Special Issue "Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Musumeci Website E-Mail
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Phone: 3331420670
Interests: anatomy; histology; kinesiology; musculoskeletal disorders; rehabilitation; physical activity; aging; nutrition
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paola Castrogiovanni Website E-Mail
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Interests: histology; embriology; musculoskeletal disorders; physical activity; aging; nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Physical activity covers, not just sports, but also simple everyday movements, such as housework, walking, and playing. Regular exercise has a great importance in maintaining good health, “Mens sana in corpore sano”, indeed, inactivity is a risk factor for different chronic diseases. Physical exercise can play a crucial role in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, optimizing both physical and mental health, decreasing fatigue, and improving sleep. An exercise program for patients with musculoskeletal disorders aims to preserve or restore a range of motion of the affected joints, enhancing bone turnover, increase functional joint stability, increase muscle strength and endurance, improve balance, reduce pain, and decrease health risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Moreover, physical activity is a good way to socialize, improve mood, and it is an excellent anti-stress agent. The benefits of the exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in musculoskeletal disorders seem to have a short and long-term effectiveness. This Special Issue will focus on the “Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders”. Original papers and review articles are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Musumeci
Prof. Dr. Paola Castrogiovanni
Guest Editor
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Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • musculoskeletal disorders
  • physical activity
  • exercises
  • sport medicine
  • rehabilitation
  • osteoarthtritis
  • fatigue, pain and balance
  • muscle strength and endurance
  • joint stability
  • rheumatic diseases

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Peripheral Electrical and Magnetic Stimulation to Augment Resistance Training
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(3), 328-342; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1030328 - 13 Sep 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Electrical stimulation (ES) and magnetic stimulation (MS), applied peripherally, may be used to elicit muscle contractions to increase muscle hypertrophy, increase muscle strength and reduce knee laxity in rehabilitation following injury. We aimed to examine the effect of a three-week exercise programme designed [...] Read more.
Electrical stimulation (ES) and magnetic stimulation (MS), applied peripherally, may be used to elicit muscle contractions to increase muscle hypertrophy, increase muscle strength and reduce knee laxity in rehabilitation following injury. We aimed to examine the effect of a three-week exercise programme designed to induce muscle hypertrophy augmented by peripheral ES and MS. We hypothesised that the use of peripheral stimulation to augment voluntary drive during a resistance-training protocol would induce more repetitions thus leading to increased thigh circumference, muscle layer thickness, and quadriceps strength whilst decreasing knee laxity. Thirty healthy participants were divided randomly into either ES, MS or Control groups. Five resistance training sessions were carried out, consisting of four sets of quadriceps extensions. During the first three sets the participants performed eight repetitions at 85% of their 1-repetition maximum (1-RM). On the last set, the participants were instructed to perform the exercise until failure. The augmentation of peripheral stimuli allowed the MS and ES groups to continue to exercise producing, on average, 4 ± 2 and 7 ± 6 additional repetitions with ES and MS, respectively. Following the training, significant increases were observed for both 1-RM (p = 0.005) and muscle layer thickness (p = 0.031) whilst no change was observed in thigh circumference (p = 0.365). Knee laxity decreased (p = 0.005). However, there were no significant differences in the stimulation groups compared with control for any of these measurements. The additional repetitions elicited by stimulation after the point of failure suggests that peripheral electrical and/or magnetic stimulation may be useful as an adjunct for resistance training. However, this effect of resistance training augmented by peripheral stimulation on hypertrophy, strength and knee laxity may be small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Effect of Attentional Focus Instructions on Motor Learning and Performance of Patients with Central Nervous System and Musculoskeletal Disorders: a Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030040 - 25 Jul 2018
Abstract
Exercise is one of the main rehabilitative interventions, commonly used to improve performance and motor learning. During the application of attentional focus strategies, External Focus of Attention (EFA) aiming at the movement effect has been reported to have more efficacy than Internal Focus [...] Read more.
Exercise is one of the main rehabilitative interventions, commonly used to improve performance and motor learning. During the application of attentional focus strategies, External Focus of Attention (EFA) aiming at the movement effect has been reported to have more efficacy than Internal Focus of Attention (IFA) aiming at movement characteristics in healthy subjects. There are not many studies that compare the EFA and IFA instructions in people with Musculoskeletal (MSK) and Central Nervous System disorders (CNS). The purpose of this systematic review is to determine if IFA or EFA, in patients with CNS or MSK, may improve performance and have some effects on motor learning. Databases used for research: PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PEDro, PsycINFO, SCOPUS. Inclusion criteria: Randomized Controlled Trial, quasi-Randomized Controlled Trial, enrolled subjects with CNS or with MSK and compared the efficacy of EFA and IFA. The studies suggest that the EFA is better than IFA in affecting the movement execution in patients with MSK, while conflicted findings emerge in presence of CNS disorders. Studies included in the qualitative analysis showed heterogeneous methodological features in study design and conductance, so results must be interpreted with caution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
How Exercise and Dietary Intervention Affect the Outcome of Osteosarcopenic Obesity Syndrome?
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020031 - 28 May 2018
Abstract
Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) is described as the simultaneous presence of osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and increased adiposity. Over time, older adults with OSO syndrome might be at greater risk for loss of physical function and bone fractures. Furthermore, a sedentary lifestyle, inadequate nutrition, pharmaceutical drugs, [...] Read more.
Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) is described as the simultaneous presence of osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and increased adiposity. Over time, older adults with OSO syndrome might be at greater risk for loss of physical function and bone fractures. Furthermore, a sedentary lifestyle, inadequate nutrition, pharmaceutical drugs, and chronic conditions encompass the multifactorial nature of OSO syndrome. Physical activity and a healthy diet play a crucial role in management and treatment of OSO syndrome. Research has shown that even low-intensity physical activity or daily habitual activity can maintain bone mineral density, muscle strength, and improve muscle quality, and reduce adiposity. However, older adults with high risk of fall and injuries require tailored exercise intensity. Also, balanced daily intake of vitamin D, calcium, and protein is important in prevention and treatment of OSO syndrome in postmenopausal women. Effective measurement of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength is required when detecting OSO syndrome and to evaluate the balance, strength and endurance of elder individuals and severity of the condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Sarcopenia and Exercise “The State of the Art”
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2040040 - 07 Nov 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Skeletal muscle mass reduction might be a consequence of aging (sarcopenia), disease (cachexia) or inactivity (muscle atrophy). Studying the triggering factors leading to muscle loss is important in developing therapies to preserve muscle tissue function. The loss of skeletal muscle proteins is caused [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle mass reduction might be a consequence of aging (sarcopenia), disease (cachexia) or inactivity (muscle atrophy). Studying the triggering factors leading to muscle loss is important in developing therapies to preserve muscle tissue function. The loss of skeletal muscle proteins is caused by an imbalance between the rate of their synthesis and degradation. Specifically, the conditions characterized by muscle loss involve an adaptation metabolism of increased protein degradation (cachexia), decreased muscle protein synthesis (inactivity), or alteration in both (sarcopenia). Sarcopenia and exercise is the main topic chosen for this review. This is a huge health problem, poorly discussed in the current literature and the aim of this review is to explain and help readers to better understand the differences between “sarcopenia”, “cachexia”, “muscle atrophy” and the relative beneficial effects of exercise used as a possible therapeutic intervention. Sarcopenia is a component of the fragility syndrome and indicates a significant health issue related to the progressive decline of muscle tissue quality and strength. Exercise is associated with improved life quality, reduced health problems, and prolonged lifespan. The latter suggests that exercise should be considered a fundamental point in the treatment of pathological skeletal muscle mass reduction. The present scientific contribution also seeks to emphasize to the scientific community the positive effects of the adapted physical activity in the elderly as a possible non-pharmacologic treatment to prevent or treat muscle atrophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Morphological and Functional Aspects of Human Skeletal Muscle
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(3), 289-302; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1030289 - 22 Jul 2016
Cited by 12
Abstract
Skeletal muscle has multiple functions and is a key component of the locomotor system. It consists of carbohydrates and amino acids for different tissues such as skin, heart and brain. It contributes to the maintenance of blood glucose levels during periods of starvation. [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle has multiple functions and is a key component of the locomotor system. It consists of carbohydrates and amino acids for different tissues such as skin, heart and brain. It contributes to the maintenance of blood glucose levels during periods of starvation. Skeletal muscle health is particularly important for the prevention of various diseases. This review discusses various aspects of skeletal muscle tissue including its development, structure, function and morphology, including the guidelines for histology methods. We have also discussed, sarcopenia, age-related muscle diseases and exercise. We hope this review will benefit readers of a clinical and non-clinical background. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Which is the Best Physical Treatment for Osteoarthritis?
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 54-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010054 - 28 Jan 2016
Cited by 20
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the articular cartilage, and it represents one of the most common causes of disability in the world. It leads to social, psychological and economic costs with financial consequences. Different OA treatments are usually considered in relation [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the articular cartilage, and it represents one of the most common causes of disability in the world. It leads to social, psychological and economic costs with financial consequences. Different OA treatments are usually considered in relation to the stage of the disease, such as surgical management, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments. In relation to mild OA, non-pharmacologic and behavioral treatments are recommended because they are less invasive and better tolerated by patients. All of these treatments used to manage OA are problematic, but solutions to these problems are on the horizon. For this reason, we decided to realize this report because until today, there has been very little information regarding the physical treatment of this important disease to help medical doctors and patients in the choice of the best adapted training to manage pain and disability limitations in patients with OA. The aim of this review is to find some answer in the management of OA through physical therapy treatment. In the present review, we analyze data from the most recent literature in relation to the effects of physical exercise on mild OA. All data suggest that training exercise is considered an effective instruments for the treatment of mild OA. The literature search was conducted on PubMed, using appropriate keywords in relation to exercise and osteoarthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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