Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2023) | Viewed by 35946

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Physical activity covers not just sports but also simple everyday movements, such as housework, walking, and playing. Regular exercise has a great importance in maintaining good health: “Mens sana in corpore sano”. Indeed, inactivity is a risk factor for different chronic diseases. Physical exercise can play a crucial role in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, optimizing both physical and mental health, decreasing fatigue, and improving sleep. An exercise program for patients with musculoskeletal disorders aims to preserve or restore a range of motion of the affected joints, enhancing bone turnover, increase functional joint stability, increase muscle strength and endurance, improve balance, reduce pain, and decrease health risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Moreover, physical activity is a good way to socialize and improve mood, and it is an excellent antistress agent. The benefits of exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in musculoskeletal disorders seem to have both short- and long-term effectiveness. This Special Issue will focus on the “Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders”. Original papers and review articles are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Musumeci
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • musculoskeletal disorders
  • physical activity
  • exercises
  • sport medicine
  • rehabilitation
  • osteoarthritis fatigue, pain, and balance
  • muscle strength and endurance
  • joint stability
  • rheumatic diseases
  • published Papers

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

2 pages, 187 KiB  
Editorial
Does Back Pain Go on Holiday in the Summer?
by Federico Roggio and Giuseppe Musumeci
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040075 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Back pain is one of the leading causes of disability among adults worldwide [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)

Research

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9 pages, 453 KiB  
Article
Abnormal Gait Pattern Examination Screening for Physical Activity Level after One Year in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis
by Shunsuke Yamashina, Kazuhiro Harada, Ryo Tanaka and Yu Inoue
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010024 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1832
Abstract
This study examined the relationship between abnormal gait pattern and physical activity level one year later in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and determined the clinical utility of the abnormal gait pattern examination. Initially, the patients’ abnormal gait pattern was assessed using seven [...] Read more.
This study examined the relationship between abnormal gait pattern and physical activity level one year later in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and determined the clinical utility of the abnormal gait pattern examination. Initially, the patients’ abnormal gait pattern was assessed using seven items, based on the scoring system reported in a previous study. The grading was based on a three-criteria system with 0: no abnormality, 1: moderately abnormal, and 2: severely abnormal. The patients were then classified into three groups according to physical activity level one year after gait pattern examination: low, intermediate, and high physical activity groups, respectively. Cut-off values for physical activity levels were calculated based on abnormal gait pattern examinations results. On follow-ups with 24 of the 46 subjects, age, abnormal gait pattern, and gait speed showed significant differences among the three groups according to the amount of physical activity. Effect size of abnormal gait pattern was higher than age and gait speed. Patients with KOA with physical activity < 2700 steps/day and <4400 steps/day at one year had abnormal gait pattern examination scores of ≥8 and ≥5, respectively. Abnormal gait pattern is associated with future physical activity. The results suggested that abnormal gait pattern examinations in patients with KOA could be used to screen for the possibility of physical activity being <4400 steps one year later. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)
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11 pages, 3069 KiB  
Article
Bilateral Biceps Curl Shows Distinct Biceps Brachii and Anterior Deltoid Excitation Comparing Straight vs. EZ Barbell Coupled with Arms Flexion/No-Flexion
by Giuseppe Coratella, Gianpaolo Tornatore, Stefano Longo, Fabio Esposito and Emiliano Cè
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010013 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4098
Abstract
The present study investigated the excitation of the biceps brachii and anterior deltoid during bilateral biceps curl performed using the straight vs. EZ barbell and with or without flexing the arms. Ten competitive bodybuilders performed bilateral biceps curl in non-exhaustive 6-rep sets using [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the excitation of the biceps brachii and anterior deltoid during bilateral biceps curl performed using the straight vs. EZ barbell and with or without flexing the arms. Ten competitive bodybuilders performed bilateral biceps curl in non-exhaustive 6-rep sets using 8-RM in four variations: using the straight barbell flexing (STflex) or not flexing the arms (STno-flex) or the EZ barbell flexing (EZflex) or not flexing the arms (EZno-flex). The ascending and descending phases were separately analyzed using the normalized root mean square (nRMS) collected using surface electro-myography. For the biceps brachii, during the ascending phase, a greater nRMS was observed in STno-flex vs. EZno-flex (+1.8%, effect size [ES]: 0.74), in STflex vs. STno-flex (+17.7%, ES: 3.93) and in EZflex vs. EZno-flex (+20.3%, ES: 5.87). During the descending phase, a greater nRMS was observed in STflex vs. EZflex (+3.8%, ES: 1.15), in STno-flex vs. STflex (+2.8%, ES: 0.86) and in EZno-flex vs. EZflex (+8.1%, ES: 1.81). The anterior deltoid showed distinct excitation based on the arm flexion/no-flexion. A slight advantage in biceps brachii excitation appears when using the straight vs. EZ barbell. Flexing or not flexing the arms seems to uniquely excite the biceps brachii and anterior deltoid. Practitioners should consider including different bilateral biceps barbell curls in their routine to vary the neural and mechanical stimuli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)
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6 pages, 498 KiB  
Article
Age- and Gender-Related Differences in the Morphology of Cuff Tear Arthropathy: A Cross Sectional Analysis
by Michael Stephan Gruber, Martin Bischofreiter, Patrick Brandstätter, Josef Hochreiter, Patrick Sadoghi and Reinhold Ortmaier
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010008 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Rotator cuff tear arthropathy (CTA) is the most common reason for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). There is minimal understanding of the natural progression of osteoarthritis of the shoulder and of the morphologic differences between men and women and between younger and older [...] Read more.
Rotator cuff tear arthropathy (CTA) is the most common reason for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). There is minimal understanding of the natural progression of osteoarthritis of the shoulder and of the morphologic differences between men and women and between younger and older patients. This trial comprised 309 patients (342 shoulders) who underwent RSA due to CTA in the period between January 2009 and September 2019. The patients were divided into gender and age groups. Preoperative X-rays, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were conducted using various classifications to describe the morphology of the CTA. Of all 342 analyzed shoulders, 209 were right and 133 were left shoulders. A total of 257 female shoulders and 85 male shoulders were assessed. Both mean age and age distribution were significantly different (74.37 years in female and 70.11 years in male patients, p = 0.001; 70.2% female patients in the age group <75.5 years and 80.1% in the age group >75.5 years, p = 0.045). A larger extent of progression of the fatty infiltration was detected both in the female cohort (p = 0.006) and in the older age group (p = 0.001). Additionally, older patients had significantly higher levels of muscle retraction (Patte; p = 0.003), a lower acromiohumeral distance (p = 0.042) and more advanced CTA (Seebauer; p = 0.006). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)
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12 pages, 775 KiB  
Article
Psychological Wellbeing and Perceived Fatigue in Competitive Athletes after SARS-CoV-2 Infection 2 Years after Pandemic Start: Practical Indications
by Andrea Buonsenso, Arianna Murri, Marco Centorbi, Giulia Di Martino, Giuseppe Calcagno, Alessandra di Cagno, Giovanni Fiorilli and Enzo Iuliano
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010001 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic deeply affected sports and athletes, influencing performance and psychological wellbeing. In order to provide useful guidelines for coaches, a web-based survey was conducted. Three web-based questionnaires were administered during the last phase of the Omicron wave to a total of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic deeply affected sports and athletes, influencing performance and psychological wellbeing. In order to provide useful guidelines for coaches, a web-based survey was conducted. Three web-based questionnaires were administered during the last phase of the Omicron wave to a total of 204 Italian athletes (age 24.96 ± 9.82): an informative questionnaire to collect sociodemographic data and infection symptoms information, the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). No differences between infection sequels of different variant typologies were found over the long term after the infection. The most frequently declared symptoms included cough (50%), muscular skeletal impairments (48%) fatigue (43%) and fever (43%). Results showed that female athletes have a higher risk of developing post-COVID-19 symptoms, GHQ-12 worse results (p = 0.005) and greater fatigue (p = 0.0002) than males. No significant difference in infection incidence between high- and low-level athletes was found. Endurance athletes showed greater perceived fatigue than anaerobic sports athletes (p = 0.045). Conclusions: These results suggested the need for specific approaches and continuous updating to differentiate training programs for different athletes during the return to play. Medical controls and daily monitoring of athletes of all levels after the infection could be advisable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)
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16 pages, 1260 KiB  
Article
Effects of Spinal Cord Injury Site on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation: Insight from Analysis of Cardiovascular Beat by Beat Variability during Sleep and Orthostatic Challenge
by Pietro Guaraldi, Mara Malacarne, Giorgio Barletta, Giuseppe De Scisciolo, Massimo Pagani, Pietro Cortelli and Daniela Lucini
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040112 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Purpose: The goal of this study on Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients with cervical or thoracic lesion was to assess whether disturbances of ANS control, according to location, might differently affect vagal and sympatho-vagal markers during sleep and orthostatic challenge. We analyzed with [...] Read more.
Purpose: The goal of this study on Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients with cervical or thoracic lesion was to assess whether disturbances of ANS control, according to location, might differently affect vagal and sympatho-vagal markers during sleep and orthostatic challenge. We analyzed with linear and nonlinear techniques beat-by-beat RR and arterial pressure (and respiration) variability signals, extracted from a polysomnographic study and a rest–tilt test. We considered spontaneous or induced sympathetic excitation, as obtained shifting from non-REM to REM sleep or from rest to passive tilt. We obtained evidence of ANS cardiac (dys)regulation, of greater importance for gradually proximal location (i.e., cervical) SCI, compatible with a progressive loss of modulatory role of sympathetic afferents to the spinal cord. Furthermore, in accordance with the dual, vagal and sympathetic bidirectional innervation, the results suggest that vagally mediated negative feedback baroreflexes were substantially maintained in all cases. Conversely, the LF and HF balance (expressed specifically by normalized units) appeared to be negatively affected by SCI, particularly in the case of cervical lesion (group p = 0.006, interaction p = 0.011). Multivariate analysis of cardiovascular variability may be a convenient technique to assess autonomic responsiveness and alteration of functionality in patients with SCI addressing selectively vagal or sympathetic alterations and injury location. This contention requires confirmatory studies with a larger population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)
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8 pages, 885 KiB  
Article
Association between Normal Weight Obesity and Skeletal Muscle Mass Index in Female University Students with Past Exercise Habituation
by Kazushige Oshita, Ryota Myotsuzono and Tomoki Tashiro
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040092 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1704
Abstract
This study investigated the relationship between normal weight obesity (NW-O) and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) in 120 female university students who participated in sporting activities during junior and senior high school. The current physical activity level (PAL) was estimated by a factorial [...] Read more.
This study investigated the relationship between normal weight obesity (NW-O) and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) in 120 female university students who participated in sporting activities during junior and senior high school. The current physical activity level (PAL) was estimated by a factorial method using 24-h physical activity recall. The body mass index (BMI) of the participants ranged from 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2; their body fat (BF) was classified as NW-O if above the 75th percentile (28.9% BF), normal weight and lean (NW-L) if below the 25th percentile value (21.0%BF), and all others were normal weight (NW). PAL was significantly lower in NW-O than in NW-L. SMI was significantly lower in NW-O than in NW and NW-L, and 60% of NW-O had Low-SMI (<6.3 kg/m2). Although lower limb muscle mass was significantly lower in NW-O than in NW and NW-L, no significant differences were found in the upper limbs. These results suggest that the current PAL is associated with NW-O, and NW-O is associated with a lower SMI, even in young females with past exercise habits. Therefore, the prevention of NW-O in young females is important for the prevention of not only lifestyle-related diseases, but also future sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)
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15 pages, 2290 KiB  
Article
Acute Low Force Electrically Induced Exercise Modulates Post Prandial Glycemic Markers in People with Spinal Cord Injury
by Michael A. Petrie, Amy L. Kimball and Richard K. Shields
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040089 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
Regular exercise involves daily muscle contractions helping metabolize up to 70% of daily ingested glucose. Skeletal muscle increases glucose uptake through two distinct pathways: insulin signaling pathway and muscle contraction mediated AMPK pathway. People with paralysis are unable to contract their muscles which [...] Read more.
Regular exercise involves daily muscle contractions helping metabolize up to 70% of daily ingested glucose. Skeletal muscle increases glucose uptake through two distinct pathways: insulin signaling pathway and muscle contraction mediated AMPK pathway. People with paralysis are unable to contract their muscles which atrophy, transform into insulin resistant glycolytic muscle, and develop osteoporosis. Our goal is to determine if low force electrically induced exercise (LFE) will modulate the post prandial insulin and glucose response in people with and without spinal cord injury (SCI). 18 people with SCI and 23 without SCI (Non-SCI) participated in an assessment of metabolic biomarkers during passive sitting (CTL) and a bout of LFE delivered to the quadriceps/hamstring muscle groups after a glucose challenge. Baseline fasting insulin (p = 0.003) and lactate (p = 0.033) levels were higher in people with SCI, but glucose levels (p = 0.888) were similar compared to the non-SCI population. After 1-h of muscle contractions using LFE, heart rate increased (p < 0.001), capillary glucose decreased (p = 0.004), insulin decreased (p < 0.001), and lactate increased (p = 0.001) in the SCI population. These findings support that LFE attenuates certain metabolic blood biomarkers during a glucose challenge and may offer a lifestyle strategy to regulate metabolic responses after eating among people with SCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)
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14 pages, 2109 KiB  
Article
Effects of Artificially Induced Breast Augmentation on the Electromyographic Activity of Neck and Trunk Muscles during Common Daily Movements
by Christina Kateina and Dimitris Mandalidis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040080 - 3 Oct 2022
Viewed by 5629
Abstract
A female breast can be a potential source of musculoskeletal problems, especially if it is disproportionately large. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of artificially induced breast volume on the EMG activity of neck and trunk musculature during [...] Read more.
A female breast can be a potential source of musculoskeletal problems, especially if it is disproportionately large. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of artificially induced breast volume on the EMG activity of neck and trunk musculature during common everyday movements. The EMG activity of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), the upper trapezius (UT), and the thoracic and lumbar erector spinae (TES, LES) were recorded during 45° trunk inclination from the upright standing and sitting postures (TIST45°, TISI45°) as well as during stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand (STSI, SIST) in 24 healthy females with minimal and ideal breast volume (M-NBV, I-NBV). All movements were performed before and after increasing M-NBV and I-NBV by 1.5-, 3.0-, 4.5-, and 6-times using silicone-gel implants. Significantly higher EMG activity for TES and LES were found at 6.0- and ≥4.5-times increase the I-NBV, respectively, compared to smaller breast volumes during TIST45°. EMG activity of UT was higher, and TES was lower in M-NBV females compared to I-NBV females in all movements but were significantly different only during SIST. The female breast can affect the activity of neck and trunk muscles only when its volume increases above a certain limit, potentially contributing to muscle dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)
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14 pages, 2348 KiB  
Article
Sedentary Behaviour Impairs Skeletal Muscle Repair Modulating the Inflammatory Response
by Eduardo Teixeira, Juliana Garcia, António Bovolini, Ana Carvalho, Júlio Pacheco and José A. Duarte
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040076 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2099
Abstract
This study investigated whether sedentary behaviour modulates skeletal-muscle repair and tissue inflammatory response after cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced injury. Singly caged rats spent 8 weeks either as a sedentary group (SED, n = 15) or as a control group (EX, n = 15)—caged with running [...] Read more.
This study investigated whether sedentary behaviour modulates skeletal-muscle repair and tissue inflammatory response after cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced injury. Singly caged rats spent 8 weeks either as a sedentary group (SED, n = 15) or as a control group (EX, n = 15)—caged with running wheels for voluntary running. All rats had each tibial anterior muscle infused either with CTX (CTX; right muscle) or saline solution (Sham; left muscle) and were sacrificed (n = 5 per group) on the 1st, 7th, and 15th day post-injection (dpi). Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were used to calculate myotube percentage and fibrosis accretion, and quantify the number of neutrophils and M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes. The SED group showed an increased number of both neutrophils and M1 macrophages (7th and 15th dpi) compared to the EX group (p < 0.01). The EX group showed an increased number of M2 macrophages on the 1st dpi. On the 7th dpi, the SED group showed a lower myotube percentage compared to the EX group (p < 0.01) and on the 15th dpi showed only 54% of normal undamaged fibres compared to 90% from the EX group (p < 0.01). The SED group showed increased fibrosis on both the 7th and 15th dpi. Our results show that sedentary behaviour affects the inflammatory response, enhancing and prolonging the Th1 phase, and delays and impairs the SMR process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)
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8 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Sport-Specific Rehabilitation, but Not PRP Injections, Might Reduce the Re-Injury Rate of Muscle Injuries in Professional Soccer Players: A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Eduard Bezuglov, Vladimir Khaitin, Maria Shoshorina, Mikhail Butovskiy, Nikita Karlitskiy, Evgeny Mashkovskiy, Evgenii Goncharov, Bekzhan Pirmakhanov, Ryland Morgans and Artemii Lazarev
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040072 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1817
Abstract
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections are extremely popular in the management of sports injuries in elite athletes. However, data on the use of various administration protocols of PRP are contradictory. The efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of muscle injuries in professional soccer [...] Read more.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections are extremely popular in the management of sports injuries in elite athletes. However, data on the use of various administration protocols of PRP are contradictory. The efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of muscle injuries in professional soccer players has to be contextualized within the sport-specific rehabilitation program. Despite the questionable role of PRP, a well-structured rehabilitation program is still regarded as the gold standard. We examined the efficacy of various PRP protocols in the management of muscle injuries in professional soccer players in respect to treatment duration and injury recurrence. A retrospective cohort study. Muscle injuries in professional soccer players (n = 79, height 182.1 ± 5.9 cm, weight 76.8 ± 5.8 kg, BMI 23.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2) from three elite soccer clubs from the Russian Premier League were recorded during the 2018–2019 season. The injuries were graded based on MRI, using the British Athletic Muscle Injury Classification. Treatment protocols included the POLICE regimen, short courses of NSAID administration, and the specific rehabilitation program. The sample group of players were administered PRP injections. The average treatment duration with PRP injection was significantly longer than conventional treatment without PRP, 21.5 ± 15.7 days and 15.3 ± 11.1 days, respectively (p = 0.003). Soccer-specific rehabilitation and obtaining MRI/US before the treatment was associated with significantly reduced injury recurrence rate (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the PRP injection protocol applied to any muscle and the treatment duration in respect of grade 2A–2B muscle injuries. The total duration of treatment of type 2A–2B injuries was 15 days among all players. In the group receiving local injections of PRP, the total duration of treatment was 18 days; in the group without PRP injections, the treatment duration was 14 days. In our study, PRP treatment was associated with longer treatment duration, regardless of which muscle was injured. This may reflect the tendency to use PRP in higher-degree injuries. Soccer-specific rehabilitation significantly reduced the injury recurrence rate when compared to the administration of PRP injections. MRI/US imaging before returning to play was also associated with a lower injury recurrence rate. There was no significant difference between the PRP injection protocol applied to any muscle and the treatment duration in treatment of type 2A–2B muscle injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)

Review

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19 pages, 1279 KiB  
Review
Whole Body Vibration: A Valid Alternative Strategy to Exercise?
by Roberto Bonanni, Ida Cariati, Cristian Romagnoli, Giovanna D’Arcangelo, Giuseppe Annino and Virginia Tancredi
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040099 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4515
Abstract
Several studies agree that mechanical vibration can induce physiological changes at different levels, improving neuromuscular function through postural control strategies, muscle tuning mechanisms and tonic vibration reflexes. Whole-body vibration has also been reported to increase bone mineral density and muscle mass and strength, [...] Read more.
Several studies agree that mechanical vibration can induce physiological changes at different levels, improving neuromuscular function through postural control strategies, muscle tuning mechanisms and tonic vibration reflexes. Whole-body vibration has also been reported to increase bone mineral density and muscle mass and strength, as well as to relieve pain and modulate proprioceptive function in patients with osteoarthritis or lower back pain. Furthermore, vibratory training was found to be an effective strategy for improving the physical performance of healthy athletes in terms of muscle strength, agility, flexibility, and vertical jump height. Notably, several benefits have also been observed at the brain level, proving to be an important factor in protecting and/or preventing the development of age-related cognitive disorders. Although research in this field is still debated, certain molecular mechanisms responsible for the response to whole-body vibration also appear to be involved in physiological adaptations to exercise, suggesting the possibility of using it as an alternative or reinforcing strategy to canonical training. Understanding these mechanisms is crucial for the development of whole body vibration protocols appropriately designed based on individual needs to optimize these effects. Therefore, we performed a narrative review of the literature, consulting the bibliographic databases MEDLINE and Google Scholar, to i) summarize the most recent scientific evidence on the effects of whole-body vibration and the molecular mechanisms proposed so far to provide a useful state of the art and ii) assess the potential of whole-body vibration as a form of passive training in place of or in association with exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)
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18 pages, 5323 KiB  
Review
Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Utilization
by Sabrina S. Salvatore, Kyle N. Zelenski and Ryan K. Perkins
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040087 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3268
Abstract
The cardiovascular and skeletal muscle systems are intrinsically interconnected, sharing the goal of delivering oxygen to metabolically active tissue. Deficiencies within those systems that affect oxygen delivery to working tissues are a hallmark of advancing age. Oxygen delivery and utilization are reflected as [...] Read more.
The cardiovascular and skeletal muscle systems are intrinsically interconnected, sharing the goal of delivering oxygen to metabolically active tissue. Deficiencies within those systems that affect oxygen delivery to working tissues are a hallmark of advancing age. Oxygen delivery and utilization are reflected as muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and are assessed using near-infrared resonance spectroscopy (NIRS). SmO2 has been observed to be reduced by ~38% at rest, ~24% during submaximal exercise, and ~59% during maximal exercise with aging (>65 y). Furthermore, aging prolongs restoration of SmO2 back to baseline by >50% after intense exercise. Regulatory factors that contribute to reduced SmO2 with age include blood flow, capillarization, endothelial cells, nitric oxide, and mitochondrial function. These mechanisms are governed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the cellular level. However, mishandling of ROS with age ultimately leads to alterations in structure and function of the regulatory factors tasked with maintaining SmO2. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the current state of the literature regarding age-related effects in SmO2. Furthermore, we attempt to bridge the gap between SmO2 and associated underlying mechanisms affected by aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)
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18 pages, 352 KiB  
Review
Rationale and Feasibility of Resistance Training in hEDS/HSD: A Narrative Review
by Hannah A. Zabriskie
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7030061 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2554
Abstract
Hypermobile Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome (hEDS) and hypermobility spectrum disorder (HSD) are genetic conditions characterized by increased joint hypermobility, often in the presence of other signs or symptoms if syndromic. This hypermobility can result in significant pain and ultimately decreased participation in recreational or competitive [...] Read more.
Hypermobile Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome (hEDS) and hypermobility spectrum disorder (HSD) are genetic conditions characterized by increased joint hypermobility, often in the presence of other signs or symptoms if syndromic. This hypermobility can result in significant pain and ultimately decreased participation in recreational or competitive activity. Rehabilitation of patients with hEDS/HSD is not well understood, particularly since presentation can be relatively heterogenous. Regardless, more research is needed, particularly regarding resistance training, to allow patients with hEDS/HSD to participate in the activities they enjoy. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the clinical features displayed by those with hEDS/HSD that have been found to be improved with resistance training in other populations, and to present the current evidence for resistance training in all types of study designs, ranging from case studies to randomized controlled trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—5th Edition)
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