Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmaceutical Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (23 June 2023) | Viewed by 29397

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Guest Editor
UCL Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK
Interests: diet; gut health; natural products; phytochemicals; inflammation; inflammatory bowel disease; oxidative stress
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Department of Dietetics and Nutritional Science, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 70 El. Venizelou Ave., 17671 Athens, Greece
Interests: biology; molecular nutrition; inflammation; phytochemicals; clinical trials; inflammatory diseases; obesity; epigenetics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Istituto Superiore Di Sanità, 00161 Rome, Italy
Interests: nanomedicine; natural compounds; drug-delivery; cancer research; electron microscopy analysis; multidrug resistance of tumor cells and microrganisms

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are very happy to announce a Special Issue entitled "Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties" that is being prepared for Life.

Plant-derived natural products have been well known since antiquity for their beneficial effects on human health and have been utilised in pain management, gut health, skin issues, etc. Since then, they have attracted the interest of the scientific community, leading to the identification, isolation and quantification of their compounds and the study of their biomedical properties. Plant-derived natural products have been found to be rich in phytochemicals, such as terpenes and phenolic compounds, with proven antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antitumor and prebiotic properties through numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. Therefore, they have been suggested as potential candidates for the therapeutic management of several chronic diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, arthritis and cancer, where inflammation, oxidative stress and dysbiosis mechanisms are implicated. Further, given the increased economic burden, the side effects and the low compliance rate of patients with standard medical treatments, plant-derived natural products could possibly serve as adjunct therapeutic agents for chronic diseases.

The aim of this Special Issue is to address recent advances in the research of plant-derived natural products, their mechanisms of action and how they can influence health and disease.

Experts interested in this Special Issue are invited to submit original manuscripts and reviews addressing the above-mentioned aspects.

Dr. Efstathia Papada
Dr. Charalampia Amerikanou
Prof. Dr. Marisa Colone
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • plant-derived natural products
  • phytochemicals
  • antioxidants
  • inflammation
  • therapeutic agent

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 181 KiB  
Editorial
Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties: Recent Advances and Future Directions
by Charalampia Amerikanou and Efstathia Papada
Life 2023, 13(10), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13102105 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 850
Abstract
Nature has always been a source of inspiration and innovation to humanity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)

Research

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28 pages, 5151 KiB  
Article
Ocimum sanctum Alters the Lipid Landscape of the Brain Cortex and Plasma to Ameliorate the Effect of Photothrombotic Stroke in a Mouse Model
by Inderjeet Yadav, Nupur Sharma, Rema Velayudhan, Zeeshan Fatima and Jaswinder Singh Maras
Life 2023, 13(9), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13091877 - 7 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Stroke-like injuries in the brain result in not only cell death at the site of the injury but also other detrimental structural and molecular changes in regions around the stroke. A stroke-induced alteration in the lipid profile interferes with neuronal functions such as [...] Read more.
Stroke-like injuries in the brain result in not only cell death at the site of the injury but also other detrimental structural and molecular changes in regions around the stroke. A stroke-induced alteration in the lipid profile interferes with neuronal functions such as neurotransmission. Preventing these unfavorable changes is important for recovery. Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi extract) is known to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. It is possible that Tulsi imparts a neuroprotective effect through the lipophilic transfer of active ingredients into the brain. Hence, we examined alterations in the lipid profile in the cerebral cortex as well as the plasma of mice with a photothrombotic-ischemic-stroke-like injury following the administration of a Tulsi extract. It is also possible that the lipids present in the Tulsi extract could contribute to the lipophilic transfer of active ingredients into the brain. Therefore, to identify the major lipid species in the Tulsi extract, we performed metabolomic and untargeted lipidomic analyses on the Tulsi extract. The presence of 39 molecular lipid species was detected in the Tulsi extract. We then examined the effect of a treatment using the Tulsi extract on the untargeted lipidomic profile of the brain and plasma following photothrombotic ischemic stroke in a mouse model. Mice of the C57Bl/6j strain, aged 2–3 months, were randomly divided into four groups: (i) Sham, (ii) Lesion, (iii) Lesion plus Tulsi, and (iv) Lesion plus Ibuprofen. The cerebral cortex of the lesioned hemisphere of the brain and plasma samples were collected for untargeted lipidomic profiling using a Q-Exactive Mass Spectrometer. Our results documented significant alterations in major lipid groups, including PE, PC, neutral glycerolipids, PS, and P-glycerol, in the brain and plasma samples from the photothrombotic stroke mice following their treatment with Tulsi. Upon further comparison between the different study groups of mice, levels of MGDG (36:4), which may assist in recovery, were found to be increased in the brain cortexes of the mice treated with Tulsi when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). Lipid species such as PS, PE, LPG, and PI were commonly altered in the Sham and Lesion plus Tulsi groups. The brain samples from the Sham group were specifically enriched in many species of glycerol lipids and had reduced PE species, while their plasma samples showed altered PE and PS species when compared to the Lesion group. LPC (16:1) was found in the Tulsi extract and was significantly increased in the brains of the PTL-plus-Tulsi-treated group. Our results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of Tulsi on cerebral ischemia may be partially associated with its ability to regulate brain and plasma lipids, and these results may help provide critical insights into therapeutic options for cerebral ischemia or brain lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)
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20 pages, 4709 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory, Antinociceptive, Antipyretic, and Gastroprotective Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Ethanolic Extract
by Subhawat Subhawa, Warangkana Arpornchayanon, Kanjana Jaijoy, Sunee Chansakaow, Noppamas Soonthornchareonnon and Seewaboon Sireeratawong
Life 2023, 13(7), 1465; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071465 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2074
Abstract
Tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) (ELJ) is a plant in the Simaroubaceae family. Its roots are used in traditional Thai medicine to treat inflammation, pain, and fever; however, the antiulcer abilities of its ethanolic extract have not been studied. This study examined [...] Read more.
Tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) (ELJ) is a plant in the Simaroubaceae family. Its roots are used in traditional Thai medicine to treat inflammation, pain, and fever; however, the antiulcer abilities of its ethanolic extract have not been studied. This study examined the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antipyretic, and gastroprotective effects of ethanolic ELJ extract in animal models and found that ELJ effectively reduced EPP-induced ear edema in a dose-dependent manner and that a high dose of ELJ inhibited carrageenan-induced hind paw edema formation. In cotton-pellet-induced granuloma formation, a high dose of ELJ suppressed the increases in wet granuloma weight but not dry or transudative weight. In the formalin-induced nociception study, ELJ had a significant dose-dependent inhibitory impact. Additionally, the study found that yeast-induced hyperthermia could be significantly reduced by antipyretic action at the highest dose of ELJ. In all the gastric ulcer models induced by chemical substances or physical activity, ELJ extracts at 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg also effectively prevented gastric ulcer formation. In the pyloric ligation model, however, the effects of ELJ extract on gastric volume, gastric pH, and total acidity were statistically insignificant. These findings support the current widespread use of Eurycoma longifolia Jack in traditional medicine, suggest the plant’s medicinal potential for development of phytomedicines with anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic properties, and support its use in the treatment of gastric ulcers due to its gastroprotective properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)
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17 pages, 356 KiB  
Article
Artemisia arborescens and Artemisia inculta from Crete; Secondary Metabolites, Trace Metals and In Vitro Antioxidant Activities
by Dimitra Z. Lantzouraki, Charalampia Amerikanou, Sotirios Karavoltsos, Vasiliki Kafourou, Aikaterini Sakellari, Dimitra Tagkouli, Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis, Dimitris P. Makris, Nick Kalogeropoulos and Andriana C. Kaliora
Life 2023, 13(6), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13061416 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Background: Currently, the use of medicinal plants has increased. Artemisia species have been used in several applications, including medicinal use and uses in cosmetics, foods and beverages. Artemisia arborescens L. and Artemisia inculta are part of the Mediterranean diet in the form of aqueous [...] Read more.
Background: Currently, the use of medicinal plants has increased. Artemisia species have been used in several applications, including medicinal use and uses in cosmetics, foods and beverages. Artemisia arborescens L. and Artemisia inculta are part of the Mediterranean diet in the form of aqueous infusions. Herein, we aimed to compare the secondary metabolites of the decoctions and two different extracts (methanolic and aqueous-glycerolic) of these two species, as well as their antioxidant capacity and trace metal levels. Methods: Total phenolic, total flavonoid, total terpenes, total hydroxycinnamate, total flavonol, total anthocyanin contents and antioxidant/antiradical activity were determined, and GC/MS analysis was applied to identify and quantify phenolics and terpenoids. Trace metals were quantified with ICP-MS. Results: Aqueous-glycerolic extracts demonstrated higher levels of total secondary metabolites, greater antioxidant potential and higher terpenoid levels than decoctions and methanolic extracts. Subsequently, the aqueous-glycerolic extract of a particularly high phenolic content was further analyzed applying targeted LC-MS/MS as the most appropriate analytic tool for the determination of the phenolic profile. Overall, twenty-two metabolites were identified. The potential contribution of infusions consumption to metal intake was additionally evaluated, and did not exceed the recommended daily intake. Conclusions: Our results support the use of these two species in several food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)
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23 pages, 2737 KiB  
Article
Pharmacological Properties of Chemically Characterized Extracts from Mastic Tree: In Vitro and In Silico Assays
by Safae Ouahabi, El Hassania Loukili, Amine Elbouzidi, Mohamed Taibi, Mohammed Bouslamti, Hiba-Allah Nafidi, Ahmad Mohammad Salamatullah, Nezha Saidi, Reda Bellaouchi, Mohamed Addi, Mohamed Ramdani, Mohammed Bourhia and Belkheir Hammouti
Life 2023, 13(6), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13061393 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
The mastic tree, scientifically known as Pistacia lentiscus, which belongs to the Anacardiaceae family, was used in this study. The aim of this research was to analyze the chemical composition of this plant and assess its antioxidant and antibacterial properties using both [...] Read more.
The mastic tree, scientifically known as Pistacia lentiscus, which belongs to the Anacardiaceae family, was used in this study. The aim of this research was to analyze the chemical composition of this plant and assess its antioxidant and antibacterial properties using both laboratory experiments and computer simulations through molecular docking, a method that predicts the binding strength of a small molecule to a protein. The soxhlet method (SE) was employed to extract substances from the leaves of P. lentiscus found in the eastern region of Morocco. Hexane and methanol were the solvents used for the extraction process. The n-hexane extract was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify its fatty acid content. The methanolic extract underwent high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) to determine the presence of phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was assessed using the DPPH spectrophotometric test. The findings revealed that the main components in the n-hexane extract were linoleic acid (40.97 ± 0.33%), oleic acid (23.69 ± 0.12%), and palmitic acid (22.83 ± 0.10%). Catechin (37.05 ± 0.15%) was identified as the predominant compound in the methanolic extract through HPLC analysis. The methanolic extract exhibited significant DPPH radical scavenging, with an IC50 value of 0.26 ± 0.14 mg/mL. The antibacterial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua, and Escherichia coli, while the antifungal activity was evaluated against Geotrichum candidum and Rhodotorula glutinis. The P. lentiscus extract demonstrated notable antimicrobial effects. Additionally, apart from molecular docking, other important factors, such as drug similarity, drug metabolism and distribution within the body, potential adverse effects, and impact on bodily systems, were considered for the substances derived from P. lentiscus. Scientific algorithms, such as Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances (PASS), Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion (ADME), and Pro-Tox II, were utilized for this assessment. The results obtained from this research support the traditional medicinal usage of P. lentiscus and suggest its potential for drug development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)
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25 pages, 18161 KiB  
Article
Novel Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Effect of Euonymus laxiflorus Champ. Extracts via Experimental and In Silico Studies
by Van Bon Nguyen, San-Lang Wang, Tu Quy Phan, Manh Dung Doan, Thi Kim Phung Phan, Thi Kim Thu Phan, Thi Huyen Thoa Pham and Anh Dzung Nguyen
Life 2023, 13(6), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13061281 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is recorded as a global health issue. Natural acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are considered a helpful therapy for the management of symptoms of patients with mild-to-moderate AD. This work aimed to investigate and [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is recorded as a global health issue. Natural acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are considered a helpful therapy for the management of symptoms of patients with mild-to-moderate AD. This work aimed to investigate and characterize Euonymus laxiflorus Champ. (ELC) as a natural source of AChEIs compounds via in vitro and virtual studies. The screening parts used, including the leaves, heartwood, and trunk bark of ELC, revealed that the trunk bark extract possessed the highest activity, phenolics and flavonoid content. The in vitro anti-Alzheimer activity of ELC trunk bark was notably reclaimed for the first time with comparable effect (IC50 = 0.332 mg/mL) as that of a commercial AChEI, berberine chloride (IC50 = 0.314 mg/mL). Among various solvents, methanol was the most suitable to extract ELC trunk bark with the highest activity. Twenty-one secondary metabolites (121) were identified from ELC trunk bark extract, based on GCMS and UHPLC analyses. Of these, 10 volatile compounds were identified from this herbal extract for the first time. One phenolic (11) and seven flavonoid compounds (1521) were also newly found in this herbal extract. Of the identified compounds, chlorogenic acid (11), epigallocatechin gallate (12), epicatechin (13), apigetrin (18), and quercetin (20) were major compounds with a significant content of 395.8–2481.5 μg/g of dried extract. According to docking-based simulation, compounds (1119, and 21) demonstrated more effective inhibitory activity than berberine chloride, with good binding energy (DS values: −12.3 to −14.4 kcal/mol) and acceptable RMSD values (0.77–1.75 Å). In general, these identified compounds processed drug properties and were non-toxic for human use, based on Lipinski’s rule of five and ADMET analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)
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14 pages, 7008 KiB  
Article
Extraction, HPTLC Analysis and Antiobesity Activity of Jatropha tanjorensis and Fraxinus micrantha on High-Fat Diet Model in Rats
by Swati Srivastava, Tarun Virmani, Md. Rafiul Haque, Abdulsalam Alhalmi, Omkulthom Al Kamaly, Samar Zuhair Alshawwa and Fahd A. Nasr
Life 2023, 13(6), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13061248 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1641
Abstract
The accumulation of body fat due to an imbalance between calorie intake and energy expenditure is called obesity. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Jatropha [...] Read more.
The accumulation of body fat due to an imbalance between calorie intake and energy expenditure is called obesity. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Jatropha tanjorensis (J.T.) and Fraxinus micrantha (F.M.) leaf extracts on high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats. Normal control, high-fat diet (HFD) control, orlistat standard, and test groups were created using male Albino Wistar rats (n = 6 per group) weighing 190 ± 15 g. Except for the control group, all regimens were administered orally and continued for 6 weeks while on HFD. Evaluation criteria included body weight, food intake, blood glucose, lipid profile, oxidative stress, and liver histology. High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis was performed using a solvent system (7:3 hexane: ethyl acetate for sitosterol solution and Jatropha tanjorensis extracts and 6:4 hexane: ethyl acetate: 1 drop of acetic acid for esculetin and Fraxinus micrantha extracts). There were no deaths during the 14 days before the acute toxicity test, indicating that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of both J.T. and F.M. did not produce acute toxicity at any dose (5, 50, 300, and 2000 mg/kg). The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of J.T. and F.M. leaves at 200 and 400 mg/kg/orally showed a reduction in weight gain, feed intake, and significant decreases in serum glucose and lipid profile. As compared to inducer HFD animals, co-treatment of aqueous and ethanolic extract of both J.T. and F.M. and orlistat increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and decreased lipid peroxidation. The liver’s histological findings showed that the sample had some degree of protection. These results indicate that ethanolic samples of J.T. have antidiabetic potential in diabetic rats fed an HFD. The strong antioxidant potential and restoration of serum lipid levels may be related to this. Co-treatment of samples JTE, JTAQ, FME, FMAQ and orlistat resulted in an increase in antioxidant enzymes and reduction in lipid peroxidation as compared to inducer HFD animals. We report, for the first time, on using these leaves to combat obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)
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18 pages, 3436 KiB  
Article
Hesperetin and Capecitabine Abate 1,2 Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Wistar Rats via Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Enhancing Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Apoptotic Actions
by Asmaa K. Hassan, Asmaa M. El-Kalaawy, Sanaa M. Abd El-Twab, Mohamed A. Alblihed and Osama M. Ahmed
Life 2023, 13(4), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13040984 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Colon cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death, with significantly increasing rates of incidence worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-carcinogenic effects of hesperetin (HES) alone and in combination with capecitabine (CAP) on 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in [...] Read more.
Colon cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death, with significantly increasing rates of incidence worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-carcinogenic effects of hesperetin (HES) alone and in combination with capecitabine (CAP) on 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. The rats were given DMH at 20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/week for 12 weeks and were orally treated with HES (25 mg/kg b.w.) and/or CAP (200 mg/kg b.w.) every other day for 8 weeks. The DMH-administered rats exhibited colon-mucosal hyperplastic polyps, the formation of new glandular units and cancerous epithelial cells. These histological changes were associated with the significant upregulation of colon Ki67 expression and the elevation of the tumor marker, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), in the sera. The treatment of the DMH-administered rats with HES and/or CAP prevented these histological cancerous changes concomitantly with the decrease in colon-Ki67 expression and serum-CEA levels. The results also indicated that the treatments with HES and/or CAP showed a significant reduction in the serum levels of lipid peroxides, an elevation in the serum levels of reduced glutathione, and the enhancement of the activities of colon-tissue superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase. Additionally, the results showed an increase in the mRNA expressions of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-4, as well as the proapoptotic protein, p53, in the colon tissues of the DMH-administered rats treated with HES and/or CAP. The TGF-β1 decreased significantly in the DMH-administered rats and this effect was counteracted by the treatments with HES and/or CAP. Based on these findings, it can be suggested that both HES and CAP, singly or in combination, have the potential to exert chemopreventive effects against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis via the suppression of oxidative stress, the stimulation of the antioxidant defense system, the attenuation of inflammatory effects, the reduction in cell proliferation and the enhancement of apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)
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15 pages, 2212 KiB  
Article
Extracts of Brocchia cinerea (Delile) Vis Exhibit In Vivo Wound Healing, Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities, and Other In Vitro Therapeutic Effects
by Abdelkrim Agour, Ibrahim Mssillou, Azeddin El Barnossi, Mohamed Chebaibi, Amina Bari, Manal Abudawood, Yazeed A. Al-Sheikh, Mohammed Bourhia, John P. Giesy, Mourad A. M. Aboul-Soud, Badiaa Lyoussi and Elhoussine Derwich
Life 2023, 13(3), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030776 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
The plant Brocchia cinerea (Delile) (B. cinerea) has many uses in traditional pharmacology. Aqueous (BCAE) and ethanolic extracts (BCEE) obtained from the aerial parts can be used as an alternative to some synthetic drugs. In vitro, DPPH, FRAP and TAC are [...] Read more.
The plant Brocchia cinerea (Delile) (B. cinerea) has many uses in traditional pharmacology. Aqueous (BCAE) and ethanolic extracts (BCEE) obtained from the aerial parts can be used as an alternative to some synthetic drugs. In vitro, DPPH, FRAP and TAC are three tests used to measure antioxidant efficacy. Antibacterial activities were determined against one Gram positive and two Gram negative strains of bacteria. The analgesic power was evaluated in vivo using the abdominal contortion model in mice, while carrageenan-induced edema in rats was the model chosen for the anti-inflammatory test; wound healing was evaluated in an experimental second degree burn model. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that BCEE had the greatest content of polyphenols (21.06 mg AGE/g extract), flavonoids (10.43 mg QE/g extract) and tannins (24.05 mg TAE/g extract). HPLC-DAD reveals the high content of gallic acid, quercetin and caffeic acid in extracts. BCEE has a strong antiradical potency against DPPH (IC50 = 0.14 mg/mL) and a medium iron reducing activity (EC50 = 0.24 mg/mL), while BCAE inhibited the growth of the antibiotic resistant bacterium, P. aeruginosa (MIC = 10 mg/mL). BCAE also exhibited significant pharmacological effects and analgesic efficacy (55.81% inhibition 55.64% for the standard used) and the re-epithelialization of wounds, with 96.91% against 98.60% for the standard. These results confirm the validity of the traditional applications of this plant and its potential as a model to develop analogous drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)
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11 pages, 3031 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Properties of Chemically Characterized Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Withania adpressa Coss. ex Batt
by Ahmad Mohammad Salamatullah
Life 2023, 13(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010109 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1506
Abstract
The current work was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of a polyphenol-rich fraction from Withania adpressa Coss. ex Batt. After being extracted, the polyphenol-rich fraction was chemically characterized through use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Antioxidant potency [...] Read more.
The current work was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of a polyphenol-rich fraction from Withania adpressa Coss. ex Batt. After being extracted, the polyphenol-rich fraction was chemically characterized through use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Antioxidant potency was assessed through the use of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Inflammatory and analgesic properties were assessed in vivo through the use of carrageenan and heat stimulus assays, respectively. Chromatographic analysis of polyphenol-rich fraction revealed the presence of potentially bioactive phenols including epicatechin, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rosmarinic acid. The polyphenol-rich fraction showed interesting anti-free-radical potency with a calculated IC50 value of 27.84 ± 1.48 µg/mL. At the highest dose used (1000 µg/mL), the polyphenol-rich fraction scored good total antioxidant capacity with a calculated value of 924.0 ± 28.29 µg EAA/mg. The polyphenol-rich fraction strongly alleviated the inflammatory effect of carrageenan injected into the plantar fascia of rats resulting in inhibition up to 89.0 ± 2.08% at the highest tested dose (500 mg/kg). The polyphenol-rich fraction showed a good analgesic effect wherein the delay in reaction time to a thermal stimulus caused by 500 mg/kg had a highly similar effect to that induced by Tramadol used as a positive control. The findings of the current work highlight the importance of polyphenol-rich fractions from W. adpressa Coss. ex Batt. as an alternative source of natural antioxidant, inflammatory, and analgesic drugs to control relative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

17 pages, 864 KiB  
Review
The Role of Plant-Derived Natural Products in the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease—What Is the Clinical Evidence So Far?
by Mariela Martinez Davila and Efstathia Papada
Life 2023, 13(8), 1703; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13081703 - 8 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are a major healthcare challenge worldwide. Disturbances in the immune system and gut microbiota followed by environmental triggers are thought to be part of the aetiological factors. Current treatment for IBD [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are a major healthcare challenge worldwide. Disturbances in the immune system and gut microbiota followed by environmental triggers are thought to be part of the aetiological factors. Current treatment for IBD includes corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and other biologic agents; however, some patients are still unresponsive, and these are also linked to high financial load and severe side effects. Plant-derived natural products are rich in phytochemicals and have been used as healing agents in several diseases since antiquity due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties, as well as gut microbiota modulation. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that phytochemicals act in key pathways that are associated with the pathogenesis of IBD. It is also reported that the use of plant-derived natural products as complementary treatments is increasing amongst patients with IBD to avoid the side effects accompanying standard medical treatment. This review summarises the relevant evidence around the use of plant-derived natural products in the management of IBD, with specific focus on the clinical evidence so far for Curcumin, Mastiha, Boswellia serrata, and Artemisia absinthium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)
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14 pages, 2606 KiB  
Review
Discovery and Anticancer Activity of the Plagiochilins from the Liverwort Genus Plagiochila
by Christian Bailly
Life 2023, 13(3), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030758 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
The present analysis retraces the discovery of plagiochilins A-to-W, a series of seco-aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenes isolated from diverse leafy liverworts of the genus Plagiochila. Between 1978, with the first isolation of the leader product plagiochilin A from P. yokogurensis, and 2005, with [...] Read more.
The present analysis retraces the discovery of plagiochilins A-to-W, a series of seco-aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenes isolated from diverse leafy liverworts of the genus Plagiochila. Between 1978, with the first isolation of the leader product plagiochilin A from P. yokogurensis, and 2005, with the characterization of plagiochilin X from P. asplenioides, a set of 24 plagiochilins and several derivatives (plagiochilide, plagiochilal A-B) has been isolated and characterized. Analogue compounds recently described are also evoked, such as the plagiochianins and plagicosins. All these compounds have been little studied from a pharmacological viewpoint. However, plagiochilins A and C have revealed marked antiproliferative activities against cultured cancer cells. Plagiochilin A functions as an inhibitor of the termination phase of cytokinesis: the membrane abscission stage. This unique, innovative mechanism of action, coupled with its marked anticancer action, notably against prostate cancer cells, make plagiochilin A an interesting lead molecule for the development of novel anticancer agents. There are known options to increase its potency, as deduced from structure–activity relationships. The analysis shed light on this family of bryophyte species and the little-known group of bioactive terpenoid plagiochilins. Plagiochilin A and derivatives shall be further exploited for the design of novel anticancer targeting the cytokinesis pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)
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19 pages, 1650 KiB  
Review
Pharmacological Activities of Mogrol: Potential Phytochemical against Different Diseases
by Varun Jaiswal and Hae-Jeung Lee
Life 2023, 13(2), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020555 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2378
Abstract
Recently, mogrol has emerged as an important therapeutic candidate with multiple potential pharmacological properties, including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, antidiabetes, and exerting a protective effect on different organs such as the lungs, bone, brain, and colon. Pharmacokinetic studies also highlighted the potential of [...] Read more.
Recently, mogrol has emerged as an important therapeutic candidate with multiple potential pharmacological properties, including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, antidiabetes, and exerting a protective effect on different organs such as the lungs, bone, brain, and colon. Pharmacokinetic studies also highlighted the potential of mogrol as a therapeutic. Studies were also conducted to design and synthesize the analogs of mogrol to achieve better activities against different diseases. The literature also highlighted the possible molecular mechanism behind pharmacological activities, which suggested the role of several important targets, including AMPK, TNF-α, and NF-κB. These important mogrol targets were verified in different studies, indicating the possible role of mogrol in other associated diseases. Still, the compilation of pharmacological properties, possible molecular mechanisms, and important targets of the mogrol is missing in the literature. The current study not only provides the compilation of information regarding pharmacological activities but also highlights the current gaps and suggests the precise direction for the development of mogrol as a therapeutic against different diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)
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25 pages, 12675 KiB  
Review
Juglans regia Linn.: A Natural Repository of Vital Phytochemical and Pharmacological Compounds
by Aeyaz Ahmad Bhat, Adnan Shakeel, Sadaf Rafiq, Iqra Farooq, Azad Quyoom Malik, Mohammed E. Alghuthami, Sarah Alharthi, Husam Qanash and Saif A. Alharthy
Life 2023, 13(2), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020380 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5727
Abstract
Juglans regia Linn. is a valuable medicinal plant that possesses the therapeutic potential to treat a wide range of diseases in humans. It has been known to have significant nutritional and curative properties since ancient times, and almost all parts of this plant [...] Read more.
Juglans regia Linn. is a valuable medicinal plant that possesses the therapeutic potential to treat a wide range of diseases in humans. It has been known to have significant nutritional and curative properties since ancient times, and almost all parts of this plant have been utilized to cure numerous fungal and bacterial disorders. The separation and identification of the active ingredients in J. regia as well as the testing of those active compounds for pharmacological properties are currently of great interest. Recently, the naphthoquinones extracted from walnut have been observed to inhibit the enzymes essential for viral protein synthesis in the SARS-CoV-2. Anticancer characteristics have been observed in the synthetic triazole analogue derivatives of juglone, and the unique modifications in the parent derivative of juglone have paved the way for further synthetic research in this area. Though there are some research articles available on the pharmacological importance of J. regia, a comprehensive review article to summarize these findings is still required. The current review, therefore, abridges the most recent scientific findings about antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-fungal, and anticancer properties of various discovered and separated chemical compounds from different solvents and different parts of J. regia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Biomedical Properties)
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