Special Issue "Climate Change and Current Challenges for Landscapes and Cultural Heritage"

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X). This special issue belongs to the section "Landscape Ecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2022 | Viewed by 6553

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jan K. Kazak
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Guest Editor
Institute of Spatial Management, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Grunwaldzka 55, 50-357 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: sustainable cities and regions; adaptation to climate change; environmental impact assessment; natural resource management; resilience; urban design and planning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Katarzyna Hodor
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Chair of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Architecture Cracow, University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
Interests: spatial analysis; urban planning; city planning; landscape architecture; protection heritage; landscape planning; landscaping; landscape; cultural landscapes; landscape design; landscape urbanism; landscape aesthetics; urbanism; heritage conservation; landscape history
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Magdalena Wilkosz-Mamcarczyk
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Land Management and Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Land Surveying, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Balicka 253 c, 30-198 Kraków, Poland
Interests: suburbanization; semiurbanization processes; revitalization processes; garden art; urban design; planning; heritage; landscape; cultural landscapes; rural landscape
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will serve as a platform for the exchange of experiences among participants of the 28th conference in the series of garden art and historical dendrology titled “Climate Change and Current Challenges for Landscapes and Cultural Heritage”. This year, we would like to focus on an important discussion related to the climate change taking place in the world, with the identification of current problems and challenges in maintaining and preserving the cultural heritage of cities, villages, and open spaces. Raising this issue may significantly increase the awareness of the benefits associated with the protection of historical heritage and the vulnerability of and hazard to these monuments. We would like to focus on tangible cultural heritage, which includes cultural landscapes, historical buildings and gardens, archaeological sites, and historical sites. It is worth noting that such heritage plays an important role in economic, tourist, and recreational development, bringing significant benefits at the social, environmental, and economic level.

Climate change affects regions around the world and is associated with changes in average climate factors, as well as extreme weather events (e.g., storms, floods, heat waves). Moreover, an additional factor is the development of urban areas, which contributes to lowering the quality of water, increasing the number of impermeable surfaces, and creating urban heat islands. As the reports of IPCC (2019) and ICOMOS (2019) show, unfavorable phenomena may also threaten the survival of cultural heritage in the future. There are shortcomings in the policy of adaptation to climate change for heritage and shortages of technical guidelines in individual countries, which may contribute to the loss of valuable landscapes in the coming years. As stated in the March 2021 European Cultural Heritage Green Paper, “we firmly believe therefore that cultural heritage is a vector for achieving the long-term vision and policy goals of the European Union, including the European Green Deal. Cultural heritage is not just about preserving our past – it is about shaping our future”.

Taking this into account, we will focus on several thematic groups related to the city, historical gardens, rural areas, and other culturally valuable areas. The scale of changes and the increase in risk can be considered both in terms of the impact on architecture and vegetation, as well as climate changes and their impact on the destruction of forest stands. Additional issues include external factors, such as changes in spatial development plans and their impact on the heritage, including environmental impact assessment.

Dr. Jan K. Kazak
Dr. Katarzyna Hodor
Dr. Magdalena Wilkosz-Mamcarczyk
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Urban ecology and ecosystems
  • Urban metabolism
  • Urbanscape
  • Structures of cultural heritage
  • Heritage relationships
  • Historical greenery (gardens and parks)
  • Conservation activities in urban and suburban zones
  • Urban–suburban relations, regionalism, and biodiversity
  • Impact of historical conditions on the modern city
  • Spatial and urban planning and its relation to climate and heritage nexus

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Baroque Gardens in Transylvania: A Historic Overview
Land 2022, 11(6), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060949 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 349
Abstract
For over more than 20 years, Transylvanian ensembles, gardens and parks have been investigated, described and analysed by a research group from Hungary, led by Albert Fekete. The goal of this study of Transylvanian ensembles is to get background information, insight for developing [...] Read more.
For over more than 20 years, Transylvanian ensembles, gardens and parks have been investigated, described and analysed by a research group from Hungary, led by Albert Fekete. The goal of this study of Transylvanian ensembles is to get background information, insight for developing a strategy for landscape preservation and development in the long run that comprises the cultural and historical values and the demands from society on what to do with them in the contemporary context. The goal of the article is to give an overview of what is already known and what could be done from the viewpoint of protection, planning and design. The research methods are mixed, but are largely based on the case study approach, supplemented by experimental design, fieldwork and research by design. The conclusion is that, given the state of what is left over from these historical artefacts, restoration in the strict sense will be impossible. This will be a major challenge for landscape architecture to take into account the historical values, integrate them with new functions and use and the recent demands of improving water management, energy transition and the creation of comfort and healthy living environments for people. Full article
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Article
Urban Sensory Gardens with Aromatic Herbs in the Light of Climate Change: Therapeutic Potential and Memory-Dependent Smell Impact on Human Wellbeing
Land 2022, 11(5), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11050760 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 533
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze urban sensory gardens containing aromatic herbs in terms of the plants used in them. The analysis considered the impact of climate change, particularly of higher temperatures, which may affect the character of contemporary urban gardens. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze urban sensory gardens containing aromatic herbs in terms of the plants used in them. The analysis considered the impact of climate change, particularly of higher temperatures, which may affect the character of contemporary urban gardens. The study was planned primarily in the context of the gardens’ therapeutic significance to their users. An important part of the work was to analyze how particular aromatic plants are perceived and received by the inhabitants, using the example of one of Poland's largest cities, Kraków, to assess whether they can have an impact on the inhabitants’ positive memories and thus improve their well-being. Initially, the plant composition of gardens located in Poland that feature aromatic herbs was analyzed. This was followed by a survey and an analysis of therapeutic gardens using the Trojanowska method as modified by Krzeptowska-Moszkowicz et al. The plant composition analysis of sensory gardens featuring herbs demonstrated that vulnerable plants in the Central European climate are being introduced to urban sensory gardens. In terms of major aromatic plants, it was found that almost every respondent reported the existence of scents that had some form of essential significance associated with personal memories. Considering the important sensory impact of water elements in therapeutic gardens, as well as problems related to the acquisition of drinking water or water used in agriculture or horticulture, the paper also addresses this topic. It was found that the city dwellers who filled in the questionnaire strongly preferred the introduction of more ecological solutions in the gardens related to water use—to collect and use rainwater, e.g., for watering, instead of piped water. Full article
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Article
Urban Cemeteries—Places of Multiple Diversity and Challenges. A Case Study from Łódź (Poland) and Leipzig (Germany)
Land 2022, 11(5), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11050677 - 03 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 525
Abstract
This article presents a pilot study investigating the multidimensional diversity of cemeteries as an important element of cultural heritage and green infrastructure within the urban landscape. We studied the state and diversity of nature, perceptions, and activities of visitors. As religion is an [...] Read more.
This article presents a pilot study investigating the multidimensional diversity of cemeteries as an important element of cultural heritage and green infrastructure within the urban landscape. We studied the state and diversity of nature, perceptions, and activities of visitors. As religion is an important aspect that differentiates cemeteries from each other, we studied a sample of four multi-confessional urban cemeteries in Łódź (Poland) and Leipzig (Germany) by using site observation and a questionnaire survey. We found that cemeteries are far undervalued as public green resources that can perform important functions in sociocultural life and the mental well-being of the general public, as the perceptions of silence- and contemplation-seeking visitors tell us. The perception of cemeteries depends on the level of secularization, varying from a sacrum sphere up to specific recreational and touristic opportunities; findings that should be considered by town planners when optimizing the cultural ecosystem services of green spaces. Full article
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Article
Implementation of Green Infrastructure in Existing Urban Structures: Tracking Changes in Ferencváros, Budapest
Land 2022, 11(5), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11050644 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Understanding the resilience of urban forms as a latent force that drives a place’s physical characterization and social cohesion is essential for defining successful adaptive processes of pre-existing urban fabrics. Budapest’s ninth district (Ferencváros) is an outstanding example of transforming a complex historical [...] Read more.
Understanding the resilience of urban forms as a latent force that drives a place’s physical characterization and social cohesion is essential for defining successful adaptive processes of pre-existing urban fabrics. Budapest’s ninth district (Ferencváros) is an outstanding example of transforming a complex historical urban context, which underwent renovation strategies guided by maintaining and enhancing essential morphological elements. Courtyards have great relevance in conditioning the well-being in areas of high occupational density, especially in terms of accessibility to urban green infrastructure. In the case of Ferencváros, they were reframed to add new layers of use and to improve territorial integration by unifying smaller private courtyard unities into more extensive communal areas, creating a comprehensive urban green network, preserving urban heritage, and increasing green coverage. This study assesses how this recent re-urbanization phenomenon is related to political changes in a post-socialist city. The conjuncture found in Ferencváros is unique, yet it can be applied in other similar contexts. The methodology applied to this study is supervised classification for the quantitative analysis of remote-sensing image data with GIS software assistance—a procedure rarely applied in medium-scale urban analysis. However, it was verified to be precise and effective in tracking morphological changes. The preliminary results indicate a significant intensification in greenery in the urban pattern, especially in the core areas of the blocks: the courtyards. After the intervention, green areas became more predominant, cohesive, and articulated. Full article
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Article
Vernacular Heritage as a Response to Climate: Lessons for Future Climate Resilience from Rize, Turkey
Land 2022, 11(2), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11020276 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
Vernacular heritage is undergoing rapid changes caused by the effects of the changing climate, such as loss of lands, biodiversity, building materials, integrity, traditional knowledge, and maladaptation. However, little is known about the causes of deterioration in vernacular heritage sites under changing climate [...] Read more.
Vernacular heritage is undergoing rapid changes caused by the effects of the changing climate, such as loss of lands, biodiversity, building materials, integrity, traditional knowledge, and maladaptation. However, little is known about the causes of deterioration in vernacular heritage sites under changing climate and landscape conditions from a user perspective. This paper provides insights into the perceptions of local people on climate change and how it has changed the landscape in the Fındıklı district of Rize in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. The study proposed analyzing vernacular architecture as a heritage category for localizing the management of climate change impacts using field survey, on-site observations, and unstructured interviews with local people. The results of the shared concerns regarding the changing climate and landscapes from a local perspective evoke the use of narratives as a tool for local authorities to include local communities in building resilience of cultural heritage to climate change. Full article
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Article
Climate Change Mitigation and Preservation of the Cultural Heritage—A Story of the Municipal Park in Rumia, Poland
Land 2022, 11(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11010065 - 02 Jan 2022
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Climate change may affect cultural heritage in at least two ways: direct physical effects on the site, building, or structure and effects on social structures. Creating urban parks with therapeutic landscapes can mitigate some of these detrimental effects. This paper presents the revitalization [...] Read more.
Climate change may affect cultural heritage in at least two ways: direct physical effects on the site, building, or structure and effects on social structures. Creating urban parks with therapeutic landscapes can mitigate some of these detrimental effects. This paper presents the revitalization of the former water forge, located in the center of Rumia, near the Tri-City agglomeration. The study focused on the history of the site and the historic manor house called “Dwór pod Lipami” and the preservation efforts. The social engagement, which led to the development of the landscape park and the construction of a talent playground, was an essential factor in the renewal process. The second part of the work presents an assessment of the therapeutic and recreational values of the new urban park using the Universal Standard for Health-Promoting Places, Community Park Audit Tool (CPAT), and mapping the users’ preferences. This operation of urban renewal resulted in creating a popular park that helps promote the health and well-being of the local community. Full article
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Article
The Problem of Densification of Large-Panel Housing Estates upon the Example of Cracow
Land 2021, 10(12), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10121359 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 791
Abstract
The paper focuses on the phenomenon of intense, uncontrolled densification of large-panel housing estates in Poland. Despite the fact that such housing estates as a legacy of the Modernist concept of segregation of functions are often burdened with problems, they still have considerable [...] Read more.
The paper focuses on the phenomenon of intense, uncontrolled densification of large-panel housing estates in Poland. Despite the fact that such housing estates as a legacy of the Modernist concept of segregation of functions are often burdened with problems, they still have considerable potential, which results predominantly from their urban advantages, such as functional and spatial logic, large amounts of open public space, and abundance of greenery. Unfortunately, this potential is being destroyed by introducing new buildings, ignoring the existing urban layout of the housing estate along with its original compositional assumptions. This type of densification results from—without limitations—the pressure exerted by developers in the free-market economy, and it often leads to problems such as the devastation of urban layouts of these housing estates, breaking the continuity of public spaces, appropriation of green areas, strengthening of monofunctionality, etc. This problem is becoming noticeable in the scientific debate, although it is still difficult to obtain reliable data illustrating the densifications of such housing estates. The goal of this paper is to present the scales and character of such densifications of the large-panel housing estates, which pose a threat of devastation of their urban layouts often considered as urban heritage. The paper proposes a method of a quantitative analysis of the housing estates with reference to the increase in the built-up area and a qualitative analysis of the character of development with reference to its distribution. This method comprises a sequence of subsequent steps with relevant criteria. In the results, it demonstrates the scale of the problem, which in many cases is already big and still growing. The resultant threat of devastation of the urban layout and its consequences are presented upon selected examples of housing estates in Cracow, Poland. This paper is a voice in a discussion devoted to the current status, but most of all to the future of large-panel housing estates, particularly in terms of their protection as valuable achievements of urban planning of the second half of the 20th century, and to stopping unfavorable tendencies of urban destruction. Full article
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Article
Water Dams of the Krakow Fortress: Potential of a Vanishing Heritage
Land 2021, 10(11), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111273 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Cultural heritage conservation is a constant process of preserving the valuable historical legacy and transferring it to future generations. The ability to adapt the matter under conservation to changing needs and environmental conditions is an essential element of this process. In this context, [...] Read more.
Cultural heritage conservation is a constant process of preserving the valuable historical legacy and transferring it to future generations. The ability to adapt the matter under conservation to changing needs and environmental conditions is an essential element of this process. In this context, climate change and its consequences are a growing challenge, requiring innovative and often simultaneous efforts. This study was conducted in response to the discovery of previously unknown documents on nineteenth-century impoundment structures of the Krakow Fortress’s defensive system. At present, the facilities are almost entirely ruined, yet the need to restore and preserve the memory of their culturally valuable legacy merits investigation. The conditions and requirements of the management of Krakow’s changing hydrological environment became a vital component of this study. The uncovered archival documents were subjected to historical-interpretative analysis. Virtual modeling contributed to identifying the original scope of the dams’ impact. Analysis of the city’s spatial planning documents pointed to their contemporary potential. The entirety of the material collected aided in determining the framework in which protective measures targeting this dying heritage are currently possible. This study features a proposal for a new form of recreating the structures under investigation by assigning them a range of possible simultaneous uses. Thus, the presented research proposal is a form of concern for preserving this historical legacy and an attempt at rising to contemporary challenges posed by an intensively changing environment. Full article
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Article
Landscape Fragmentation in Qinling–Daba Mountains Nature Reserves and Its Influencing Factors
Land 2021, 10(11), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111124 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
Climate change and intensified human activity have altered the landscape pattern of nature reserves and are expected to induce persistent changes in habitat quality. Using GIS technology and landscape ecological theories, we quantitatively analyzed landscape fragmentation characteristics and the driving factors for the [...] Read more.
Climate change and intensified human activity have altered the landscape pattern of nature reserves and are expected to induce persistent changes in habitat quality. Using GIS technology and landscape ecological theories, we quantitatively analyzed landscape fragmentation characteristics and the driving factors for the interior and peripheries of the Qinling–Daba Mountains nature reserves during 2010–2017. Using spatial principal component analysis, landscape pattern indices, and Geodetector, we evaluated the habitat quality status of different nature reserve types in different regions and the impacts of human disturbance on these areas. The results are as follows: (1) Most national nature reserves in the Qinling–Daba Mountains were moderately or highly fragmented during 2010–2017, and the fragmentation degree of a few reserves exhibited a decreasing trend. (2) The fragmentation degree of landscape patches from the core areas to the experimental areas of the inner nature reserves showed a trend of being low in the middle and high in the surrounding area; the level of landscape fragmentation gradually decreased from the edge of 1 km (M-1) to 5 km (M-5). (3) There was spatial differentiation in the intensity of landscape fragmentation among the nature reserves; human activity intensity, land-use degree, elevation, slope gradient, and topographic relief were the factors influencing the spatial differentiation of landscape fragmentation, and the contribution of anthropogenic factors was significantly greater than that of natural factors. Human activities, such as the construction of network infrastructures, irrational partition management, expansion of agricultural and industrial production activities, were the main reasons for the spatial differentiation of landscape fragmentation in the nature reserves. These results can provide significant scientific support for ecological restoration in the nature reserves and contribute to the coordinated development between socio-economic system and ecological environment in the exceedingly impoverished areas. Full article
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