Special Issue "Sarcopenia, Muscle Wasting and Exercise"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Musumeci

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 3331420670
Interests: anatomy; histology; kinesiology; musculoskeletal disorders; rehabilitation; physical activity; aging; nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sarcopenia, a component of the fragility syndrome, is a condition which focuses on muscle loss. Loss of muscle mass and function, especially muscle strength and gait speed, associated with aging occurs in sarcopenia. Sarcopenia, cachexia, and malnutrition are considered as the main causes of muscle wasting and affect millions of elderly people and patients. Moreover, muscle atrophy can develop independently from diseases and age through disuse of the muscles. For a better classification and common language in medical science for “muscle wasting disease”, there is a proposal to combine the concepts of muscle wasting, sarcopenia, frailty, and cachexia using disease aetiology and disease progression. Patients with muscle atrophy show decreased muscle strength and therefore reduced quality of life, which is caused by a lower activity and increased exercise intolerance. Lack of exercise is thought to be a significant risk factor for sarcopenia. Sarcopenia and exercise is the main topic of this Special Issue. Exercise is associated with improved life quality, reduced health problems, and prolonged lifespan. Exercise should be considered a fundamental point in the treatment of pathological skeletal muscle mass reduction. The present Special Issue also seeks to emphasize to the scientific community the positive effects of adapted physical activity in preventing or treating muscle wasting.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Musumeci
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cachexia
  • sarcopenia
  • muscle wasting
  • wasting syndromes
  • loss of muscle mass
  • involuntary weight loss
  • chronic disease
  • advanced disease
  • chronic heart failure
  • chronic lung disease
  • liver cirrhosis
  • chronic kidney failure
  • musculoskeletal disorders
  • ageing
  • fat tissue

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
What Factors Predict Falls in Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes: A Pilot Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4010003
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 16 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: In community-dwelling older adults, slow gait speed is linked to falls; however, little is known about the use of gait speed to predict falls in nursing home residents. The prevalence of risk factors for falls in nursing home residents is multifactorial. Objective: [...] Read more.
Background: In community-dwelling older adults, slow gait speed is linked to falls; however, little is known about the use of gait speed to predict falls in nursing home residents. The prevalence of risk factors for falls in nursing home residents is multifactorial. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between falls and multiple factors such as age, sex, gait speed, mobility device, fear of falling, cognitive function, medication, and environmental causes in a nursing home setting. Material and Methods: Participants were recruited from a nursing home. Independent variables such as age, sex, gait speed for 40 feet, use of a mobility device, fear of falls, cognitive function, medication, and environmental causes of falls were measured and recorded. The dependent variable was falls. Participants were followed-up for a period of six months for falls. Falls were documented from the computerized medical records at the facility. Results: Five of the 16 participants had falls in the follow-up period. Exact logistic regression, bivariate analysis, showed no significant relationship between falls and the independent variables of age, sex, gait speed, mobility device, fear of falls, cognitive function, and medication. More than 30% of recorded falls had an environmental cause, which was significant at p = 0.0005. Conclusion: Environmental causes had a significant relationship with falls in nursing home participants. Environment hazard monitoring is therefore important to ensure the safety of nursing home residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia, Muscle Wasting and Exercise)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Upper and Lower Extremity Strength on Performance-Based Sarcopenia Assessment Tests
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3040053
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
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Abstract
The optimal management of sarcopenia requires appropriate endpoint measures to determine intervention efficacy. While hand grip strength is a predictor of morbidity and mortality, lower extremity strength may be better associated with functional activities in comparison to hand grip strength. The purpose of [...] Read more.
The optimal management of sarcopenia requires appropriate endpoint measures to determine intervention efficacy. While hand grip strength is a predictor of morbidity and mortality, lower extremity strength may be better associated with functional activities in comparison to hand grip strength. The purpose of our study was to examine the comparative association of upper and lower extremity strength with common measures of physical performance in older adults. Thirty community-dwelling men, aged 62.5 ± 9.2 years, completed body composition analysis, quantitative strength testing, and performance-based tests of functional status. Hand grip force values were not significantly associated with knee extensor or flexor torque values (p > 0.05). Hand grip force was only associated with fast gait speed, while knee extensor torque at 60°/s was the only variable significantly associated across all functional outcome measures: customary gait speed, fast gait speed, sit to stand time, and the Physical Performance Test (p < 0.02). Hand grip strength was not a proxy measure of lower extremity strength as assessed in this study. Overall, lower extremity muscle strength values had the strongest associations with participant functional performance. Lower extremity strength testing may provide additional value as an endpoint measure in the assessment and clinical management of sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia, Muscle Wasting and Exercise)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Short Overview of the Effects of Kinesio Taping for Postural Spine Curvature Disorders
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3040059
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Spine curvature disorders are very common in the population. Several therapeutic methods have been implemented over time. Kinesio Taping (KT) is a solution that is utilized for several purposes. This narrative review aims to discuss KT methodology as a valid solution for spinal [...] Read more.
Spine curvature disorders are very common in the population. Several therapeutic methods have been implemented over time. Kinesio Taping (KT) is a solution that is utilized for several purposes. This narrative review aims to discuss KT methodology as a valid solution for spinal curvature disorders, especially for structured and non-structured spine deviations. The matter is poorly discussed in the current literature. Nevertheless, KT seems to indirectly influence posture and spine curvature disorders through peripheral and central nervous system stimulation, but further investigations are needed to demonstrate these unknown effects clearly. The present review provides a valuable contribution to the existing literature and may represent a starting point and a useful guide for further studies in this field of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia, Muscle Wasting and Exercise)
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Open AccessReview
Efficacy of Age-Specific High-Intensity Stretch-Shortening Contractions in Reversing Dynapenia, Sarcopenia, and Loss of Skeletal Muscle Quality
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020036
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the aging process, skeletal muscle performance and physiology undergoes alterations leading to decrements in functional capacity, health-span, and independence. Background: The utility and implementation of age-specific exercise is a paramount research agenda focusing on ameliorating the loss of both skeletal muscle performance [...] Read more.
During the aging process, skeletal muscle performance and physiology undergoes alterations leading to decrements in functional capacity, health-span, and independence. Background: The utility and implementation of age-specific exercise is a paramount research agenda focusing on ameliorating the loss of both skeletal muscle performance and physiology; yet, to date, no consensus exists as to the most appropriate mechanical loading protocol design or overall exercise prescription that best meets this need. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight the most optimal type of exercise presently available and provide the most current, evidence-based findings for its efficacy. The hypothesis that high-intensity, stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs)—a form of “resistance-type exercise” training—present as the preferred exercise mode for serving as an intervention-based modality to attenuate dynapenia, sarcopenia, and decreased muscle quality with aging, even restoring the overall youthful phenotype, will be demonstrated. Conclusions: Appreciating the fundamental evidence supporting the use of high-intensity SSCs in positively impacting aging skeletal muscle’s responsivity and their use as a specific and sensitive countermeasure is crucial. Moreover, from an applied perspective, SSCs may improve skeletal muscle quality and rejuvenate health-span and, ultimately, lead to augmented functional capacity, independence, and quality of life concomitant with decreased morbidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia, Muscle Wasting and Exercise)
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. EISSN 2411-5142 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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