine and rehabilitation; sports cardiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Co-Collection Editor
Division of Cardiology, Pulmonology and Vascular Medicine Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
Interests: heart failure; heart transplantation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Heart failure (HF) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Different etiologies can cause HF, including congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. Patients with HF have a reduced quality of life and suffer from chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue and cardiac arrhythmias. Treatment of HF involves pharmacotherapy, interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery. Patients with HF often have cardiac arrhythmias requiring the implantation of cardiac devices such as pacemaker, ICD, or CRT systems. In advanced HF, temporary mechanical circulatory support or permanent implantation of ventricular assist devices may be mandatory. Once all available treatment options have been used, heart transplantation (HTX) may be the last chance for patients with advanced HF. Due to organ shortage in many countries, potential HTX recipients have to be selected with care and contraindications have to be ruled out. After a successful HTX, several risk factors can pose an imminent threat to post-transplant quality of life and survival. Diagnosis and treatment of concomitant disorders play a key role in order to ensure appropriate follow-up care and post-transplant survival.

This Topical Collection will contain a selection of papers highlighting current topics in the field of heart failure and heart transplantation. We welcome the submission of original research (basic research or clinical research), short communications, and review manuscripts focusing on diagnosis, risk factors, treatment, prognosis and novel approaches to heart failure, cardiomyopathies, congenital heart defects, heart transplantation, ventricular assist devices, mechanical circulatory support, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac pacemaker, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).

Prof. Dr. Rasmus Rivinius
Collection Editor

Prof. Dr. Andreas Doesch
Dr. Daniel Oehler
Co-Collection Editors

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Keywords

  • heart failure (HF)
  • cardiomyopathies
  • congenital heart defects
  • heart transplantation (HTX)
  • ventricular assist devices (VAD)
  • mechanical circulatory support (MCS)
  • cardiac arrhythmias
  • cardiac pacemaker
  • implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)
  • cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)

Published Papers (20 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021

3 pages, 195 KiB  
Reply
Reply to Thet et al. Comment on “Oehler et al. Outcome and Midterm Survival after Heart Transplantation Is Independent from Donor Length of Stay in the Intensive Care Unit. Life 2022, 12, 1053”
by Daniel Oehler, Charlotte Böttger, Moritz Benjamin Immohr, Raphael Romano Bruno, Jafer Haschemi, Daniel Scheiber, Patrick Horn, Hug Aubin, Igor Tudorache, Ralf Westenfeld, Payam Akhyari, Malte Kelm, Artur Lichtenberg and Udo Boeken
Life 2023, 13(7), 1444; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071444 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 529
Abstract
Myat Soe Thet et al. published a letter [...] Full article
3 pages, 201 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Oehler et al. Outcome and Midterm Survival after Heart Transplantation Is Independent from Donor Length of Stay in the Intensive Care Unit. Life 2022, 12, 1053
by Myat Soe Thet, Alessandra Verzelloni Sef, Nicholas J. Lees and Davorin Sef
Life 2023, 13(7), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071443 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 629
Abstract
Oehler et al. described an interesting finding, stating that length of stay (LOS) of the donors in the intensive care unit (ICU) did not have an impact on the outcomes and survival of recipients up to 5 years after heart transplantation (HTx) [...] [...] Read more.
Oehler et al. described an interesting finding, stating that length of stay (LOS) of the donors in the intensive care unit (ICU) did not have an impact on the outcomes and survival of recipients up to 5 years after heart transplantation (HTx) [...] Full article
13 pages, 677 KiB  
Article
Is the Benefit of Treating Iron Deficiency Greater in Acute Heart Failure with Renal Dysfunction?
by Raquel López-Vilella, Borja Guerrero Cervera, Víctor Donoso Trenado, Ignacio Sánchez-Lázaro, Luis Martínez Dolz and Luis Almenar Bonet
Life 2023, 13(4), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13040915 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Background: This study aims to analyse whether in acute heart failure (AHF) with iron deficiency (ID), the administration of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) produces a greater benefit in renal dysfunction. Methods: A total of 812 consecutive patients admitted for AHF and ID were studied. [...] Read more.
Background: This study aims to analyse whether in acute heart failure (AHF) with iron deficiency (ID), the administration of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) produces a greater benefit in renal dysfunction. Methods: A total of 812 consecutive patients admitted for AHF and ID were studied. Untreated (n:272) and treated (n:540) patients were compared. The six-month prevalence of a combined event (readmission for HF, all-cause death, and emergency department visit for decompensation) was analysed. Three grades of renal dysfunction (KDIGO) were compared, Group 1 (grades 1 and 2), Group 2 (grades 3a and 3b), and Group 3 (grades 4 and 5). Results: There were differences in sex distribution (untreated group: males 39.7% vs. treated group: males 51.9%; p < 0.001). Sex-adjusted combined event analysis showed a greater benefit in Group 1 (OR: 0.31, 95% CI:0.19–0.5; p < 0.001) and Group 2 (OR: 0.23, 95% CI:0.14–0.38; p < 0.001), but not in Group 3 (OR: 0.51, 95% CI:0.17–0.55; p: 0.237). Conclusions: The administration of FCM in patients with AHF and ID reduces the combined event analysed. The benefit is greater when renal dysfunction is present, except in very advanced degrees where no significant benefit is obtained. Full article
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15 pages, 658 KiB  
Systematic Review
Is Hypovitaminosis D a Risk Factor for Heart Failure?
by Asmaa Carla Hagău, Amalia Pușcaș, Rodica Togănel and Iolanda Muntean
Life 2023, 13(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020372 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
Background: Several studies in recent years have shown the association between vitamin D levels and heart failure. Vitamin D deficiency is related to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, with a higher risk of developing heart failure. In this systematic review, we aimed to [...] Read more.
Background: Several studies in recent years have shown the association between vitamin D levels and heart failure. Vitamin D deficiency is related to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, with a higher risk of developing heart failure. In this systematic review, we aimed to assess recent studies that analyzed vitamin D deficiency and heart failure in adult and pediatric populations. (2) Methods: We conducted a systematic search for studies published in the following databases: PubMed and Scopus from January 2012 to October 2022. (3) Results: Most observational studies that were included found a significant association between hypovitaminosis D and heart failure. However, the beneficial role of vitamin D supplementation is still controversial due to the lack of randomized controlled trials. (4) Conclusions: Vitamin D may play an important role as a cardiovascular marker in heart failure patients. More well-designed studies are needed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D and heart failure and to determine if vitamin D supplementation could improve long-term outcomes. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021

16 pages, 1034 KiB  
Article
Why Iron Deficiency in Acute Heart Failure Should Be Treated: A Real-World Clinical Practice Study
by Raquel López-Vilella, Víctor Donoso Trenado, Pablo Jover Pastor, Ignacio Sánchez-Lázaro, Luis Martínez Dolz and Luis Almenar Bonet
Life 2022, 12(11), 1828; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111828 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
Background. This study aims to determine whether the administration of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and iron deficiency (ID) improves morbidity and mortality. Methods. We studied 890 consecutive patients admitted for AHF. Patients were divided into six groups [...] Read more.
Background. This study aims to determine whether the administration of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and iron deficiency (ID) improves morbidity and mortality. Methods. We studied 890 consecutive patients admitted for AHF. Patients were divided into six groups according to reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) or preserved (HFpEF), presence of ID, and administration of FCM. Emergency visits, re-admissions, and all-cause mortality were assessed at 6 months. Results. The overall prevalence of ID was 91.2%. In the HFrEF group, no differences were found in isolated events when patients with untreated vs. treated ID were compared, while differences were found in the combined event rate (p = 0.049). The risk calculation showed an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 10% and relative risk reduction (RRR) of 18%. In HFpEF there was a positive trend with regard to the combined event (p = 0.107), with an ARR of 9% and an RRR of 15%. The number of patients we needed to treat to prevent a combined event was 10.5 in HFrEF and 10.8 in HFpEF. Conclusions. FCM in AHF reduced the combined event rate of emergency visits, re-admission, and all-cause death at 6 months in HF with left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, and showed a positive trend in HFpEF. Full article
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11 pages, 3966 KiB  
Article
Wound Infections in Adult Patients after Berlin Heart® EXCOR Biventricular Assist Device Implantation
by Jamila Kremer, Abbas El-Dor, Rasmus Rivinius, Philipp Schlegel, Wiebke Sommer, Gregor Warnecke, Matthias Karck, Arjang Ruhparwar and Anna L. Meyer
Life 2022, 12(10), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101550 - 6 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2239
Abstract
The Berlin Heart® EXCOR is a paracorporeal, pulsatile ventricular assist device used in patients of all age groups. However, adolescent and adult patients on EXCOR support are scarcely explored. Herein, we present a detailed description of infectious complications in this patient cohort. [...] Read more.
The Berlin Heart® EXCOR is a paracorporeal, pulsatile ventricular assist device used in patients of all age groups. However, adolescent and adult patients on EXCOR support are scarcely explored. Herein, we present a detailed description of infectious complications in this patient cohort. From 2006 to 2020, 58 patients received a biventricular assist device (BiVAD) at our institution and were included in this study. Postoperative infections were assessed after BiVAD implantation and subsequent heart transplantation (HTx). A Berlin Heart® EXCOR BiVAD was implanted as a bridge to transplantation in 58 patients (12–64 years). Most patients were INTERMACS I, and their median age was 49 years. Wound infections (WI) specific to the ventricular assist device (VAD) occurred in 31 (53.4%) patients with a mean time of 113 ± 155 days after BiVAD implantation. HTx was performed in 30 (51.7%) patients and thereof 10 (33.3%) patients developed at least one WI post-HTx. The mean time of WI after HTx was 17 ± 14 days. In four cases, WIs were caused by the same pathogen as before HTx. According to our institutional BiVAD wound classification, the mean wound score was 3. The VAD-specific wound infections were manageable and did not increase mortality nor precluded HTx in Berlin Heart® EXCOR patients. No specific risk factors for VAD-specific wound infections could be identified. Full article
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19 pages, 2212 KiB  
Review
Clinical and Molecular Aspects of Iron Metabolism in Failing Myocytes
by Bogna Kozłowska, Barbara Sochanowicz, Leszek Kraj, Małgorzata Palusińska, Piotr Kołsut, Łukasz Szymański, Sławomir Lewicki, Marcin Kruszewski, Marta Załęska-Kocięcka and Przemysław Leszek
Life 2022, 12(8), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12081203 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2771
Abstract
Heart failure (HF) is a common disease that causes significant limitations on the organism’s capacity and, in extreme cases, leads to death. Clinically, iron deficiency (ID) plays an essential role in heart failure by deteriorating the patient’s condition and is a prognostic marker [...] Read more.
Heart failure (HF) is a common disease that causes significant limitations on the organism’s capacity and, in extreme cases, leads to death. Clinically, iron deficiency (ID) plays an essential role in heart failure by deteriorating the patient’s condition and is a prognostic marker indicating poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, in HF patients, supplementation of iron is recommended. However, iron treatment may cause adverse effects by increasing iron-related apoptosis and the production of oxygen radicals, which may cause additional heart damage. Furthermore, many knowledge gaps exist regarding the complex interplay between iron deficiency and heart failure. Here, we describe the current, comprehensive knowledge about the role of the proteins involved in iron metabolism. We will focus on the molecular and clinical aspects of iron deficiency in HF. We believe that summarizing the new advances in the translational and clinical research regarding iron deficiency in heart failure should broaden clinicians’ awareness of this comorbidity. Full article
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23 pages, 1440 KiB  
Review
Pharmacological Targets in Chronic Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction
by Maria-Angela Moloce, Irina-Iuliana Costache, Ana Nicolae and Viviana Onofrei Aursulesei
Life 2022, 12(8), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12081112 - 24 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2351
Abstract
Heart failure management has been repeatedly reviewed over time. This strategy has resulted in improved quality of life, especially in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). It is for this reason that new mechanisms involved in the development and progression [...] Read more.
Heart failure management has been repeatedly reviewed over time. This strategy has resulted in improved quality of life, especially in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). It is for this reason that new mechanisms involved in the development and progression of heart failure, along with specific therapies, have been identified. This review focuses on the most recent guidelines of therapeutic interventions, trials that explore novel therapies, and also new molecules that could improve prognosis of different HFrEF phenotypes. Full article
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10 pages, 692 KiB  
Article
Outcome and Midterm Survival after Heart Transplantation Is Independent from Donor Length of Stay in the Intensive Care Unit
by Daniel Oehler, Charlotte Böttger, Moritz Benjamin Immohr, Raphael Romano Bruno, Jafer Haschemi, Daniel Scheiber, Patrick Horn, Hug Aubin, Igor Tudorache, Ralf Westenfeld, Payam Akhyari, Malte Kelm, Artur Lichtenberg and Udo Boeken
Life 2022, 12(7), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12071053 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Prolonged treatment of organ donors in the intensive care unit (ICU) may be associated with complications influencing the outcome after heart transplantation (HTx). We therefore aim to explore the potential impact of the donor length of stay (LOS) in the ICU on outcomes [...] Read more.
Prolonged treatment of organ donors in the intensive care unit (ICU) may be associated with complications influencing the outcome after heart transplantation (HTx). We therefore aim to explore the potential impact of the donor length of stay (LOS) in the ICU on outcomes in our cohort. We included all patients undergoing HTx in our center between September 2010 and April 2022 (n = 241). Recipients were divided around the median into three groups regarding their donor LOS in the ICU: 0 to 3 days (≤50th percentile, n = 92), 4 to 7 days (50th–75th percentile, n = 80), and ≥8 days (≥75th percentile, n = 69). Donor LOS in the ICU ranged between 0 and 155 days (median 4, IQR 3–8 days). No association between the LOS in the ICU and survival after HTx was observed (AUC for overall survival 0.514). Neither the Kaplan–Meier survival analysis up to 5 years after HTx (Log-Rank p = 0.789) nor group comparisons showed significant differences. Baseline recipient characteristics were comparable between the groups, while the donor baselines differed in some parameters, such as less cardiopulmonary resuscitation prior to HTx in those with a prolonged LOS. However, regarding the recipients’ peri- and postoperative parameters, the groups did not differ in all of the assessed parameters. Thus, in this retrospective analysis, although the donors differed in baseline parameters, the donor LOS in the ICU was not associated with altered recipient survival or outcome after HTx. Full article
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15 pages, 1128 KiB  
Article
Impact of Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair Using the MitraClipTM System on Ventricular Arrhythmias and ICD Therapies
by Nicolas A. Geis, Anna Göbbel, Michael M. Kreusser, Tobias Täger, Hugo A. Katus, Norbert Frey, Philipp Schlegel and Philip W. Raake
Life 2022, 12(3), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12030344 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2176
Abstract
Transcatheter edge-to-edge repair (TEER) using the MitraClip™ device has been established as a suitable alternative to mitral valve surgery in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and high or prohibitive surgical risk. Only limited information regarding the impact of TEER on ventricular arrhythmias [...] Read more.
Transcatheter edge-to-edge repair (TEER) using the MitraClip™ device has been established as a suitable alternative to mitral valve surgery in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and high or prohibitive surgical risk. Only limited information regarding the impact of TEER on ventricular arrhythmias (VA) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of TEER using the MitraClipTM device on the burden of VA and ICD (Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator) therapies. Among 600 MitraClipTM implantations performed in our clinic between September 2009 and October 2018, we identified 86 patients with successful TEER and an active implantable cardiac device (pacemaker, ICD, CRT-P/D (Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy-Pacemaker/Defibrillator)) eligible for retrospective VA analyses. These patients presented with mainly functional MR (81.4%) and severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (mean LVEF 22.1% ± 10.3%). The observation period comprised 456 ± 313 days before and 424 ± 287 days after TEER. The burden of ventricular arrhythmias (sustained ventricular tachycardia (sVT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF)) was significantly reduced after TEER (0.85 ± 3.47 vs. 0.43 ± 2.03 events per patient per month, p = 0.01). Furthermore, the rate of ICD therapies (anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) and ICD shock) decreased significantly after MitraClipTM implantation (1.0 ± 3.87 vs. 0.32 ± 1.41, p = 0.014). However, reduction of VA burden did not result in improved two-year survival in this patient cohort with severely reduced LVEF. Mitral valve TEER using the MitraClip™ device was associated with a significant reduction of ventricular arrhythmias and ICD therapies. Full article
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11 pages, 589 KiB  
Article
Ex-Vivo Preservation with the Organ Care System in High Risk Heart Transplantation
by Sebastian V. Rojas, Murat Avsar, Fabio Ius, David Schibilsky, Tim Kaufeld, Christoph Benk, Ilona Maeding, Michael Berchtold-Herz, Christoph Bara, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Axel Haverich, Gregor Warnecke and Matthias Siepe
Life 2022, 12(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020247 - 7 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2898
Abstract
Objective: Ex vivo organ perfusion is an advanced preservation technique that allows graft assessment and extended ex situ intervals. We hypothesized that its properties might be especially beneficial for high-risk recipients and/or donors with extended criteria. Methods: We reviewed the outcomes of 119 [...] Read more.
Objective: Ex vivo organ perfusion is an advanced preservation technique that allows graft assessment and extended ex situ intervals. We hypothesized that its properties might be especially beneficial for high-risk recipients and/or donors with extended criteria. Methods: We reviewed the outcomes of 119 consecutive heart transplant patients, which were divided into two groups: A (OCS) vs. B (conventional). Ex vivo organ perfusion was performed using the Organ Care System (OCS). Indications for OCS-usage were expected ischemic time of >4 h or >2 h plus given extended donor criteria. Results: Both groups included mostly redo cases (A: 89.7% vs. B: 78.4%; p = 0.121). Incidences of donors with previous cardiac arrest (%) (A: 32.4 vs. B: 22.2; p < 0.05) or LV-hypertrophy (%) (A: 19.1 vs. B: 8.3; p = 0.119) were also increased in Group A. Ex situ time (min) was significantly longer in Group A (A: 381 (74) vs. B: 228 (43); p < 0.05). Ventilation time (days) (A: 10.0 (19.9) vs. B: 24.3 (43.2); p = 0.057), postoperative need for ECLS (%) (A: 25.0 vs. B: 39.2; p = 0.112) and postoperative dialysis (chronic) (%) (A: 4.4 vs. B: 27.5; p < 0.001) were numerically better in the OCS group, without any difference in the occurrence of early graft rejection. The 30-d-survival (A: 92.4% vs. B: 90.2%; p = 0.745) and mid-term survival were statistically not different between both groups. Conclusions: OCS heart allowed safe transplantation of surgically complex recipients with excellent one-year outcomes, despite long preservation times and unfavourable donor characteristics. Furthermore, we observed trends towards decreased ventilation times and fewer ECLS treatments. In times of reduced organ availability and increasing recipient complexity, OCS heart is a valuable instrument that enables otherwise infeasible allocations and contributes to increase surgical safety. Full article
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7 pages, 231 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Follow-Up of Mechanical Circulatory Support in Peripartum Cardiomyopathy (PPCM) Refractory to Medical Management: A Multicenter Study
by Khalil Jawad, Alex Koziarz, Maja-Theresa Dieterlen, Jens Garbade, Christian D. Etz, Diyar Saeed, Elena Langer, Holger Stepan, Ute Scholz, Michael Krause, Paolo Brenner, Uwe Schulz, Michael A. Borger and Sandra Eifert
Life 2022, 12(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12010087 - 7 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Background: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare, life-threatening form of heart disease, frequently associated with gene alterations and, in some cases, presenting with advanced heart failure. Little is known about ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation in severe PPCM cases. We describe long-term follow-up [...] Read more.
Background: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare, life-threatening form of heart disease, frequently associated with gene alterations and, in some cases, presenting with advanced heart failure. Little is known about ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation in severe PPCM cases. We describe long-term follow-up of PPCM patients who were resistant to medical therapy and received mechanical circulatory support or heart transplant. Methods and results: A total of 13 patients were included with mean follow-up of eight years. Mean age of PPCM onset was 33.7 ± 7.7 years. All patients were initially treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers, and four received bromocriptine. Overall, five patients received VADs (three biventricular, two isolated left ventricular) at median 27 days (range: 3 to 150) following childbirth. Two patients developed drive line infection. Due to the short support time, none of those patients had a stroke or VAD thrombosis. In total, five patients underwent heart transplantation, of which four previously had implanted VADs. Median time to transplantation from PPCM onset was 140 days (range: 43 to 776), and time to transplantation from VAD implantation were 7, 40, 132, and 735 days, respectively. All patients survived until most recent follow up, with the exception of one patient who died following unrelated abdominal surgery two years after PPCM recovery. Conclusions: In patients with severe, life-threatening PPCM refractory to medical management, mechanical circulatory support with or without heart transplantation is a safe therapeutic option. Full article

2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022

14 pages, 962 KiB  
Article
Psychosocial Risk and Health Behaviors as Predictors of Clinical Events in Patients Wait-Listed for a New Heart: Results from 7 Years of Follow-Up
by Kathleen Gali, Gerdi Weidner, Jacqueline M. A. Smits, Jan Beyersmann and Heike Spaderna
Life 2021, 11(12), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11121438 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2599
Abstract
We examined the long-term relationship of psychosocial risk and health behaviors on clinical events in patients awaiting heart transplantation (HTx). Psychosocial characteristics (e.g., depression), health behaviors (e.g., dietary habits, smoking), medical factors (e.g., creatinine), and demographics (e.g., age, sex) were collected at the [...] Read more.
We examined the long-term relationship of psychosocial risk and health behaviors on clinical events in patients awaiting heart transplantation (HTx). Psychosocial characteristics (e.g., depression), health behaviors (e.g., dietary habits, smoking), medical factors (e.g., creatinine), and demographics (e.g., age, sex) were collected at the time of listing in 318 patients (82% male, mean age = 53 years) enrolled in the Waiting for a New Heart Study. Clinical events were death/delisting due to deterioration, high-urgency status transplantation (HU-HTx), elective transplantation, and delisting due to clinical improvement. Within 7 years of follow-up, 92 patients died or were delisted due to deterioration, 121 received HU-HTx, 43 received elective transplantation, and 39 were delisted due to improvement. Adjusting for demographic and medical characteristics, the results indicated that frequent consumption of healthy foods (i.e., foods high in unsaturated fats) and being physically active increased the likelihood of delisting due improvement, while smoking and depressive symptoms were related to death/delisting due to clinical deterioration while awaiting HTx. In conclusion, psychosocial and behavioral characteristics are clearly associated with clinical outcomes in this population. Interventions that target psychosocial risk, smoking, dietary habits, and physical activity may be beneficial for patients with advanced heart failure waiting for a cardiac transplant. Full article
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14 pages, 1056 KiB  
Article
Low-Level Elevations of Procalcitonin Are Associated with Increased Mortality in Acute Heart Failure Patients, Independent of Concomitant Infection
by Fabrice F. Darche, Moritz Biener, Matthias Müller-Hennessen, Rasmus Rivinius, Kiril M. Stoyanov, Barbara R. Milles, Hugo A. Katus, Norbert Frey and Evangelos Giannitsis
Life 2021, 11(12), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11121429 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) in acute heart failure (AHF) patients, especially in those without underlying infection. We enrolled patients presenting with acute dyspnea to the emergency department (ED) of Heidelberg University Hospital and studied the prognostic role [...] Read more.
We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) in acute heart failure (AHF) patients, especially in those without underlying infection. We enrolled patients presenting with acute dyspnea to the emergency department (ED) of Heidelberg University Hospital and studied the prognostic role of PCT on all-cause death. Of 312 patients, AHF was diagnosed in 139 patients. Of these, 125 patients had AHF without signs of infection, and 14 had AHF complicated by respiratory or other infection. The optimal prognostic PCT cutoff value for mortality prediction was calculated by a receiver operating characteristics curve. In patients with AHF, the prognostic PCT cutoff value was 0.08 ng/mL. The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that AHF patients with PCT values > 0.08 ng/mL had a higher all-cause mortality at 120 days than those with PCT values ≤ 0.08 ng/mL (log-rank p = 0.0123). Similar results could be obtained after subdivision into AHF patients with and without signs of overt infection. In both cases, mortality was higher in patients with PCT levels above the prognostic PCT cutoff than in those with values ranging below this threshold. Moreover, we show that the prognostic PCT cutoff values for mortality prediction ranged below the established PCT cutoff for the guidance of antibiotic therapy. In conclusion, the data of our study revealed that low-level elevations of PCT were associated with an increased mortality in patients with AHF, irrespective of concomitant respiratory or other infection. PCT should thus be further used as a marker in the risk stratification of AHF. Full article
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11 pages, 892 KiB  
Article
Everolimus-Induced Immune Effects after Heart Transplantation: A Possible Tool for Clinicians to Monitor Patients at Risk for Transplant Rejection
by Kristin Klaeske, Sven Lehmann, Robert Palitzsch, Petra Büttner, Markus J. Barten, Khalil Jawad, Sandra Eifert, Diyar Saeed, Michael A. Borger and Maja-Theresa Dieterlen
Life 2021, 11(12), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11121373 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2014
Abstract
Background: Patients treated with an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORI) in a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-free immunosuppressive regimen after heart transplantation (HTx) show a higher risk for transplant rejection. We developed an immunological monitoring tool that may improve the identification of [...] Read more.
Background: Patients treated with an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORI) in a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-free immunosuppressive regimen after heart transplantation (HTx) show a higher risk for transplant rejection. We developed an immunological monitoring tool that may improve the identification of mTORI-treated patients at risk for rejection. Methods: Circulating dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were analysed in 19 mTORI- and 20 CNI-treated HTx patients by flow cytometry. Principal component and cluster analysis were used to identify patients at risk for transplant rejection. Results: The percentages of total Tregs (p = 0.02) and CD39+ Tregs (p = 0.05) were higher in mTORI-treated patients than in CNI-treated patients. The principal component analysis revealed that BDCA1+, BDCA2+ and BDCA4+ DCs as well as total Tregs could distinguish between non-rejecting and rejecting mTORI-treated patients. Most mTORI-treated rejectors showed higher levels of BDCA2+ and BDCA4+ plasmacytoid DCs and lower levels of BDCA1+ myeloid DCs and Tregs than mTORI non-rejectors. Conclusion: An mTORI-based immunosuppressive regimen induced a sufficient, tolerance-promoting reaction in Tregs, but an insufficient, adverse effect in DCs. On the basis of patient-specific immunological profiles, we established a flow cytometry-based monitoring tool that may be helpful in identifying patients at risk for rejection. Full article
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15 pages, 736 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors, Treatment and Prognosis of Patients with Lung Cancer after Heart Transplantation
by Karsten M. Heil, Matthias Helmschrott, Fabrice F. Darche, Tom Bruckner, Philipp Ehlermann, Michael M. Kreusser, Andreas O. Doesch, Wiebke Sommer, Gregor Warnecke, Norbert Frey and Rasmus Rivinius
Life 2021, 11(12), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11121344 - 4 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2809
Abstract
Long-term survival after heart transplantation (HTX) is impacted by adverse effects of immunosuppressive pharmacotherapy, and post-transplant lung cancer is a common occurrence. This study aimed to examine the risk factors, treatment, and prognosis of patients with post-transplant lung cancer. We included 625 adult [...] Read more.
Long-term survival after heart transplantation (HTX) is impacted by adverse effects of immunosuppressive pharmacotherapy, and post-transplant lung cancer is a common occurrence. This study aimed to examine the risk factors, treatment, and prognosis of patients with post-transplant lung cancer. We included 625 adult patients who received HTX at Heidelberg Heart Center between 1989 and 2018. Patients were stratified by diagnosis and staging of lung cancer after HTX. Analysis comprised donor and recipient characteristics, medications including immunosuppressive drugs, and survival after diagnosis of lung cancer. A total of 41 patients (6.6%) were diagnosed with lung cancer after HTX, 13 patients received curative care and 28 patients had palliative care. Mean time from HTX until diagnosis of lung cancer was 8.6 ± 4.0 years and 1.8 ± 2.7 years from diagnosis of lung cancer until last follow-up. Twenty-four patients (58.5%) were switched to an mTOR-inhibitor after diagnosis of lung cancer. Multivariate analysis showed recipient age (HR: 1.05; CI: 1.01–1.10; p = 0.02), COPD (HR: 3.72; CI: 1.88–7.37; p < 0.01), and history of smoking (HR: 20.39; CI: 2.73–152.13; p < 0.01) as risk factors for post-transplant lung cancer. Patients in stages I and II had a significantly better 1-year (100.0% versus 3.6%), 2-year (69.2% versus 0.0%), and 5-year survival (53.8% versus 0.0%) than patients in stages III and IV (p < 0.01). Given the poor prognosis of late-stage post-transplant lung cancer, routine reassessment of current smoking status, providing smoking cessation support, and intensified lung cancer screening in high-risk HTX recipients are advisable. Full article
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11 pages, 2001 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of a TDI-Derived Systolic Wall Motion Analysis as a Screening Modality for Allograft Rejection after Heart Transplantation
by Isabell A. Just, Meryem Guelfirat, Laura Leser, Ata Uecertas, Laurenz Kopp Fernandes, Maren Godde, Nicolas Merke, Philipp Stawowy, Felix Hennig, Christoph Knosalla, Volkmar Falk, Jan Knierim and Felix Schoenrath
Life 2021, 11(11), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11111206 - 9 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1780
Abstract
Background: Despite the risk for complications, allograft surveillance after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is performed by cardiac catheterization and biopsies. We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic value of a TDI-derived systolic wall motion analysis of the posterobasal wall of the left ventricle (Sm) [...] Read more.
Background: Despite the risk for complications, allograft surveillance after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is performed by cardiac catheterization and biopsies. We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic value of a TDI-derived systolic wall motion analysis of the posterobasal wall of the left ventricle (Sm) as a screening modality in OHT aftercare. Methods: We examined data of 210 eligible patients who underwent OHT between 2010 and 2020. Forty-four patients who had died within the initial hospital stay were excluded. For 166 patients, baseline and follow-up data were analyzed. The mean age at OHT was 46.2 (±11.4) years; 76.5% were male. Results: Within the observational period, 22 (13.3%) patients died. In total, 170 episodes of acute cellular or humoral rejections occurred (84 ISHLT1R; 13 ISHLT2R; 8 ISHLT3R; 65 AMR), and 29 catheterizations revealed cardiac allograft vasculopathy (5 CAV1; 4 CAV2; 20 CAV3). Individual Sm radial/longitudinal remained stable within the follow-up period (11.5 ± 2.2 cm/s; 10.9 ± 2.1 cm/s). Patients with acute rejections and CAV3 showed significant Sm radial/longitudinal reductions (AMR1: 1.6 ± 1.9 cm/s, confidence interval (CI) 0.77–0.243, p < 0.001; 1.8 ± 2.0 cm/s, CI 0.92–0.267, p < 0.001. ISHLT1R: 1.7 ± 1.8 cm/s, CI 1.32–2.08, p < 0.001; 2.0 ± 1.6 cm/s, CI 1.66–2.34, p < 0.001. CAV3: 1.3 ± 2.5 cm/s, CI 0.23–2.43, p < 0.017; 1.4 ± 2.8 cm/s, CI 0.21–2.66, p < 0.021). Lower Sm was associated with a threefold increase in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 3.24, CI 1.2–8.76, p = 0.020; HR 2.92, CI 1.19–7.18, p = 0.019). Overall, Sm-triggered surveillance led to 0.75 invasive diagnostics per patient post-OHT year. Conclusions: Sm remained stable in the post-OHT course. Reductions indicated ISHLT1R, AMR1 and CAV3 and were associated with higher all-cause mortality. Sm-triggered surveillance may be referred to as a safe, high-yield screening modality in OHT aftercare. Full article
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13 pages, 1361 KiB  
Review
Cardiac Transplantation and the Use of Cannabis
by Hirak Shah, Meg Fraser, Arianne C. Agdamag, Valmiki Maharaj, Bellony Nzemenoh, Cindy M. Martin, Tamas Alexy and Daniel J. Garry
Life 2021, 11(10), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101063 - 9 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2477
Abstract
Cardiac transplantation requires the careful allocation of a limited number of precious organs. Therefore, it is critical to select candidates that will receive the greatest anticipated medical benefit but will also serve as the best stewards of the organ. Individual transplant teams have [...] Read more.
Cardiac transplantation requires the careful allocation of a limited number of precious organs. Therefore, it is critical to select candidates that will receive the greatest anticipated medical benefit but will also serve as the best stewards of the organ. Individual transplant teams have established prerequisites pertaining to recreational drug, tobacco, alcohol, and controlled substance use in potential organ recipients and post-transplantation. Legalization of cannabis and implementation of its prescription-based use for the management of patients with chronic conditions have been increasing over the past years. Center requirements regarding abstinence from recreational and medical cannabis use vary due to rapidly changing state regulations, as well as the lack of clinical safety data in this population. This is evident by the results of the multicenter survey presented in this paper. Developing uniform guidelines around cannabis use will be imperative not only for providers but also for patients. Full article
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14 pages, 1632 KiB  
Article
Inflammation-Related Biomarkers Are Associated with Heart Failure Severity and Poor Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Non-Ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy
by Ieva Kažukauskienė, Vaida Baltrūnienė, Ieva Rinkūnaitė, Edvardas Žurauskas, Dalius Vitkus, Vytė Valerija Maneikienė, Kęstutis Ručinskas and Virginija Grabauskienė
Life 2021, 11(10), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101006 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
Inflammation-related biomarkers are associated with clinical outcomes in mixed-etiology chronic heart failure populations. Inflammation-related markers tend to be higher in ischemic than in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NI-DCM) patients, which might impact their prognostic performance in NI-DCM patients. Therefore, we aimed to assess the [...] Read more.
Inflammation-related biomarkers are associated with clinical outcomes in mixed-etiology chronic heart failure populations. Inflammation-related markers tend to be higher in ischemic than in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NI-DCM) patients, which might impact their prognostic performance in NI-DCM patients. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association of inflammation-related biomarkers with heart failure severity parameters and adverse cardiac events in a pure NI-DCM patient cohort. Fifty-seven patients with NI-DCM underwent endomyocardial biopsy. Biopsies were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for CD3+, CD45ro+, CD68+, CD4+, CD54+, and HLA-DR+ cells. Blood samples were tested for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor and adiponectin. During a five-year follow-up, twenty-seven patients experienced at least one composite adverse cardiac event: left ventricle assist device implantation, heart transplantation or death. Interleukin-6, TNF-α and adiponectin correlated with heart failure severity parameters. Patients with higher levels of interleukin-6, TNF-α, adiponectin or hs-CRP, or a higher number of CD3+ or CD45ro+ cells, had lower survival rates. Interleukin-6, adiponectin, and CD45ro+ cells were independently associated with poor clinical outcomes. All patients who had interleukin-6, TNF-α and adiponectin concentrations above the threshold experienced an adverse cardiac event. Therefore, a combination of these cytokines can identify high-risk NI-DCM patients. Full article
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9 pages, 759 KiB  
Article
Psoas Muscle Area Predicts Mortality after Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation
by Franziska Wittmann, Thomas Schlöglhofer, Julia Riebandt, Anne-Kristin Schaefer, Dominik Wiedemann, Edda Tschernko, Dietrich Beitzke, Christian Loewe, Günther Laufer and Daniel Zimpfer
Life 2021, 11(9), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11090922 - 5 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2034
Abstract
Several risk scores and classifications are available to predict peri- and post-operative mortality of patients with end stage heart failure receiving Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) therapy. Sarcopenia has been suggested as a sensitive predictor for post-operative mortality. We evaluated whether the psoas [...] Read more.
Several risk scores and classifications are available to predict peri- and post-operative mortality of patients with end stage heart failure receiving Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) therapy. Sarcopenia has been suggested as a sensitive predictor for post-operative mortality. We evaluated whether the psoas muscle area can predict mortality in patients undergoing LVAD implantation. The indexed psoas mean area (PMAi) was obtained by measuring the psoas muscle area at the superior endplate of the third lumbar vertebra correlated to body surface area of 106 adult patients undergoing LVAD implantation (Medtronic HVAD n = 41, Abbott HeartMate II n = 4, Abbott HeartMate 3 n = 61; mean age 65, IQR 12, 90.6% male; INTERMACS Level 1 24.5%; ischemic CMP 64.2%). Patients were divided in two groups: high/moderate and low muscle mass. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality, assessed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Baseline characteristics did not differ between patients with high or moderate and low PMAi. Estimated survival calculated a significant higher 30-day mortality in patients with low PMAi (p = 0.04). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis indicated low PMAi, history of previous cardiac surgery and levels of bilirubin as independent predictors of mortality in the first 30 days. In conclusion, indexed psoas muscle area predicts mortality after LVAD implantation and can be used as an additional tool for risk stratification. Full article
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